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Law & Regulation
the Time Effect of Applying the Civil Code of the P.R. China(Bilingual)
发布日期:2021-02-27 12:18:57
 

最高人民法院关于适用《中华人民共和国民法典》时间效力的若干规定
Several Provisions of the Supreme People's Court on the Time Effect of Applying the Civil Code of the P. R. China


        (2020年12月14日最高人民法院审判委员会第1821次会议通过,自2021年1月1日起施行)
(Adopted at the 1821st meeting of the Judicial Committee of the Supreme People's Court on December 14, 2020 and effective as of January 1, 2021)
    根据《中华人民共和国立法法》《中华人民共和国民法典》等法律规定,就人民法院在审理民事纠纷案件中有关适用民法典时间效力问题作出如下规定。
According to the Legislative Law of the People’s Republic of China and the Civil Code of the People’s Republic of China, the following provisions are made on the time effect of the application of the Civil Code in the trial of civil disputes by the people's courts.
     一、一般规定
1、 General Provisions
    第一条 民法典施行后的法律事实引起的民事纠纷案件,适用民法典的规定。
    民法典施行前的法律事实引起的民事纠纷案件,适用当时的法律、司法解释的规定,但是法律、司法解释另有规定的除外。
    民法典施行前的法律事实持续至民法典施行后,该法律事实引起的民事纠纷案件,适用民法典的规定,但是法律、司法解释另有规定的除外。
Article 1 the provisions of the Civil Code shall apply to civil disputes arising from legal facts after the implementation of the Civil Code.
Civil disputes arising from legal facts before the implementation of the Civil Code shall be governed by the provisions of the laws and judicial interpretations at that time, unless otherwise provided by the laws and judicial interpretations.
If the legal facts before the implementation of the Civil Code last until after the implementation of the Civil Code, the provisions of the Civil Code shall apply to the civil dispute cases caused by the legal facts, unless otherwise provided by the law or judicial interpretation.
    第二条 民法典施行前的法律事实引起的民事纠纷案件,当时的法律、司法解释有规定,适用当时的法律、司法解释的规定,但是适用民法典的规定更有利于保护民事主体合法权益,更有利于维护社会和经济秩序,更有利于弘扬社会主义核心价值观的除外。
Article 2 For civil disputes arising from legal facts before the implementation of the Civil Code, the provisions of the laws and judicial interpretations at that time shall apply, except that the application of the provisions of the Civil Code is more conducive to the protection of the legitimate rights and interests of civil subjects, the maintenance of social and economic order, and the promotion of socialist core values.
    第三条 民法典施行前的法律事实引起的民事纠纷案件,当时的法律、司法解释没有规定而民法典有规定的,可以适用民法典的规定,但是明显减损当事人合法权益、增加当事人法定义务或者背离当事人合理预期的除外。
Article 3 in cases of civil disputes arising from legal facts prior to the implementation of the Civil Code, if there are no provisions in the law or judicial interpretation at that time but there are provisions in the Civil Code, the provisions of the Civil Code may apply, except those that obviously impair the legitimate rights and interests of the parties, increase the legal obligations of the parties or deviate from the reasonable expectations of the parties.
    第四条 民法典施行前的法律事实引起的民事纠纷案件,当时的法律、司法解释仅有原则性规定而民法典有具体规定的,适用当时的法律、司法解释的规定,但是可以依据民法典具体规定进行裁判说理。
Article 4 for civil dispute cases caused by legal facts before the implementation of the Civil Code, the laws and judicial interpretations at that time only have provisions in principle. If there are specific provisions in the Civil Code, the provisions of the laws and judicial interpretations at that time shall apply, but the adjudication and reasoning can be conducted according to the specific provisions of the Civil Code.
    第五条 民法典施行前已经终审的案件,当事人申请再审或者按照审判监督程序决定再审的,不适用民法典的规定。
Article 5 the provisions of the Civil Code shall not apply to a case that has been finally tried before the implementation of the Civil Code, if the party concerned applies for a retrial or decides to do so in accordance with the procedure of trial supervision.
