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Law & Regulation
Civil Code of the People's Republic of China (Part I General Provisions)
发布日期:2020-12-28 15:45:06
 

中华人民共和国民法典
Civil Code of the People's Republic of China

中华人民共和国主席令
Order of the President of the People's Republic of China
(第四十五号)
(No. 45)
《中华人民共和国民法典》已由中华人民共和国第十三届全国人民代表大会第三次会议于2020年5月28日通过,现予公布,自2021年1月1日起施行。
The Civil Code of the People's Republic of China, as adopted at the 3rd Session of the Thirteenth National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China on May 28, 2020, is hereby issued and shall come into force on January 1, 2021.
中华人民共和国主席 习近平
President of the People's Republic of China: Xi Jinping
2020年5月28日
May 28, 2020

(2020年5月28日第十三届全国人民代表大会第三次会议通过)
(Adopted at the 3rd Session of the Thirteenth National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China on May 28, 2020)

目  录
Contents
第一编  总    则
Part I General Provisions
        第一章  基本规定
Chapter I Basic Provisions
        第二章  自 然 人
        Chapter II Natural Persons
            第一节  民事权利能力和民事行为能力
            Section 1 Capacity for Civil Rights and Capacity for Civil Conduct
            第二节  监  护
            Section 2 Guardianship
            第三节  宣告失踪和宣告死亡
            Section 3 Declaration of Absence and Declaration of Death
            第四节  个体工商户和农村承包经营户
            Section 4 Individual Industrial and Commercial Households and Rural Usufructuary Households
        第三章  法  人
            Chapter III Legal Persons
            第一节  一般规定
            Section 1 General Rules
            第二节  营利法人
            Section 2 For-profit Legal Persons
            第三节  非营利法人
            Section 3 Non-profit Legal Persons
            第四节  特别法人
            Section 4 Special Legal Persons
        第四章  非法人组织
         Chapter IV Unincorporated Organizations
        第五章  民事权利
        Chapter V Civil Rights
        第六章  民事法律行为
        Chapter VI Juridical Acts
            第一节  一般规定
            Section 1 General Rules
            第二节  意思表示
            Section 2 Declaration of Will
            第三节  民事法律行为的效力
            Section 3 Validity of Juridical Acts
            第四节  民事法律行为的附条件和附期限
            Section 4 Juridical Acts Subject to Conditions or Terms
        第七章  代  理
        Chapter VII Agency
            第一节  一般规定
            Section 1 General Rules
            第二节  委托代理
            Section 2 Agency by Mandate
            第三节  代理终止
            Section 3 Termination of Agency
        第八章  民事责任
        Chapter VIII Civil Liability
        第九章  诉讼时效
        Chapter IX Extinctive Prescription
        第十章  期间计算
        Chapter X Calculation of Time Periods
第二编  物  权
Part II Real Rights
    第一分编  通  则
    Title I General Provisions
        第一章  一般规定
        Chapter I General Rules
        第二章  物权的设立、变更、转让和消灭
        Chapter II Establishment, Modification, Transfer and Extinction of Real Rights
            第一节  不动产登记
            Section 1 Registration of Immovables
            第二节  动产交付
            Section 2 Delivery of Movables
            第三节  其他规定
            Section 3 Other Provisions
        第三章  物权的保护
        Chapter III Protection of Real Rights
    第二分编  所 有 权
Title II Ownership
        第四章  一般规定
        Chapter IV General Rules
        第五章  国家所有权和集体所有权、私人所有权
        Chapter V State Ownership, Collective Ownership and Private Ownership
        第六章  业主的建筑物区分所有权
        Chapter VI Owners' Separate Ownership in a Common Interest Development
        第七章  相邻关系
        Chapter VII Neighboring Relations
        第八章  共  有
        Chapter VIII Co-ownership
        第九章  所有权取得的特别规定
        Chapter IX Special Provisions on the Obtainment of Ownership
    第三分编  用益物权
    Title III Usufruct
        第十章  一般规定
        Chapter X General Rules
        第十一章  土地承包经营权
        Chapter XI Conventional Usufruct on Rural Land for Agricultural Operations
        第十二章  建设用地使用权
        Chapter XII Right to Use Land for Construction
        第十三章  宅基地使用权
        Chapter XIII Right to Use Rural Land as a Residential Lot
        第十四章  居 住 权
        Chapter XIV Right of Habitation
        第十五章  地 役 权
        Chapter XV Servitude
    第四分编  担保物权
    Title IV Security Interest
        第十六章  一般规定
        Chapter XVI General Rules
        第十七章  抵 押 权
        Chapter XVII Mortgage
            第一节  一般抵押权
            Section 1 Ordinary Mortgage
            第二节  最高额抵押权
            Section 2 Maximum Mortgage
        第十八章  质  权
        Chapter XVIII Pledge
            第一节  动产质权
            Section 1 Pledge of Movables
            第二节  权利质权
            Section 2 Pledge of Rights
        第十九章  留 置 权
        Chapter XIX Lien
    第五分编  占  有
    Title V Possession
        第二十章  占  有
        Chapter XX Possession
第三编  合  同
Part III Contracts
    第一分编  通  则
    Title I General Provisions
        第一章  一般规定
        Chapter I General Rules
        第二章  合同的订立
        Chapter II Contracting
        第三章  合同的效力
        Chapter III Validity of Contracts
        第四章  合同的履行
        Chapter IV Performance of Contracts
        第五章  合同的保全
        Chapter V Preservation of Contracts
        第六章  合同的变更和转让
        Chapter VI Modification and Assignment of Contracts
        第七章  合同的权利义务终止
        Chapter VII Termination of Contractual Rights and Obligations
        第八章  违约责任
        Chapter VIII Liability for Breach of Contract
    第二分编  典型合同
    Title II Nominate Contracts
        第九章  买卖合同
        Chapter IX Sales Contracts
        第十章  供用电、水、气、热力合同
        Chapter X Contracts for Supply of Power, Water, Gas, Or Heat
        第十一章  赠与合同
        Chapter XI Gift Contracts
        第十二章  借款合同
        Chapter XII Contracts for Loan of Money
        第十三章  保证合同
        Chapter XIII Contracts of Suretyship
            第一节  一般规定
            Section 1 General Rules
            第二节  保证责任
            Section 2 Suretyship Liability
        第十四章  租赁合同
        Chapter XIV Leasing Contracts
        第十五章  融资租赁合同
        Chapter XV Financial Leasing Contracts
        第十六章  保理合同
        Chapter XVI Factoring Contracts
        第十七章  承揽合同
        Chapter XVII Contracts for Work
        第十八章  建设工程合同
        Chapter XVIII Contracts for Construction Projects
        第十九章  运输合同
        Chapter XIX Transportation Contracts
            第一节  一般规定
            Section 1 General Rules
            第二节  客运合同
            Section 2 Passenger Transportation Contracts
            第三节  货运合同
            Section 3 Cargo Transportation Contracts
            第四节  多式联运合同
            Section 4 Multimodal Transport Contracts
        第二十章  技术合同
        Chapter XX Technology Contracts
            第一节  一般规定
            Section 1 General Rules
            第二节  技术开发合同
            Section 2 Technology Development Contracts
            第三节  技术转让合同和技术许可合同
            Section 3 Technology Transfer Contracts and Technology License Contracts
            第四节  技术咨询合同和技术服务合同
            Section 4 Technical Consulting Contracts and Technical Service Contracts
        第二十一章  保管合同
        Chapter XXI Deposit Contracts
        第二十二章  仓储合同
        Chapter XXII Warehousing Contracts
        第二十三章  委托合同
        Chapter XXIII Contracts of Mandate
        第二十四章  物业服务合同
        Chapter XXIV Property Management Service Contracts
        第二十五章  行纪合同
        Chapter XXV Commission Agent Contracts
        第二十六章  中介合同
        Chapter XXVI Intermediary Contracts
        第二十七章  合伙合同
        Chapter XXVII Contracts of Partnership
    第三分编  准 合 同
    Title III Quasi-contracts
        第二十八章  无因管理
        Chapter XXVIII Management of the Business of Another
        第二十九章  不当得利
        Chapter XXIX Unjust Enrichment
第四编  人 格 权
Part IV Personality Rights
        第一章  一般规定
        Chapter I General Rules
        第二章  生命权、身体权和健康权
        Chapter II Rights of Life, Inviolability and Integrity of Person, and Health
        第三章  姓名权和名称权
        Chapter III Right of Name
        第四章  肖 像 权
        Chapter IV Right of Likeness
        第五章  名誉权和荣誉权
        Chapter V Right of Reputation and Right of Honor
        第六章  隐私权和个人信息保护
        Chapter VI Right of Privacy and Protection of Personal Information
第五编  婚姻家庭
Part V Marriage and Family
        第一章  一般规定
        Chapter I General Rules
        第二章  结  婚
        Chapter II Marriage
        第三章  家庭关系
       Chapter III Family Relations
            第一节  夫妻关系
            Section 1 Husband and Wife Relationship
            第二节  父母子女关系和其他近亲属关系
            Section 2 Parent-Child Relationship and Relations with Close Relatives
        第四章  离  婚
        Chapter IV Divorce
        第五章  收  养
        Chapter V Adoption
            第一节  收养关系的成立
            Section 1 Establishment of an Adoptive Relationship
            第二节  收养的效力
            Section 2 Validity of Adoption
            第三节  收养关系的解除
            Section 3 Termination of Adoptive Relationship
第六编  继  承
Part VI Succession
        第一章  一般规定
        Chapter I General Rules
        第二章  法定继承
        Chapter II Statutory Succession
        第三章  遗嘱继承和遗赠
        Chapter III Testamentary Succession and Legacy
        第四章  遗产的处理
        Chapter IV Disposition of the Estate
第七编  侵权责任
Part VII Tort Liability
        第一章  一般规定
        Chapter I General Rules
        第二章  损害赔偿
        Chapter II Damages
        第三章  责任主体的特殊规定
        Chapter III Special Provisions on Tortfeasors
        第四章  产品责任
        Chapter IV Product Liability
        第五章  机动车交通事故责任
        Chapter V Liability for Motor Vehicle Traffic Accident
        第六章  医疗损害责任
        Chapter VI Liability for Medical Malpractice
        第七章  环境污染和生态破坏责任
        Chapter VII Liability for Environmental Pollution and Ecological Damage
        第八章  高度危险责任
        Chapter VIII Liability for Ultrahazardous Activity
        第九章  饲养动物损害责任
        Chapter IX Liability for Harm Caused by Domestic Animal
        第十章  建筑物和物件损害责任
        Chapter X Liability for Harm Caused by Building or Object
附  则
SUPPLEMENTARY PROVISIONS


第一编 总 则
PART I. GENERAL PROVISIONS
第一章 基本规定
Chapter 1 Basic Provisions
第一条 为了保护民事主体的合法权益,调整民事关系,维护社会和经济秩序,适应中国
特色社会主义发展要求,弘扬社会主义核心价值观,根据宪法,制定本法。
Article 1 This Law is formulated in accordance with the Constitution in order to protect the
legitimate rights and interests of civil subjects, adjust civil relations and maintain the social and
economic order, so as to meet the needs of developing socialism with PRC characteristics and
carrying forward socialist core values.
第二条 民法调整平等主体的自然人、法人和非法人组织之间的人身关系和财产关系。
Article 2 The Civil Law shall adjust personal relationships and property relationships between
natural persons, legal persons and unincorporated associations as subjects with equal status.
第三条 民事主体的人身权利、财产权利以及其他合法权益受法律保护,任何组织或者个
人不得侵犯。
Article 3 The personal rights, property rights and other legitimate rights and interests of civil
subjects shall be protected by the law; no organization or individual may infringe upon such rights
and interests.
第四条 民事主体在民事活动中的法律地位一律平等。
Article 4 All civil subjects are equal as regards their legal status in civil activities.
第五条 民事主体从事民事活动,应当遵循自愿原则,按照自己的意思设立、变更、终止
民事法律关系。
Article 5 All civil subjects engaging in civil activities shall observe the principle of voluntariness to form, modify or terminate civil legal relations in accordance with their own intentions.
第六条 民事主体从事民事活动,应当遵循公平原则,合理确定各方的权利和义务。
Article 6 All civil subjects engaging in civil activities shall observe the principle of fairness to
determine reasonably the rights and obligations of all parties involved.
第七条 民事主体从事民事活动,应当遵循诚信原则,秉持诚实,恪守承诺。
Article 7 All civil subjects engaging in civil activities shall observe the principle of good faith,
adhere to honesty and fulfill their commitments.
第八条 民事主体从事民事活动,不得违反法律,不得违背公序良俗。
Article 8 No civil subject engaging in civil activities may violate laws or go against the public
order or good morals.
第九条 民事主体从事民事活动,应当有利于节约资源、保护生态环境。
Article 9 All civil subjects engaging in civil activities shall help save resources and protect the
ecological environment.
第十条 处理民事纠纷,应当依照法律;法律没有规定的,可以适用习惯,但是不得违背
公序良俗。
Article 10 Civil disputes shall be dealt with in accordance with law; where no relevant
provision is stipulated by law, customs may apply, without violation of the public order or
good morals.
第十一条 其他法律对民事关系有特别规定的,依照其规定。
Article 11 Where special provisions on civil relations are stipulated by other laws, such
provisions shall apply.
第十二条 中华人民共和国领域内的民事活动,适用中华人民共和国法律。法律另有
规定的,依照其规定。
Article 12 Laws of the People's Republic of China shall apply to any civil activity within the territory of the People's Republic of China. Where the laws provide otherwise, such provisions shall
prevail.
第二章 自 然 人
Chapter 2 Natural Persons
第一节 民事权利能力和民事行为能力
Section 1 Capacity for Civil Rights and Capacity for Civil Conduct
第十三条 自然人从出生时起到死亡时止,具有民事权利能力,依法享有民事权利,承担
民事义务。
Article 13 A natural person shall have the capacity for civil rights from birth to death and shall
enjoy civil rights and assume civil obligations in accordance with the law.
第十四条 自然人的民事权利能力一律平等。
Article 14 All natural persons are equal as regards their capacity for civil rights.
第十五条 自然人的出生时间和死亡时间,以出生证明、死亡证明记载的时间为准;
没有出生证明、死亡证明的,以户籍登记或者其他有效身份登记记载的时间为准。有其
他证据足以推翻以上记载时间的,以该证据证明的时间为准。
Article 15 The date of birth or death of a natural person shall be based on the date recorded on
his or her birth certificate or death certificate. Where the birth certificate or death certificate is not
available, the date recorded on the household registration or any other valid identity registration shall
apply. If there is other evidence sufficient to overturn the aforesaid date, the date proved by such
evidence shall prevail.
第十六条 涉及遗产继承、接受赠与等胎儿利益保护的,胎儿视为具有民事权利能力。
但是,胎儿娩出时为死体的,其民事权利能力自始不存在。
Article 16 Where a fetus is involved in the protection of the interests of the fetus, such as
inheritance and acceptance of gifts, the fetus shall be deemed as having the capacity for civil rights. However, if the fetus is dead at birth, its capacity for civil rights does not exist from the beginning.
第十七条 十八周岁以上的自然人为成年人。不满十八周岁的自然人为未成年人。
Article 17 A natural person aged 18 or over is an adult. A natural person under the age of 18 is
a minor.
第十八条 成年人为完全民事行为能力人,可以独立实施民事法律行为。
Article 18 An adult has the full capacity for civil conduct, and may perform civil juristic acts
independently.
十六周岁以上的未成年人,以自己的劳动收入为主要生活来源的,视为完全民事行
为能力人。
A minor who has reached the age of 16 and whose main source of income is his or her own
labor shall be deemed as a person with full capacity for civil conduct.
第十九条 八周岁以上的未成年人为限制民事行为能力人,实施民事法律行为由其法定代
理人代理或者经其法定代理人同意、追认;但是,可以独立实施纯获利益的民事法律行为或
者与其年龄、智力相适应的民事法律行为。
Article 19 A minor who has reached the age of eight is a person with limited capacity for
civil conduct and shall be represented in the performance of civil juristic acts by his or her agent ad
litem or obtain the consent or acknowledgment of his or her agent ad litem. However, such a minor
may independently perform civil juristic acts which are purely to benefit the minor or the
performance of which is compatible with his or her age and intelligence.
第二十条 不满八周岁的未成年人为无民事行为能力人,由其法定代理人代理实施民事法
律行为。
Article 20 A minor under the age of eight is a person having no capacity for civil conduct and
shall be represented in the performance of civil juristic acts by his or her agent ad litem.
第二十一条 不能辨认自己行为的成年人为无民事行为能力人,由其法定代理人代理实施
民事法律行为。
Article 21 An adult who is unable to account for his or her own conduct is a person having no capacity for civil conduct and shall be represented in the performance of civil juristic acts by his or
her agent ad litem.
八周岁以上的未成年人不能辨认自己行为的,适用前款规定。
The provisions of the preceding paragraph shall apply to a minor who has reached the age
of eight but is unable to account for his or her own conduct.
第二十二条 不能完全辨认自己行为的成年人为限制民事行为能力人,实施民事法律行为
由其法定代理人代理或者经其法定代理人同意、追认;但是,可以独立实施纯获利益的民事
法律行为或者与其智力、精神健康状况相适应的民事法律行为。
Article 22 An adult who is unable to fully account for his or her own conduct is a person
having limited capacity for civil conduct and shall be represented in the performance of civil juristic
acts by his or her agent ad litem or obtain the consent or acknowledgment of his or her agent ad litem.
However, such an adult may independently perform civil juristic acts which are purely to benefit the
adult or the performance of which is compatible with his or her intelligence and mental health.
第二十三条 无民事行为能力人、限制民事行为能力人的监护人是其法定代理人。
Article 23 The guardian of a person without or with limited capacity for civil conduct shall be
his or her agent ad litem.
第二十四条 不能辨认或者不能完全辨认自己行为的成年人,其利害关系人或者有关组织,
可以向人民法院申请认定该成年人为无民事行为能力人或者限制民事行为能力人。
Article 24 For an adult who is unable to account for or fully account for his or her own conduct,
an interested person or an organization concerned may apply to a people's court for determination
that such adult is a person without or with limited capacity for civil conduct.
被人民法院认定为无民事行为能力人或者限制民事行为能力人的,经本人、利害关
系人或者有关组织申请,人民法院可以根据其智力、精神健康恢复的状况,认定该成年
人恢复为限制民事行为能力人或者完全民事行为能力人。
For a person who has been determined by a people's court to be without or with limited
capacity for civil conduct, the people's court may, upon his or her own application or that of an
interested person or a relevant organization, determine him or her to be recovered to be one with
limited or full capacity for civil conduct, depending on the recovery of his or her intelligence or mental health.
本条规定的有关组织包括:居民委员会、村民委员会、学校、医疗机构、妇女联合
会、残疾人联合会、依法设立的老年人组织、民政部门等。
The relevant organizations mentioned in this Article shall include neighborhood committees,
villagers' committees, schools, medical institutions, women's federations, disabled persons'
federations, organizations established according to the law for the elderly and civil affairs
departments.
第二十五条 自然人以户籍登记或者其他有效身份登记记载的居所为住所;经常居所与住
所不一致的,经常居所视为住所。
Article 25 The domicile of a natural person shall be his or her residence recorded in the
household registration or in any other valid identity registration; if the habitual residence is not the
same as the domicile, the habitual residence shall be deemed as the domicile.
第二节 监 护
Section 2 Guardianship
第二十六条 父母对未成年子女负有抚养、教育和保护的义务。
Article 26 Parents shall be obligated to foster, educate and protect their minor children.
成年子女对父母负有赡养、扶助和保护的义务。
Adult offspring are obligated to support, assist and protect their parents.
第二十七条 父母是未成年子女的监护人。
Article 27. Parents are guardians of their minor children.