    二、溯及适用的具体规定
2、 Specific provisions on retroactive application
    第六条 《中华人民共和国民法总则》施行前,侵害英雄烈士等的姓名、肖像、名誉、荣誉,损害社会公共利益引起的民事纠纷案件,适用民法典第一百八十五条的规定。
Article 6 the provisions of article 185 of the Civil Code shall apply to civil disputes arising from infringement on the names, portraits, reputation and honor of heroes and martyrs, or damage to public interests before the implementation of the General Provisions of the Civil Law of the People’s Republic of China.
    第七条 民法典施行前,当事人在债务履行期限届满前约定债务人不履行到期债务时抵押财产或者质押财产归债权人所有的,适用民法典第四百零一条和第四百二十八条的规定。
Article 7 If, before the implementation of the Civil Code, the parties agree that the mortgaged property or the pledged property shall belong to the creditor when the debtor fails to perform the due debt before the maturity of the debt, the provisions of articles 401 and 428 of the Civil Code shall apply.
    第八条 民法典施行前成立的合同,适用当时的法律、司法解释的规定合同无效而适用民法典的规定合同有效的,适用民法典的相关规定。
Article 8 For a contract established before the implementation of the Civil Code, in case the contract is invalid should the provisions of the laws and judicial interpretations at that time is applied, while the contract is valid should  the provisions of the Civil Code is applied, the relevant provisions of the Civil Code shall apply.
    第九条 民法典施行前订立的合同,提供格式条款一方未履行提示或者说明义务,涉及格式条款效力认定的,适用民法典第四百九十六条的规定。
Article 9  In a contract concluded before the implementation of the Civil Code, if the party providing the standard terms fails to perform the obligation of presentation or explanation, which involves the determination of the validity of the standard terms, the provisions of article 496 of the Civil Code shall apply.
    第十条 民法典施行前,当事人一方未通知对方而直接以提起诉讼方式依法主张解除合同的,适用民法典第五百六十五条第二款的规定。
Article 10  f a party directly initiate litigation to terminate the contract without notifying the other party before the implementation of the Civil Code, the second paragraph of article 565 of the Civil Code shall apply.
    第十一条 民法典施行前成立的合同,当事人一方不履行非金钱债务或者履行非金钱债务不符合约定,对方可以请求履行,但是有民法典第五百八十条第一款第一项、第二项、第三项除外情形之一,致使不能实现合同目的,当事人请求终止合同权利义务关系的,适用民法典第五百八十条第二款的规定。
Article 11 In a contract established before the implementation of the Civil Code, if one of the parties fails to perform the non-monetary obligation or the performance of the non-monetary obligation is not in conformity with the agreement, the other party may request to perform the contract. However, if one of the exceptions mentioned in section 1, 2 and 3 of the first paragraph of article 580 of the Civil Code makes it impossible to realize the purpose of the contract and the parties request to terminate the rights and obligations of the contract, the second paragraph of article 580 of the Civil Code shall apply.
    第十二条 民法典施行前订立的保理合同发生争议的,适用民法典第三编第十六章的规定。
Article 12 in the event of a dispute over a factoring contract concluded before the implementation of the Civil Code, the provisions of Chapter 16, Part III of the Civil Code shall apply.
    第十三条 民法典施行前,继承人有民法典第一千一百二十五条第一款第四项和第五项规定行为之一,对该继承人是否丧失继承权发生争议的,适用民法典第一千一百二十五条第一款和第二款的规定。
    民法典施行前,受遗赠人有民法典第一千一百二十五条第一款规定行为之一,对受遗赠人是否丧失受遗赠权发生争议的,适用民法典第一千一百二十五条第一款和第三款的规定。
Article 13 if a successor has one of the acts specified in section 4 and 5 of the first paragraph of Article 1125 of the Civil Code before the implementation of the Civil Code, the provisions of the first and second paragraphs of Article 125 of the Civil Code shall apply to the dispute over whether the successor has lost the right of inheritance.
if the donee had one of the acts specified in the first paragraph of article 1125 of the Civil Code before the implementation of the Civil Code. the provisions of the first and third paragraphs of article 1125 of the Civil Code shall apply to the dispute over whether the donee has lost the right to bequest.    