未成年人的父母已经死亡或者没有监护能力的,由下列有监护能力的人按顺序担任
监护人:
If the parents of a minor are dead or have no competence to be guardians, one of the
following persons who have the competence to be guardians shall act as the guardian in the listed
sequence:
(一)祖父母、外祖父母;
1. Paternal or maternal grandparents; or
(二)兄、姐;
(II) elder brothers or sisters; or
(三)其他愿意担任监护人的个人或者组织,但是须经未成年人住所地的居民委员
会、村民委员会或者民政部门同意。
(III) other individuals or organizations which are willing to act as guardian, provided that it
is approved by the neighborhood or village committee in the place of the minor's domicile or the
civil affairs department.
第二十八条 无民事行为能力或者限制民事行为能力的成年人,由下列有监护能力的人按
顺序担任监护人:
Article 28 One of the following persons having guardianship competence shall act in the listed
sequence as the guardian for an adult without or with limited capacity for civil conduct:
(一)配偶;
1. Spouse;
(二)父母、子女;
(II) Parents or children;
(三)其他近亲属;
(III) any other near relative;
(四)其他愿意担任监护人的个人或者组织,但是须经被监护人住所地的居民委员
会、村民委员会或者民政部门同意。
(IV) other individuals or organizations which are willing to act as guardian, provided that it
is approved by the neighborhood or village committee in the place of the ward's domicile or the
civil affairs department.
第二十九条 被监护人的父母担任监护人的,可以通过遗嘱指定监护人。
Article 29 The parents of a ward may appoint a guardian in their wills if they are his guardians.
第三十条 依法具有监护资格的人之间可以协议确定监护人。协议确定监护人应当尊重被
监护人的真实意愿。
Article 30 Persons legally qualified for guardianship may enter into an agreement to determine a guardian. Where a guardian is to be determined by agreement, the true will of the ward shall be
respected.
第三十一条 对监护人的确定有争议的,由被监护人住所地的居民委员会、村民委员会或
者民政部门指定监护人,有关当事人对指定不服的,可以向人民法院申请指定监护人;有关
当事人也可以直接向人民法院申请指定监护人。
Article 31 In the case of a dispute over the determination of a guardian, the neighborhood
or village committee in the place of the ward's domicile or the civil affairs department shall
appoint a guardian; if the parties concerned do not agree with the appointment, they may apply to
the people's court for appointing a guardian; the parties concerned may directly apply to the people's
court for appointing a guardian.
居民委员会、村民委员会、民政部门或者人民法院应当尊重被监护人的真实意愿,
按照最有利于被监护人的原则在依法具有监护资格的人中指定监护人。
The neighborhood or village committee, the civil affairs department or the people's court
shall follow the principles of respecting the true will of the ward and benefiting the ward to the
largest extent in appointing a guardian from persons legally qualified to be a guardian.
依据本条第一款规定指定监护人前,被监护人的人身权利、财产权利以及其他合法
权益处于无人保护状态的,由被监护人住所地的居民委员会、村民委员会、法律规定的
有关组织或者民政部门担任临时监护人。
Before a guardian is appointed according to Paragraph 1 of this Article, if the personal
rights, property rights and other lawful rights and interests of the ward are not subject to any
protection, the neighborhood or village committee in the place of the ward's domicile, the
relevant organization specified by the law or the civil affairs department shall act as the guardian
temporarily.
监护人被指定后,不得擅自变更;擅自变更的,不免除被指定的监护人的责任。
The guardian, once appointed, shall not be changed without authorization; unauthorized
change does not exempt the designated guardian from liability.
第三十二条 没有依法具有监护资格的人的,监护人由民政部门担任,也可以由具备履行
监护职责条件的被监护人住所地的居民委员会、村民委员会担任。
Article 32 Where there is no person legally qualified to be a guardian, either the civil affairs department or the neighborhood or village committee in the place of the ward's domicile which is
qualified to fulfill the guardianship responsibility may act as the guardian.
第三十三条 具有完全民事行为能力的成年人,可以与其近亲属、其他愿意担任监护人的
个人或者组织事先协商,以书面形式确定自己的监护人,在自己丧失或者部分丧失民事行为
能力时,由该监护人履行监护职责。
Article 33 For an adult with full capacity for civil conduct, he or she may negotiate with his or
her close relatives or other individuals or organizations which are willing to act as the guardian in
advance and determine his or her guardian in writing; if he or she loses or partially loses the capacity
for civil conduct, such guardian shall fulfill the guardianship responsibility.
第三十四条 监护人的职责是代理被监护人实施民事法律行为,保护被监护人的人身权利、
财产权利以及其他合法权益等。
Article 34 A guardian is in charge of representing the ward in his or her performance of civil
juristic acts and protecting the ward's personal rights, property rights and other legitimate rights and
interests.
监护人依法履行监护职责产生的权利,受法律保护。
The guardian's rights arising from the fulfillment of the guardianship responsibility
according to the law shall be protected by the law.
监护人不履行监护职责或者侵害被监护人合法权益的,应当承担法律责任。
A guardian who fails to fulfill the guardianship responsibility or infringes upon the lawful
rights and interests of the ward shall bear legal liability.
因发生突发事件等紧急情况,监护人暂时无法履行监护职责,被监护人的生活处于
无人照料状态的,被监护人住所地的居民委员会、村民委员会或者民政部门应当为被监
护人安排必要的临时生活照料措施。
In case of emergency such as occurrence of an emergency, etc., where the guardian is
temporarily unable to perform the guardianship responsibility and the life of the ward is not
cared for, the neighborhood or village committee in the place of the ward's domicile or the civil
affairs department shall arrange necessary temporary living care measures for the ward.
第三十五条 监护人应当按照最有利于被监护人的原则履行监护职责。监护人除为维护被监护人利益外,不得处分被监护人的财产。
Article 35 A guardian shall, according to the principle of benefiting the ward to the largest
extent, fulfill the guardianship responsibility. A guardian shall not dispose of the property of his
ward unless it is to safeguard the ward's interests.
未成年人的监护人履行监护职责,在作出与被监护人利益有关的决定时,应当根据
被监护人的年龄和智力状况,尊重被监护人的真实意愿。
The guardian of a minor, while fulfilling the guardianship responsibility, shall respect the
ward's true will when making the decision related to the ward's interests according to the ward's
age and intelligence status.
成年人的监护人履行监护职责,应当最大程度地尊重被监护人的真实意愿,保障并
协助被监护人实施与其智力、精神健康状况相适应的民事法律行为。对被监护人有能力
独立处理的事务,监护人不得干涉。
The guardian of an adult, while fulfilling the guardianship responsibility, shall respect the
ward's true will to the largest extent, and safeguard and assist the ward in performing the civil
juristic acts that are compatible with the ward's intelligence and mental health, and fulfill the
guardianship responsibility in this regard. The guardian shall not interfere with the affairs which
the ward is able to handle independently.
第三十六条 监护人有下列情形之一的,人民法院根据有关个人或者组织的申请,撤销其
监护人资格,安排必要的临时监护措施,并按照最有利于被监护人的原则依法指定监护人:
Article 36 In the event that a guardian is under any of the following circumstances, the
people's court may, based on the application of the individual or organization concerned, disqualify
the guardian, arrange necessary measures for temporary guardianship, and appoint a guardian
according to the law based on the principle of benefiting the ward to the largest extent:
(一)实施严重损害被监护人身心健康的行为;
1. Performing acts that seriously damage the physical and mental health of the ward;
(二)怠于履行监护职责,或者无法履行监护职责且拒绝将监护职责部分或者全部
委托给他人,导致被监护人处于危困状态;
(II) Delaying in fulfilling the guardianship responsibility, or being unable to fulfill the
guardianship responsibility and refusing to delegate part or all of the guardianship responsibility
to others, which causes the ward to be in distress; and
(三)实施严重侵害被监护人合法权益的其他行为。
(III) Performing other acts that seriously damage the lawful rights and interests of the ward.
本条规定的有关个人、组织包括:其他依法具有监护资格的人,居民委员会、村民
委员会、学校、医疗机构、妇女联合会、残疾人联合会、未成年人保护组织、依法设立
的老年人组织、民政部门等。
The individuals or organizations concerned as mentioned in this Article shall include other
persons legally qualified to act as guardians, the neighborhood committees, village committees,
schools, medical institutions, women's federations, disabled persons' federations, organizations
protecting minors, organizations established according to the law for the elderly and civil affairs
departments.
前款规定的个人和民政部门以外的组织未及时向人民法院申请撤销监护人资格的,
民政部门应当向人民法院申请。
Where individuals and organizations other than civil affairs departments prescribed in the
preceding paragraph fail to apply to the people's courts for disqualifying the guardians in time,
the civil affairs departments shall file such applications with the people's courts instead.
第三十七条
依法负担被监护人抚养费、赡养费、扶养费的父母、子女、配偶等,被人民法院撤销监护人
资格后,应当继续履行负担的义务。
Article 37 For parents, children and spouses who bear the upbringing payment, alimony
payment or maintenance payment for the ward, their obligation in regard to such payment or
payment shall continue after they have been disqualified by a people's court as guardian.
第三十八条
被监护人的父母或者子女被人民法院撤销监护人资格后,除对被监护人实施故意犯罪的外,
确有悔改表现的,经其申请,人民法院可以在尊重被监护人真实意愿的前提下,视情况恢复
其监护人资格,人民法院指定的监护人与被监护人的监护关系同时终止。
Article 38 Where the parents or children of a ward show true repentance after being
disqualified from guardianship by the people's court, the people's court may, on the premise of
respecting the ward's true will, enable them to regain guardianship upon their application as
the case may be, except for those who commit an intentional crime against the ward; the guardian relationship between the guardian appointed by the people's court and the ward shall be terminated
simultaneously.
第三十九条 有下列情形之一的,监护关系终止:
Article 39 Under any of the following circumstances, the guardian relationship shall be
terminated:
(一)被监护人取得或者恢复完全民事行为能力;
1. Where the ward gains or regains the full capacity for civil conduct;
(二)监护人丧失监护能力;
(II) The guardian loses the competence to be a guardian;
(三)被监护人或者监护人死亡;
(III) either the ward or the guardian dies; or
(四)人民法院认定监护关系终止的其他情形。
(IV) Other circumstances where the people's court determines that the guardian
relationship shall be terminated.
监护关系终止后,被监护人仍然需要监护的,应当依法另行确定监护人。
Where the guardian relationship is terminated and the ward still needs guardianship,
another guardian shall be determined according to the law.
第三节 宣告失踪和宣告死亡
Section 3 Declarations of Missing Persons and Death
第四十条
自然人下落不明满二年的,利害关系人可以向人民法院申请宣告该自然人为失踪人。
Article 40 If a natural person's whereabouts have been unknown for two years, an interested
person may apply to a people's court for a declaration that the natural person is a missing person.
第四十一条 自然人下落不明的时间自其失去音讯之日起计算。战争期间下落不明的,
下落不明的时间自战争结束之日或者有关机关确定的下落不明之日起计算。
Article 41 The time period during which a natural person's whereabouts become unknown shall be calculated from the day when contact with the natural person is lost. If a person's whereabouts
become unknown during a war, the time period during which the whereabouts are unknown shall be calculated from the day when the war ends or from the day when the person's whereabouts are
determined by relevant authorities.
第四十二条
失踪人的财产由其配偶、成年子女、父母或者其他愿意担任财产代管人的人代管。
Article 42 A missing person's property shall be placed in the custody of his or her spouse, adult
children, parents or other persons who are willing to serve as custodian of the property.
代管有争议,没有前款规定的人,或者前款规定的人无代管能力的,由人民法院指
定的人代管。
In case of a dispute over custody, if the persons mentioned in the preceding paragraph are
unavailable or are not competent to take such custody, the property shall be placed in the custody
of a person appointed by the people's court.
第四十三条 财产代管人应当妥善管理失踪人的财产,维护其财产权益。
Article 43 The custodian of property shall properly manage the missing person's property and
safeguard the property rights and interests of the missing person.
失踪人所欠税款、债务和应付的其他费用,由财产代管人从失踪人的财产中支付。
Any tax, debt and other due charges owed by the missing person shall be paid by the
custodian out of the missing person's property.
财产代管人因故意或者重大过失造成失踪人财产损失的,应当承担赔偿责任。
Where the custodian of property causes damage to the missing person's property due to
intentional misconduct or gross negligence, the custodian shall be liable for compensation.
第四十四条
财产代管人不履行代管职责、侵害失踪人财产权益或者丧失代管能力的,失踪人的利害关系
人可以向人民法院申请变更财产代管人。
Article 44 Where the custodian of property fails to fulfill the duty of custody, infringes the
missing person's property rights and interests, or loses the competence to take such custody, an
interested person of the missing person may file an application with the people's court to change the custodian.
财产代管人有正当理由的,可以向人民法院申请变更财产代管人。
If the property custodian has a justified reason, he may apply to the people's court for the
change of property custodian.
人民法院变更财产代管人的,变更后的财产代管人有权请求原财产代管人及时移交
有关财产并报告财产代管情况。
Where a people's court changes the custodian of property, after the change the custodian is
entitled to request the original custodian to hand over the relevant property and report the facts
on property custody in a timely manner.
第四十五条 失踪人重新出现,经本人或者利害关系人申请,人民法院应当撤销失踪宣告。
Article 45 In the event that a missing person reappears, the people's court shall, upon the
application of the person himself or an interested person, revoke the missing-person declaration.
失踪人重新出现,有权请求财产代管人及时移交有关财产并报告财产代管情况。
In the event that a missing person reappears, he or she is entitled to request the custodian to
return the relevant property and report the facts on property custody in a timely manner.
第四十六条
自然人有下列情形之一的,利害关系人可以向人民法院申请宣告该自然人死亡:
Article 46 Under any of the following circumstances, an interested person may apply to the
people's court for a declaration that a natural person is dead:
(一)下落不明满四年;
1. the natural person's whereabouts have been unknown for four years; or
(二)因意外事件,下落不明满二年。
(II) the natural person's whereabouts have been unknown for two years due to an accident.
因意外事件下落不明,经有关机关证明该自然人不可能生存的,申请宣告死亡不受
二年时间的限制。
If a person's whereabouts become unknown due to an accident and it is impossible for such
person to survive as proved by relevant authorities, the application for declaration of death is not
subject to the aforesaid provisions of two years.
第四十七条
对同一自然人,有的利害关系人申请宣告死亡,有的利害关系人申请宣告失踪,符合本法规
定的宣告死亡条件的,人民法院应当宣告死亡。
Article 47 For the same natural person, if some interested persons apply for the declaration of
death while others apply for the declaration of such natural person as missing, the people's court shall declare the death of the person provided that the conditions for declaring the death specified herein are met.
第四十八条
被宣告死亡的人,人民法院宣告死亡的判决作出之日视为其死亡的日期;因意外事件下落不
明宣告死亡的,意外事件发生之日视为其死亡的日期。
Article 48 For a person who is declared dead, the date when the people's court renders the
judgment to declare the person's death shall be deemed as the date of death of the person; if the
person is declared dead due to its unknown whereabouts caused by an accident, the date when the
accident occurs shall be deemed as the date of death of the person.
第四十九条
自然人被宣告死亡但是并未死亡的,不影响该自然人在被宣告死亡期间实施的民事法律行为
的效力。
Article 49 If a natural person is declared dead but is not dead, the validity of the civil juristic
acts performed by him or her during the period of declared death shall not be affected.
第五十条
被宣告死亡的人重新出现,经本人或者利害关系人申请,人民法院应当撤销死亡宣告。
Article 50 In the event that a person who has been declared dead reappears, the people's court
shall revoke the death declaration upon application of the person or that of an interested person.
第五十一条 被宣告死亡的人的婚姻关系,自死亡宣告之日起消除。死亡宣告被撤销
的,婚姻关系自撤销死亡宣告之日起自行恢复。但是,其配偶再婚或者向婚姻登记机关
书面声明不愿意恢复的除外。
Article 51 The marital relationship of a person who is declared dead shall cease to exist from the date of death declaration. If the death declaration is revoked, the marital relationship shall
automatically resume from the date of revoking the death declaration. However, there shall be an
exception where the spouse has remarried or has declared in writing to the marriage registration
office that he/she does not wish to reinstate the marriage.
第五十二条
被宣告死亡的人在被宣告死亡期间,其子女被他人依法收养的,在死亡宣告被撤销后,不得
以未经本人同意为由主张收养行为无效。
Article 52 Where a person's child is adopted by another person according to the law during the
period when he or she is being declared dead, he or she shall not claim for invalidation of the
adoption behavior on the ground that he or she does not agree with the adoption after the death
declaration is revoked.
第五十三条
被撤销死亡宣告的人有权请求依照本法第六编取得其财产的民事主体返还财产;无法返还的
,应当给予适当补偿。
Article 53 A person shall have the right to request the return of his property by a civil subject who has obtained his property in accordance with Part VI of this Law, if the death declaration is revoked; if such return is impossible, appropriate compensation shall be given.
利害关系人隐瞒真实情况,致使他人被宣告死亡而取得其财产的,除应当返还财产
外,还应当对由此造成的损失承担赔偿责任。
If an interested person conceals facts and causes another person to be declared dead, thus
obtaining such person's property, the interested person shall, apart from returning the property,
be liable for compensation for the losses caused thereby.
第四节 个体工商户和农村承包经营户
Section 4 Individual Businesses and Leaseholding Farm Households
第五十四条 自然人从事工商业经营,经依法登记,为个体工商户。个体工商户可以
起字号。
Article 54 Individual businesses refer to natural persons registered according to the law to
engage in industrial or commercial operation. Individual businessmen may adopt a shop name.
第五十五条
农村集体经济组织的成员,依法取得农村土地承包经营权,从事家庭承包经营的,为农村承包经营户。
Article 55 Leaseholding farm households refer to members of a rural collective economic
organization who has obtained the lease holding right of the rural contracted land according to the
law and engage in household contractual management.
第五十六条
个体工商户的债务,个人经营的,以个人财产承担;家庭经营的,以家庭财产承担;无法区
分的,以家庭财产承担。
Article 56 The debts of an individual business shall be borne by the individual's property if the
business is operated by an individual or by the family's property if the business is operated by a
family. If it is impossible to distinguish whether the individual business is operated by an individual
or by a family, the debts of such individual business shall be borne by the family's property.
农村承包经营户的债务,以从事农村土地承包经营的农户财产承担;事实上由农户
部分成员经营的,以该部分成员的财产承担。
The debts of a leaseholding farm household shall be borne by the property of the household
that engages in the contractual management of rural land or by the property of partial members
of a household who actually engage in the contractual management of rural land.
第三章 法 人
Chapter 3 Legal Persons
第一节 一 般 规 定
SECTION 1 GENERAL PROVISIONS
第五十七条
法人是具有民事权利能力和民事行为能力,依法独立享有民事权利和承担民事义务的组织。
Article 57 A legal person is an organization that has capacity for civil rights and capacity for
civil conduct, and independently enjoys civil rights and assumes civil obligations in accordance with
the law.
第五十八条 法人应当依法成立。
Article 58 A legal person shall be established in accordance with the law.
法人应当有自己的名称、组织机构、住所、财产或者经费。法人成立的具体条件和程序,依照法律、行政法规的规定。
A legal person shall have its own name, organizational structure, premises and property or
funds. Specific conditions and procedures for establishing a legal person shall be subject to
provisions stipulated by the laws and administrative regulations.
设立法人,法律、行政法规规定须经有关机关批准的,依照其规定。
Where the establishment of a legal person shall be approved by the relevant authorities
according to the provisions of laws and administrative regulations, such provisions shall apply.
第五十九条
法人的民事权利能力和民事行为能力,从法人成立时产生,到法人终止时消灭。
Article 59 A legal person's capacity for civil rights and capacity for civil conduct arise when
the legal person is established and cease to exist when the legal person terminates.
第六十条 法人以其全部财产独立承担民事责任。
Article 60 A legal person shall independently assume civil liability with all of its property.