第十四条 被继承人在民法典施行前死亡,遗产无人继承又无人受遗赠,其兄弟姐妹的子女请求代位继承的,适用民法典第一千一百二十八条第二款和第三款的规定,但是遗产已经在民法典施行前处理完毕的除外。
Article 14 If the decedent dies before the implementation of the Civil Code, no one inherits the estate or receives a bequest, and the children of their brothers and sisters request subrogation, the provisions of the second and third paragraphs of article 1128 of the Civil Code shall apply, except that the estate has been disposed of before the implementation of the Civil Code.
    第十五条 民法典施行前,遗嘱人以打印方式立的遗嘱,当事人对该遗嘱效力发生争议的,适用民法典第一千一百三十六条的规定,但是遗产已经在民法典施行前处理完毕的除外。
Article 15 the provisions of article 1136 of the Civil Code shall apply to the cases where testamentary is made by the testator in printed form and the parties dispute the validity of the will before the implementation of the Civil Code, except that the estate has been disposed of before the implementation of the Civil Code.   
 第十六条 民法典施行前,受害人自愿参加具有一定风险的文体活动受到损害引起的民事纠纷案件,适用民法典第一千一百七十六条的规定。
Article 16 the provisions of article 1176 of the Civil Code shall apply to cases of civil disputes arising from damage to the victims' voluntary participation in recreational and sports activities with certain risks before the implementation of the Civil Code.
    第十七条 民法典施行前,受害人为保护自己合法权益采取扣留侵权人的财物等措施引起的民事纠纷案件,适用民法典第一千一百七十七条的规定。
Article 17 the provisions of article 1177 of the Civil Code shall apply to civil disputes arising from the measures taken by the victim to detain the property of the infringer in order to protect his legitimate rights and interests before the implementation of the Civil Code.
    第十八条 民法典施行前,因非营运机动车发生交通事故造成无偿搭乘人损害引起的民事纠纷案件,适用民法典第一千二百一十七条的规定。
Article 18 the provisions of article 1217 of the Civil Code shall be applicable to civil disputes arising from the damage of free riders caused by traffic accidents of non-operating motor vehicles before the implementation of the Civil Code.
    第十九条 民法典施行前,从建筑物中抛掷物品或者从建筑物上坠落的物品造成他人损害引起的民事纠纷案件,适用民法典第一千二百五十四条的规定。
Article 19 the provisions of article 1254 of the Civil Code shall apply to civil disputes arising from the throwing of objects from buildings or falling objects from buildings causing damage to others before the implementation of the Civil Code,
    三、衔接适用的具体规定
3、 Specific provisions applicable to convergence
    第二十条 民法典施行前成立的合同,依照法律规定或者当事人约定该合同的履行持续至民法典施行后,因民法典施行前履行合同发生争议的,适用当时的法律、司法解释的规定;因民法典施行后履行合同发生争议的,适用民法典第三编第四章和第五章的相关规定。
Article 20 for a contract established before the implementation of the Civil Code, the performance of the contract shall last until after the implementation of the Civil Code according to the provisions of the law or the agreement of the parties, if there is a dispute over the performance of the contract before the implementation of the Civil Code, the provisions of the laws and judicial interpretations at that time shall apply; if there is a dispute over the performance of the contract after the implementation of the Civil Code, the relevant provisions of chapters 4 and 5 of Part III of the Civil Code shall apply.
    第二十一条 民法典施行前租赁期限届满,当事人主张适用民法典第七百三十四条第二款规定的,人民法院不予支持;租赁期限在民法典施行后届满,当事人主张适用民法典第七百三十四条第二款规定的,人民法院依法予以支持。
Article 21 the people's court shall not support the application of the second paragraph of article 734 of the Civil Code when the lease term expires before the implementation of the Civil Code; the people's court shall support the application of the second paragraph of article 734 of the Civil Code when the lease term expires after the implementation of the Civil Code.