第六十一条
依照法律或者法人章程的规定,代表法人从事民事活动的负责人,为法人的法定代表人。
Article 61 In accordance with the law or the articles of association of the legal person, the
responsible person who acts on behalf of the legal person in performing civil activities shall be its
legal representative.
法定代表人以法人名义从事的民事活动,其法律后果由法人承受。
Where the legal representative of a legal person engages in civil activities in the name of the legal person, the legal consequences incurred shall be undertaken by the legal person.
法人章程或者法人权力机构对法定代表人代表权的限制,不得对抗善意相对人。
The restriction on the legal representative's right of representation imposed by a legal
person's articles of association or its authoritative body shall not challenge any bona fide other
party.
第六十二条 法定代表人因执行职务造成他人损害的,由法人承担民事责任。
Article 62 Where the legal representative of a legal person causes any damage to others while
performing duties, the legal person shall assume the corresponding civil liability.
法人承担民事责任后,依照法律或者法人章程的规定,可以向有过错的法定代表人
追偿。
The legal person, after assuming civil liability, has the right to claim the repayment from
the legal representative at fault in accordance with the law or its articles of association.
第六十三条 法人以其主要办事机构所在地为住所。依法需要办理法人登记的,应当
将主要办事机构所在地登记为住所。
Article 63 A legal person's domicile shall be the place where its principal place of business is
located. Where a legal person needs to be registered according to the law, it shall register the place
where its principal place of business is located as its domicile.
第六十四条 法人存续期间登记事项发生变化的,应当依法向登记机关申请变更登记。
Article 64 Where any registered particular of a legal person changes during its existence, an
application for change of registration shall be filed with the registration authority in accordance with
the law.
第六十五条 法人的实际情况与登记的事项不一致的,不得对抗善意相对人。
Article 65 The actual situations of a legal person that are inconsistent with the registered
particulars shall not challenge any bona fide other party.
第六十六条 登记机关应当依法及时公示法人登记的有关信息。
Article 66 A registration authority shall publish the relevant information registered by a legal person in a timely manner according to the law.
第六十七条 法人合并的,其权利和义务由合并后的法人享有和承担。
Article 67 When a legal person is merged, its rights and obligations are enjoyed and assumed
by the legal person that results from the merger.
法人分立的,其权利和义务由分立后的法人享有连带债权,承担连带债务,但是债
权人和债务人另有约定的除外。
Where a legal person is divided, its rights and obligations are enjoyed and assumed by the
legal persons after the division jointly and severally, unless otherwise agreed by the creditor and
the debtor.
第六十八条 有下列原因之一并依法完成清算、注销登记的,法人终止:
Article 68 A legal person that has been liquidated or deregistered according to the law due to
any of the following reasons shall be terminated:
(一)法人解散;
1. The legal person is dissolved;
(二)法人被宣告破产;
(II) The legal person is declared bankrupt; or
(三)法律规定的其他原因。
(III) other reasons stipulated by the law.
法人终止,法律、行政法规规定须经有关机关批准的,依照其规定。
Where the termination of a legal person shall be approved by the relevant authorities
according to the provisions of the laws and administrative regulations, such provisions shall
apply.
第六十九条 有下列情形之一的,法人解散:
Article 69 A legal person shall be dissolved under any of the following circumstances:
(一)法人章程规定的存续期间届满或者法人章程规定的其他解散事由出现;
1. The existence period specified in the legal person's articles of association expires, or
other causes of dissolution specified in the legal person's articles of association arise;
(二)法人的权力机构决议解散;
(II) The legal person's authority body makes a resolution for the dissolution;
(三)因法人合并或者分立需要解散;
(III) The legal person is dissolved due to merger or division;
(四)法人依法被吊销营业执照、登记证书,被责令关闭或者被撤销;
(IV) The legal person's business license or registration certificate is revoked according to
the law, or the legal person is ordered to close down or is canceled; or
(五)法律规定的其他情形。
(V) other circumstances stipulated by the law arise.
第七十条
法人解散的,除合并或者分立的情形外,清算义务人应当及时组成清算组进行清算。
Article 70 Where a legal person dissolves, the liquidation obligors shall, except for being
merged or split up, form a liquidation group in time to liquidate the legal person.
法人的董事、理事等执行机构或者决策机构的成员为清算义务人。法律、行政法规
另有规定的,依照其规定。
Members of a legal person's executive body or decision-making body, such as directors and
council members, are the liquidation obligors. Where the laws and administrative regulations
stipulate otherwise, such provisions shall prevail.
清算义务人未及时履行清算义务,造成损害的,应当承担民事责任;主管机关或者
利害关系人可以申请人民法院指定有关人员组成清算组进行清算。
Where the liquidation obligors cause any damage due to their failure to fulfill their liquidation obligations in a timely manner, they shall bear civil liability; the competent authority
or an interested person may petition the people's court to appoint persons concerned to establish
a liquidation group to liquidate the legal person.
第七十一条
法人的清算程序和清算组职权,依照有关法律的规定;没有规定的,参照适用公司法律的有
关规定。
Article 71 The liquidation procedures and the functions and powers of the liquidation group of
a legal person shall be subject to provisions of the relevant laws; if no provisions are available, the
relevant provisions of the applicable company laws shall apply mutatis mutandis.
第七十二条 清算期间法人存续,但是不得从事与清算无关的活动。
Article 72 In the course of liquidation, a legal person shall continue in existence, but shall not
conduct any activity irrelevant to the liquidation.
法人清算后的剩余财产,按照法人章程的规定或者法人权力机构的决议处理。法律
另有规定的,依照其规定。
The residual property after the legal person is liquidated shall be dealt with in accordance
with provisions of the legal person's articles of association or the resolution made by the legal
person's authority body. Where the laws provide otherwise, such provisions shall prevail.
清算结束并完成法人注销登记时,法人终止;依法不需要办理法人登记的,清算结
束时,法人终止。
The legal person shall terminate when the liquidation is accomplished and such legal person
is deregistered; if a legal person does not need to be registered according to the law, it shall
terminate once the liquidation is accomplished.
第七十三条 法人被宣告破产的,依法进行破产清算并完成法人注销登记时,法人终止。
Article 73 A legal person that is declared bankrupt shall terminate when its bankruptcy
liquidation is accomplished and it is deregistered according to the law.
第七十四条
法人可以依法设立分支机构。法律、行政法规规定分支机构应当登记的,依照其规定。
Article 74 A legal person may establish its branches according to the law. Where the branches
shall be registered in accordance with the provisions of laws and administrative regulations, such
provisions shall apply.
分支机构以自己的名义从事民事活动,产生的民事责任由法人承担;也可以先以该
分支机构管理的财产承担,不足以承担的,由法人承担。
Where a branch engages in civil activities in its own name, the civil liability caused thereby
shall be assumed by the legal person; it is also possible that the property managed by the branch
bears the civil liability, and the legal person bears the remaining of it.
第七十五条
设立人为设立法人从事的民事活动,其法律后果由法人承受;法人未成立的,其法律后果由
设立人承受,设立人为二人以上的,享有连带债权,承担连带债务。
Article 75 For civil activities conducted by the founder for the purpose of establishing a legal
person, the legal consequences incurred shall be undertaken by the legal person. If the founder fails
to establish the legal person, the legal consequences incurred shall be undertaken by the founder; if
two or more persons serve as the founder, they shall enjoy creditors' rights and assume debts jointly
and severally.
设立人为设立法人以自己的名义从事民事活动产生的民事责任,第三人有权选择请
求法人或者设立人承担。
Where a founder engages in the business of civil movable property under its own name for
the purpose of establishing a legal person, a third party has the right to request the legal person or
the founder to bear the civil liability arising therefrom.
第二节 营 利 法 人
Section 2 PROFIT CORPORATION
第七十六条 以取得利润并分配给股东等出资人为目的成立的法人,为营利法人。
Article 76 A legal person established for the purpose of seeking profits and distributing the
same to its shareholders and other investors is a profit-making legal person.
营利法人包括有限责任公司、股份有限公司和其他企业法人等。
Profit-making legal persons shall include limited liability companies, joint stock limited
companies and other enterprise legal persons.
第七十七条 营利法人经依法登记成立。
Article 77 A profit-making legal person is incorporated upon registration according to the law.
第七十八条 依法设立的营利法人,由登记机关发给营利法人营业执照。营业执照签
发日期为营利法人的成立日期。
Article 78 For a profit-making legal person established according to the law, the registration
authority shall issue the business license for a profit-making legal person. The issue date of the business license shall be the date when the profit-making legal person is established.
第七十九条 设立营利法人应当依法制定法人章程。
Article 79 To establish a profit-making legal person, the legal person's articles of association
shall be developed in accordance with the law.
第八十条 营利法人应当设权力机构。
Article 80 A profit-making legal person shall establish its authoritative body.
权力机构行使修改法人章程,选举或者更换执行机构、监督机构成员,以及法人章程规定的其他职权。
The authority body is responsible for exercising its functions and powers in modifying the
articles of association of the legal person and electing or changing members of the executive
body and supervision body, and other functions and powers set forth in the articles of association
of the legal person.
第八十一条 营利法人应当设执行机构。
Article 81 A profit-making legal person shall establish its execution body.
执行机构行使召集权力机构会议,决定法人的经营计划和投资方案,决定法人内部
管理机构的设置,以及法人章程规定的其他职权。
The executive body is responsible for exercising its functions and powers in convening the
meeting of the authority body, determining the legal person's business plans and investment
programs, setting up of the legal person's internal management organizations, and other functions
and powers set out in the articles of association of the legal person.
执行机构为董事会或者执行董事的,董事长、执行董事或者经理按照法人章程的规定担任法定代表人;未设董事会或者执行董事的,法人章程规定的主要负责人为其执行
机构和法定代表人。
If a profit-making legal person's execution body is its board of directors or executive
director, the chairman of the board of directors, executive director or manager shall act as the
legal representative in accordance with the articles of association of the legal person; if the legal
person has not set up the board of directors or executive director, the main responsible person as
stipulated in the articles of association of the legal person shall be its execution body and legal representative.
第八十二条
营利法人设监事会或者监事等监督机构的,监督机构依法行使检查法人财务,监督执行机构
成员、高级管理人员执行法人职务的行为,以及法人章程规定的其他职权。
Article 82 If a profit-making legal person has set up a supervision body such as board of
supervisors or supervisor, the supervision body shall legally exercise its functions and powers in
inspecting the legal person's financial affairs and supervising the performance of duties in the legal
person by members of the execution body and senior officers, and other functions and powers
prescribed by the legal person's articles of association.
第八十三条
营利法人的出资人不得滥用出资人权利损害法人或者其他出资人的利益;滥用出资人权利造
成法人或者其他出资人损失的,应当依法承担民事责任。
Article 83 No investor of a profit-making legal person may damage the interests of the legal
person or other investors by abusing the investor's rights; any investor who causes any loss to the
legal person or other investors by abusing the investor's rights shall bear the civil liability according
to the law.
营利法人的出资人不得滥用法人独立地位和出资人有限责任损害法人债权人的利益
;滥用法人独立地位和出资人有限责任,逃避债务,严重损害法人债权人的利益的,应
当对法人债务承担连带责任。
No investor of a profit-making legal person may damage the interests of any creditor of the
legal person by abusing the independent status as a legal person or the limited liability of the
investor. Any investor of a profit-making legal person who avoids debts and seriously damages
the interests of any creditor of the legal person by abusing the independent status as a legal
person or the limited liability of the investor shall be jointly liable for the debts of the legal
person.
第八十四条
营利法人的控股出资人、实际控制人、董事、监事、高级管理人员不得利用其关联关系损害
法人的利益;利用关联关系造成法人损失的,应当承担赔偿责任。
Article 84 The controlling investor, actual controller, directors, supervisors and senior officers
of a profit-making legal person shall not damage the interests of the legal person by making use of its affiliated relations; if they cause any loss to the legal person by making use of the affiliated relations, they shall be liable for compensation.
第八十五条 营利法人的权力机构、执行机构作出决议的会议召集程序、表决方式违
反法律、行政法规、法人章程,或者决议内容违反法人章程的,营利法人的出资人可以
请求人民法院撤销该决议。但是,营利法人依据该决议与善意相对人形成的民事法律关
系不受影响。
Article 85 If any procedure for convening a meeting or voting method adopted by a profitmaking legal person's authoritative body or executive body through a resolution is in violation of
laws, administrative regulations or the articles of association of the legal person, or any content of
the resolution made is in violation of the articles of association of the legal person, the investor of the profit-making legal person may request the people's court to cancel the resolution. However, the civil legal relationship formed between the profit-making legal person and the bona fide other party
according to the resolution shall not be affected.
第八十六条
营利法人从事经营活动,应当遵守商业道德,维护交易安全,接受政府和社会的监督,承担
社会责任。
Article 86 To conduct business activities, a profit-making legal person shall comply with commercial ethics, maintain the safety of transactions, accept the supervision by the government and the public, and assume social responsibilities.
第三节 非营利法人
Section 3 Non-profit Legal Persons
第八十七条
为公益目的或者其他非营利目的成立,不向出资人、设立人或者会员分配所取得利润的法人
,为非营利法人。
Article 87 A legal person that is established for public welfare or other non-profit purposes and
does not distribute profits to its investors, founders or members is a non-profit legal person.
非营利法人包括事业单位、社会团体、基金会、社会服务机构等。
Non-profit legal persons include public institutions, social groups, foundations, and social service agencies.
第八十八条
具备法人条件,为适应经济社会发展需要,提供公益服务设立的事业单位,经依法登记成立
,取得事业单位法人资格;依法不需要办理法人登记的,从成立之日起,具有事业单位法人
资格。
Article 88 A public institution which meets the requirements for a legal person and is established in order to meet the needs of economic and social development and provide public welfare services acquires the status of public institution as a legal person after it is registered according to the law for its establishment; a public institution which does not need to be registered as a legal person according to the law shall have the status of public institution as a legal person on the day when it is established.
第八十九条
事业单位法人设理事会的,除法律另有规定外,理事会为其决策机构。事业单位法人的法定
代表人依照法律、行政法规或者法人章程的规定产生。
Article 89 Where a public institution as a legal person has established a council, the council
shall be its decision-making body, unless otherwise provided by law. The legal representative of a
public institution as a legal person is selected according to laws, administrative regulations or the
articles of association of the legal person.
第九十条
具备法人条件,基于会员共同意愿,为公益目的或者会员共同利益等非营利目的设立的社会
团体,经依法登记成立,取得社会团体法人资格;依法不需要办理法人登记的,从成立之日
起,具有社会团体法人资格。
Article 90 A social organization which meets the requirements for a legal person and is
established based on the common will of its members for public welfare or common interests of its members and other non-profit purposes acquires the status of social organization as a legal person
after it is registered according to the law for its establishment; a social organization which does not
need to be registered as a legal person according to the law shall have the status of social
organization as a legal person on the day when it is established.
第九十一条 设立社会团体法人应当依法制定法人章程。
Article 91 To establish a social organization as a legal person, the legal person's articles of
association shall be developed in accordance with the law.
社会团体法人应当设会员大会或者会员代表大会等权力机构。
A social organization as a legal person shall establish its authority body such as
membership assembly or membership representative congress.
社会团体法人应当设理事会等执行机构。理事长或者会长等负责人按照法人章程的
规定担任法定代表人。
A social organization as a legal person shall establish its execution body such as council.
The responsible person such as the general director or the president shall act as the legal
representative in accordance with the articles of association of the legal person.
第九十二条
具备法人条件,为公益目的以捐助财产设立的基金会、社会服务机构等,经依法登记成立,
取得捐助法人资格。
Article 92 A foundation or social service organization which meets the requirements for a legal
person and is established with donated property for public welfare purposes acquires the status of a
legal person of donation after it is registered according to the law for its establishment.
依法设立的宗教活动场所,具备法人条件的,可以申请法人登记,取得捐助法人资
格。法律、行政法规对宗教活动场所有规定的,依照其规定。
A venue for religious activities which is established according to the law and meets the
requirements for a legal person may apply for registration as a legal person and acquire the status
of a legal person of donation. Where there are provisions stipulated by laws and administrative
regulations on religious activity venues, such provisions shall apply.
第九十三条 设立捐助法人应当依法制定法人章程。
Article 93 To establish a legal person of donation, the legal person's articles of association shall
be developed in accordance with the law.
捐助法人应当设理事会、民主管理组织等决策机构,并设执行机构。理事长等负责
人按照法人章程的规定担任法定代表人。
A consortium legal person shall establish its decision-making body such as council or
democratic management organization, as well as executive body. The responsible person such as
the general director shall act as the legal representative in accordance with the legal person's
articles of association.
捐助法人应当设监事会等监督机构。
A legal person of donation shall establish its supervision body such as board of supervisors.
第九十四条
捐助人有权向捐助法人查询捐助财产的使用、管理情况,并提出意见和建议,捐助法人应当
及时、如实答复。
Article 94 Donators are entitled to turn to the legal person of donation for inquiries about the
use and management of the donated property, and give their opinions and proposals. The legal
person of donation shall timely and truthfully reply to such inquiries.
捐助法人的决策机构、执行机构或者法定代表人作出决定的程序违反法律、行政法
规、法人章程,或者决定内容违反法人章程的,捐助人等利害关系人或者主管机关可以
请求人民法院撤销该决定。但是,捐助法人依据该决定与善意相对人形成的民事法律关
系不受影响。
Where the procedures adopted by the decision-making body, execution body or legal
representative of a consortium legal person to make a decision violate any laws, administrative
regulations or the legal person's articles of association, or the content of such decision violates
the legal person's articles of association, interested persons such as the donors or the competent
authority may apply to the people's court for revocation of such decision. However, the civil
legal relationship formed between the legal person of donation and the counterpart in good faith
according to the decision shall not be affected.
第九十五条
为公益目的成立的非营利法人终止时,不得向出资人、设立人或者会员分配剩余财产。剩余
财产应当按照法人章程的规定或者权力机构的决议用于公益目的;无法按照法人章程的规定
或者权力机构的决议处理的,由主管机关主持转给宗旨相同或者相近的法人,并向社会公告。
Article 95 When a non-profit legal person established for public welfare purposes terminates, it
shall not distribute its residual property to its investors, founders or members. The remaining
properties shall be used for public welfare purposes in accordance with the provisions of the Articles
of Association of the legal persons or the resolutions of the authorities; if it is impossible to dispose
of such properties in accordance with the Articles of Association of the legal persons or the
resolutions of the authorities, the competent authorities shall guide the transfer of such properties to
legal persons with the same or similar purposes, which shall be announced to the public.
第四节 特 别 法 人
Section 4 Special Legal Person
第九十六条
本节规定的机关法人、农村集体经济组织法人、城镇农村的合作经济组织法人、基层群众性
自治组织法人,为特别法人。
Article 96 Special legal persons refer to official organs, rural collective economic organizations,
urban and rural cooperative economic organizations and grass-roots self-governing mass
organizations as legal persons as prescribed in this Section.
第九十七条
有独立经费的机关和承担行政职能的法定机构从成立之日起,具有机关法人资格,可以从事
为履行职能所需要的民事活动。
Article 97 An independently funded official organ or a statutory body with administrative
functions acquires the status of an official organ as a legal person on the day when it is established
and is allowed to conduct civil activities necessary for the performance of its functions.
第九十八条
机关法人被撤销的,法人终止,其民事权利和义务由继任的机关法人享有和承担;没有继任
的机关法人的,由作出撤销决定的机关法人享有和承担。
Article 98 Where an official organ as a legal person is cancelled, the legal person shall
terminate and its civil rights and obligations shall be enjoyed and assumed by another legal-person
official organ as its successor; if there is no legal-person official organ as its successor, such rights
and obligations shall be enjoyed and assumed by another official organ as a legal person which
makes the decision to cancel the original official organ as a legal person.