    第二十二条 民法典施行前,经人民法院判决不准离婚后,双方又分居满一年,一方再次提起离婚诉讼的,适用民法典第一千零七十九条第五款的规定。
Article 22 if, after the people's court has ruled that divorce is not allowed, both parties have lived apart for one year, and one party brings a divorce suit again before the implementation of the Civil Code, the provisions of the fifth paragraph of article 1079 of the Civil Code shall apply.
    第二十三条 被继承人在民法典施行前立有公证遗嘱,民法典施行后又立有新遗嘱,其死亡后,因该数份遗嘱内容相抵触发生争议的,适用民法典第一千一百四十二条第三款的规定。
Article 23 If the decedent has made a notarial will before the implementation of the Civil Code and a new will after the implementation of the Civil Code, and after his death, a dispute arises due to the conflict between the contents of the wills, the provisions of the third paragraph of article 1142 of the Civil Code shall apply.
    第二十四条 侵权行为发生在民法典施行前,但是损害后果出现在民法典施行后的民事纠纷案件,适用民法典的规定。
Article 24 the provisions of the Civil Code shall apply to civil dispute cases in which the infringement occurred before the implementation of the Civil Code, but the consequences of damage occurred after the implementation of the Civil Code.
    第二十五条 民法典施行前成立的合同,当时的法律、司法解释没有规定且当事人没有约定解除权行使期限,对方当事人也未催告的,解除权人在民法典施行前知道或者应当知道解除事由,自民法典施行之日起一年内不行使的,人民法院应当依法认定该解除权消灭;解除权人在民法典施行后知道或者应当知道解除事由的,适用民法典第五百六十四条第二款关于解除权行使期限的规定。
Article 25 as for the contract established before the implementation of the Civil Code, the law or judicial interpretation at that time does not stipulate nor have the parties agreed on the time limit for the exercise of the right of rescission, and the other party has not urged, and the person with the right of rescission knows or should know the cause of rescission before the implementation of the Civil Code, and fails to exercise it within one year from the date of the implementation of the Civil Code, the people's court shall determine that the right of rescission is extinguished according to law; if the person with the right of rescission knows or must have known the cause of rescission, the provisions of the second paragraph of article 564 of the Civil Code concerning the time limit for exercising the right of rescission shall apply.
    第二十六条 当事人以民法典施行前受胁迫结婚为由请求人民法院撤销婚姻的,撤销权的行使期限适用民法典第一千零五十二条第二款的规定。
Article 26 If a party requests the people's court to revoke his marriage on the ground that he was coerced into marriage before the implementation of the Civil Code, the time limit for exercising the right of revocation shall be governed by the second paragraph of article 1052 of the Civil Code.
    第二十七条 民法典施行前成立的保证合同,当事人对保证期间约定不明确,主债务履行期限届满至民法典施行之日不满二年,当事人主张保证期间为主债务履行期限届满之日起二年的,人民法院依法予以支持;当事人对保证期间没有约定,主债务履行期限届满至民法典施行之日不满六个月,当事人主张保证期间为主债务履行期限届满之日起六个月的,人民法院依法予以支持。
Article 27 In a suretyship contract established before the implementation of the Civil Code, if the parties have no clear agreement on the term of suretyship,  there is less than two years from the expiration of the principal debt to the implementation of the Civil Code, and the parties claim that the term of suretyship is two years from the expiration of the principal debt, the people's court shall support it according to law; if the parties have no agreement on the term of suretyship, there is less than 6 months from the expiration of the principal debt to the implementation of the Civil Code If a party claims that the guarantee period is six months from the date of expiration of the principal debt performance period, the people's court shall support it according to law.
    四、附则
4、 Supplementary Provisions
    第二十八条 本规定自2021年1月1日起施行。
    本规定施行后,人民法院尚未审结的一审、二审案件适用本规定。
Article 28 these Provisions shall come into force as of January 1, 2021.
After the implementation of these Provisions, the provisions shall apply to the cases of first and second instance that have not been concluded by the people's court.

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