第九十九条 农村集体经济组织依法取得法人资格。
Article 99 A rural collective economic organization shall obtain the status of a legal person
according to the law.
法律、行政法规对农村集体经济组织有规定的,依照其规定。
Where there are provisions stipulated by the laws and administrative regulations on rural
collective economic organizations, such provisions shall apply.
第一百条 城镇农村的合作经济组织依法取得法人资格。
Article 100 An urban or rural cooperative economic organization shall obtain the status of a
legal person according to the law.
法律、行政法规对城镇农村的合作经济组织有规定的,依照其规定。
Where there are provisions stipulated by the laws and administrative regulations on urban
or rural cooperative economic organizations, such provisions shall apply.
第一百零一条
居民委员会、村民委员会具有基层群众性自治组织法人资格,可以从事为履行职能所需要的
民事活动。
Article 101 A neighborhood committee or village committee has the status of a grass-roots
self-governing mass organization as a legal person and is allowed to conduct civil activities
necessary for the performance of its functions.
未设立村集体经济组织的,村民委员会可以依法代行村集体经济组织的职能。
Where no village collective economic organization is established, a villagers committee
may perform the functions of the village collective economic organization according to the law.
第四章 非法人组织
Chapter 4 Unincorporated Associations
第一百零二条
非法人组织是不具有法人资格,但是能够依法以自己的名义从事民事活动的组织。
Article 102 An unincorporated association is an association that is not qualified as a legal
person but is able to engage in civil activities in its own name according to the law.
非法人组织包括个人独资企业、合伙企业、不具有法人资格的专业服务机构等。
Unincorporated associations include sole proprietorship enterprises, partnership enterprises,
professional service organizations not qualified as a legal person and so on.
第一百零三条 非法人组织应当依照法律的规定登记。
Article 103 An unincorporated association shall be registered as prescribed by the law.
设立非法人组织,法律、行政法规规定须经有关机关批准的,依照其规定。
Where the establishment of an unincorporated association shall be approved by the relevant
authorities according to provisions of the laws and administrative regulations, such provisions
shall apply.
第一百零四条 非法人组织的财产不足以清偿债务的,其出资人或者设立人承担无限
责任。法律另有规定的,依照其规定。
Article 104 Where the property of an unincorporated association is not sufficient to pay off its
debts, its investors or founders shall assume unlimited liability. Where the laws provide otherwise,
such provisions shall prevail.
第一百零五条 非法人组织可以确定一人或者数人代表该组织从事民事活动。
Article 105 An unincorporated association may choose one or more persons to engage in civil
activities on its behalf.
第一百零六条 有下列情形之一的,非法人组织解散:
Article 106 An unincorporated association shall be dissolved under any of the following
circumstances:
(一)章程规定的存续期间届满或者章程规定的其他解散事由出现;
1. the existence period specified in the articles of association expires, or other causes of
dissolution specified in the articles of association arise;
(二)出资人或者设立人决定解散;
(II) Its investors or founders decide to dissolve it; or
(三)法律规定的其他情形。
(III) other circumstances stipulated by the law arise.
第一百零七条 非法人组织解散的,应当依法进行清算。
Article 107 Where an unincorporated association is to be dissolved, it shall carry out
liquidation according to the law.
第一百零八条 非法人组织除适用本章规定外,参照适用本编第三章第一节的有关规定。
Article 108 In addition to the provisions of this Chapter, the relevant provisions prescribed in
Section 1 of Chapter III of this Part shall apply mutatis mutandis to unincorporated associations.
第五章 民 事 权 利
CHAPTER 5 CIVIL RIGHTS
第一百零九条 自然人的人身自由、人格尊严受法律保护。
Article 109 The personal freedom and human dignity of a natural person shall be protected by
the law.
第一百一十条
自然人享有生命权、身体权、健康权、姓名权、肖像权、名誉权、荣誉权、隐私权、婚姻自
主权等权利。
Article 110 A natural person enjoys the rights to life, body, health, personal name, portrait,
reputation, honor, privacy, and marry by choice, and other rights.
法人、非法人组织享有名称权、名誉权和荣誉权。
A legal person or an unincorporated association shall enjoy the rights to naming rights, reputation and honor.
第一百一十一条
自然人的个人信息受法律保护。任何组织或者个人需要获取他人个人信息的,应当依法取得
并确保信息安全,不得非法收集、使用、加工、传输他人个人信息,不得非法买卖、提供或
者公开他人个人信息。
Article 111 The personal information of a natural person shall be protected by the law. Any
organization or individual shall legally obtain the personal information of others when necessary and ensure the safety of such personal information, and shall not illegally collect, use, process or transmit the personal information of others, or illegally buy or sell, provide or make public the personal information of others.
第一百一十二条 自然人因婚姻家庭关系等产生的人身权利受法律保护。
Article 112 Personal rights of a natural person that arise from marriage and family relations
shall be protected by the law.
第一百一十三条 民事主体的财产权利受法律平等保护。
Article 113 The property rights of civil subjects shall receive equal protection under the law.
第一百一十四条 民事主体依法享有物权。
Article 114 A civil subject enjoys real rights in accordance with the law.
物权是权利人依法对特定的物享有直接支配和排他的权利,包括所有权、用益物权
和担保物权。
Real right refers to the exclusive right of the right holder to directly control a specific
property, including ownership, usufruct and Security Right.
第一百一十五条 物包括不动产和动产。法律规定权利作为物权客体的,依照其规定。
Article 115 Property shall include real property and movable property. Where rights are
deemed as the objects of real rights by provisions of the law, such provisions shall apply.
第一百一十六条 物权的种类和内容,由法律规定。
Article 116 The categories of real rights and their contents shall be prescribed by law.
第一百一十七条
为了公共利益的需要,依照法律规定的权限和程序征收、征用不动产或者动产的,应当给予
公平、合理的补偿。
Article 117 Where real property or movable property is expropriated or requisitioned for public
interest in accordance with the authority and procedures stipulated by the law, fair and reasonable
compensation shall be paid.
第一百一十八条 民事主体依法享有债权。
Article 118 A civil subject enjoys creditors' rights in accordance with the law.
债权是因合同、侵权行为、无因管理、不当得利以及法律的其他规定,权利人请求
特定义务人为或者不为一定行为的权利。
The creditor's right refers to the right possessed by a right holder to require a specific obligor to perform or not to perform certain obligations arising from contracts, torts, negotiorum gestio and unjust enrichment, and other provisions of the law.
第一百一十九条 依法成立的合同,对当事人具有法律约束力。
Article 119 A contract entered into in accordance with the law is legally binding on the parties
concerned.
第一百二十条 民事权益受到侵害的,被侵权人有权请求侵权人承担侵权责任。
Article 120 In the case of any infringement of civil rights and interests, the infringed is entitled
to request the infringer to assume the liability for such infringement.
第一百二十一条
没有法定的或者约定的义务,为避免他人利益受损失而进行管理的人,有权请求受益人偿还
由此支出的必要费用。
Article 121 A person, who manages affairs for the purpose of preventing the loss of another
person's interests without a statutory or contractual obligation, has the right to request the beneficiary to reimburse the necessary expenses incurred.
第一百二十二条
因他人没有法律根据,取得不当利益,受损失的人有权请求其返还不当利益。
Article 122 A person who gains unjust enrichment without any legal basis, resulting in loss to
another person, shall return the unjust enrichment to the person who suffers the loss upon the request
thereof.
第一百二十三条 民事主体依法享有知识产权。
Article 123 A civil subject enjoys intellectual property rights in accordance with the law.
知识产权是权利人依法就下列客体享有的专有的权利:
Intellectual property is a proprietary right enjoyed by a holder in accordance with law in
respect of the following objects:
(一)作品;
1. Works;
(二)发明、实用新型、外观设计;
(II) inventions, utility models and designs;
(三)商标;
(III) Trademarks;
(四)地理标志;
(IV) geographical indications;
(五)商业秘密;
(V) Trade secrets;
(六)集成电路布图设计;
(VI) layout designs of integrated circuits;
(七)植物新品种;
(VII) new varieties of plants; and
(八)法律规定的其他客体。
(VIII) other objects specified by the law.
第一百二十四条 自然人依法享有继承权。
Article 124 A natural person enjoys the right to inheritance in accordance with the law.
自然人合法的私有财产,可以依法继承。
A natural person's legal private property may be inherited in accordance with the law.
第一百二十五条 民事主体依法享有股权和其他投资性权利。
Article 125 A civil subject enjoys stock rights and other investment rights in accordance with
the law.
第一百二十六条 民事主体享有法律规定的其他民事权利和利益。
Article 126 A civil subject enjoys other civil rights and interests specified by the law.
第一百二十七条 法律对数据、网络虚拟财产的保护有规定的,依照其规定。
Article 127 Where the law contains provisions in respect of the protection of data and network
virtual property, such provisions shall apply.
第一百二十八条
法律对未成年人、老年人、残疾人、妇女、消费者等的民事权利保护有特别规定的,依照其
规定。
Article 128 Where certain laws have special provisions to protect the civil rights of minors, the
elderly, the disabled, women and consumers, such provisions shall apply.
第一百二十九条
民事权利可以依据民事法律行为、事实行为、法律规定的事件或者法律规定的其他方式取得。
Article 129 Civil rights may be acquired on the basis of civil juristic acts, de facto acts, acts
prescribed by law or other means provided by law.
第一百三十条 民事主体按照自己的意愿依法行使民事权利,不受干涉。
Article 130 Civil subjects shall, at their own will, exercise civil rights in accordance with the
law without interference.
第一百三十一条 民事主体行使权利时,应当履行法律规定的和当事人约定的义务。
Article 131 When civil subjects exercise their rights, they shall fulfill their obligations as required by the law and as agreed with the parties concerned.
第一百三十二条
民事主体不得滥用民事权利损害国家利益、社会公共利益或者他人合法权益。
Article 132 No civil subject may damage the national interests, public interests or the
legitimate rights and interests of others by abuse of civil rights.
第六章 民事法律行为
Chapter 6 Civil Juristic Acts
第一节 一 般 规 定
SECTION 1 GENERAL PROVISIONS
第一百三十三条
民事法律行为是民事主体通过意思表示设立、变更、终止民事法律关系的行为。
Article 133 A civil juristic act shall be the act of a civil subject to establish, change or
terminate a civil juristic relationship through expression of intent.
第一百三十四条
民事法律行为可以基于双方或者多方的意思表示一致成立,也可以基于单方的意思表示成立。
Article 134 A civil juristic act may be instituted either based on the unanimous expression of
intent made by two or more parties, or based on the expression of intent made by one party.
法人、非法人组织依照法律或者章程规定的议事方式和表决程序作出决议的,该决议行为成立。
A resolution of a legal person or an unincorporated association shall be instituted if it is
made according to the discussion methods and voting procedures stipulated by the law or by its
articles of association.
第一百三十五条
民事法律行为可以采用书面形式、口头形式或者其他形式;法律、行政法规规定或者当事人约定采用特定形式的,应当采用特定形式。
Article 135 A civil juristic act may be in written, oral or other forms. If the law or
administrative regulation stipulates or the parties concerned agree that a particular form shall be
adopted, such form shall be adopted.
第一百三十六条
民事法律行为自成立时生效,但是法律另有规定或者当事人另有约定的除外。
Article 136 A civil juristic act shall become effective once it is instituted, unless otherwise
stipulated by the law or agreed between the parties concerned.
行为人非依法律规定或者未经对方同意,不得擅自变更或者解除民事法律行为。
An actor may not arbitrarily alter or rescind his or her civil juristic act, except in accordance
with the law or with the other party's consent.
第二节 意 思 表 示
SECTION 2 indications of intent
第一百三十七条 以对话方式作出的意思表示,相对人知道其内容时生效。
Article 137 An expression of intent made verbally shall become effective at the time when the
other party learns of its contents.
以非对话方式作出的意思表示,到达相对人时生效。以非对话方式作出的采用数据电文形式的意思表示,相对人指定特定系统接收数据电文的,该数据电文进入该特定系统时生效;未指定特定系统的,相对人知道或者应当知道该数据电文进入其系统时生效。当事人对采用数据电文形式的意思表示的生效时间另有约定的,按照其约定。
An expression of intent made in a form other than dialogue becomes effective when it
reaches the other party. If an expression of intent is made in the form of a data message other
than verbal communication, and the other party has designated a specific system to receive the
data message, the data message shall become effective at the time when it enters the specific
system designated; if no specific system is designated, the data message shall become effective
at the time when the other party knows or should have known that the data message has entered
the system. Where the parties concerned have otherwise agreed as to the time when the expression of intent made in the form of data messages becomes effective, such agreement shall apply.
第一百三十八条 无相对人的意思表示,表示完成时生效。法律另有规定的,依照其
规定。
Article 138 An expression of intent that is not made to a specific party shall become effective
immediately once it is made. Where the laws provide otherwise, such provisions shall prevail.
第一百三十九条 以公告方式作出的意思表示,公告发布时生效。
Article 139 An expression of intent made in the form of an announcement shall become
effective once it is announced.
第一百四十条 行为人可以明示或者默示作出意思表示。
Article 140 An actor may make an expression of intent explicitly or impliedly.
沉默只有在有法律规定、当事人约定或者符合当事人之间的交易习惯时,才可以视
为意思表示。
The implication shall be deemed an expression of intent only when it is stipulated by the
law or agreed by the parties concerned, or conforms to the trade usage.
第一百四十一条
行为人可以撤回意思表示。撤回意思表示的通知应当在意思表示到达相对人前或者与意思表示同时到达相对人。
Article 141 An actor may withdraw its expression of intent. The notice to withdraw the
expression of intent shall reach the other parties before or at the same time when the expression of
intent reaches the other parties.
第一百四十二条
有相对人的意思表示的解释,应当按照所使用的词句,结合相关条款、行为的性质和目的、
习惯以及诚信原则,确定意思表示的含义。
Article 142 The meaning of an expression of intent that is made to a certain party shall be
interpreted according to the literal meaning of words used and in combination with the relevant articles, nature and purpose of the act, usual practices, and the principle of good faith.
无相对人的意思表示的解释,不能完全拘泥于所使用的词句,而应当结合相关条款
、行为的性质和目的、习惯以及诚信原则,确定行为人的真实意思。
In the interpretation of an expression of intent that is made not to a specific party, the real
intention of an actor shall be sought rather than the literal meaning of words used and also by
considering the relevant articles, nature and purpose of the act, usual practices, and the principle
of good faith.
第三节 民事法律行为的效力
Section 3 Validity of Civil Juristic Acts
第一百四十三条 具备下列条件的民事法律行为有效:
Article 143 A valid civil juristic act shall meet the following requirements:
(一)行为人具有相应的民事行为能力;
(I) the actor has relevant capacity for civil conduct; and
(二)意思表示真实;
(II) The intention expressed is genuine; and
(三)不违反法律、行政法规的强制性规定,不违背公序良俗。
(III) Such act does not violate the mandatory provisions of laws and administrative
regulations or the public order and good morals.
第一百四十四条 无民事行为能力人实施的民事法律行为无效。
Article 144 The civil juristic acts performed by a person who has no capacity for civil conduct
shall be null and void.
第一百四十五条
限制民事行为能力人实施的纯获利益的民事法律行为或者与其年龄、智力、精神健康状况相
适应的民事法律行为有效;实施的其他民事法律行为经法定代理人同意或者追认后有效。
Article 145 A civil juristic act performed by a person who has limited capacity for civil
conduct shall be valid provided such act relates to the pure acquisition of benefits or is made according to his or her age, intelligence and mental health; other civil juristic acts performed by such person may become valid upon consent or acknowledgment of his or her agent ad litem.
相对人可以催告法定代理人自收到通知之日起三十日内予以追认。法定代理人未作
表示的,视为拒绝追认。民事法律行为被追认前,善意相对人有撤销的权利。撤销应当
以通知的方式作出。
The other party may urge the agent ad litem to make acknowledgment within 30 days upon
receipt of the notice. Where the legal representative does not respond, subsequent confirmation
shall be deemed to have been refused. Before the acknowledgment of the civil juristic act, the
bona fide other party has the right to revoke it. The revocation shall be made by giving a notice.
第一百四十六条 行为人与相对人以虚假的意思表示实施的民事法律行为无效。
Article 146 The civil juristic acts by persons of civil conduct and counterparties under false
expression of intent are invalid.
以虚假的意思表示隐藏的民事法律行为的效力,依照有关法律规定处理。
For the validity of a civil juristic act concealed by giving a false expression of intent, the
relevant provisions of the law shall apply.
第一百四十七条
基于重大误解实施的民事法律行为,行为人有权请求人民法院或者仲裁机构予以撤销。
Article 147 For a civil juristic act that is performed based on a substantial misunderstanding,
the actor has the right to request a people's court or an arbitral institution to revoke such act.
第一百四十八条
一方以欺诈手段,使对方在违背真实意思的情况下实施的民事法律行为,受欺诈方有权请求
人民法院或者仲裁机构予以撤销。
Article 148 For a civil juristic act that is performed by a party against his or her real intention
as a result of fraud committed by another party, the party has the right to request a people's court or
an arbitral institution to revoke such act.
第一百四十九条
第三人实施欺诈行为,使一方在违背真实意思的情况下实施的民事法律行为,对方知道或者应当知道该欺诈行为的,受欺诈方有权请求人民法院或者仲裁机构予以撤销。
Article 149 In the event that a civil juristic act is performed by a party against his or her real
intention as a result of fraud committed by the third party, the party may request a people's court or
an arbitral institution to revoke such act only under the circumstance that the other party knows or
might know about the fraud.
第一百五十条
一方或者第三人以胁迫手段,使对方在违背真实意思的情况下实施的民事法律行为,受胁迫
方有权请求人民法院或者仲裁机构予以撤销。
Article 150 For a civil juristic act that is performed by a party against his or her real intention
as a result of coercion by another party or a third party, the party coerced has the right to request a
people's court or an arbitral institution to revoke such act.
第一百五十一条
一方利用对方处于危困状态、缺乏判断能力等情形,致使民事法律行为成立时显失公平的,
受损害方有权请求人民法院或者仲裁机构予以撤销。
Article 151 Where a civil juristic act is obviously unfair when instituted by a party making use
of another party's dangerous or unfavorable position or lack of judgment, the aggrieved party has the
right to request a people's court or an arbitral institution to revoke such act.
第一百五十二条 有下列情形之一的,撤销权消灭:
Article 152 The right to revoke a contract shall extinguish under any of the following
circumstances:
(一)当事人自知道或者应当知道撤销事由之日起一年内、重大误解的当事人自知
道或者应当知道撤销事由之日起九十日内没有行使撤销权;
1. the party concerned or the party concerned with gross misunderstanding does not
exercise his or her right of revocation within one year or 90 days from the date when he or she
knows or should have known the cause for revocation;
(二)当事人受胁迫,自胁迫行为终止之日起一年内没有行使撤销权;
(II) the party coerced does not exercise his or her right of revocation within one year from
the date when the coercion ceases;
(三)当事人知道撤销事由后明确表示或者以自己的行为表明放弃撤销权。
(III) the party concerned waives his or her right of revocation by an explicit statement or
by his or her own act after he or she knows the cause for revocation.
当事人自民事法律行为发生之日起五年内没有行使撤销权的,撤销权消灭。
Where the party concerned does not exercise the right of revocation within five years from
the date when the civil juristic act is performed, the right of revocation shall be extinguished.
第一百五十三条 违反法律、行政法规的强制性规定的民事法律行为无效。但是,该
强制性规定不导致该民事法律行为无效的除外。
Article 153 A civil juristic act that violates the mandatory provisions of laws and administrative
regulations shall be null and void. Except where the mandatory provision does not render the civil
juristic act null and void.
违背公序良俗的民事法律行为无效。
Civil juristic acts that violate public order and good morals are null and void.
第一百五十四条 行为人与相对人恶意串通,损害他人合法权益的民事法律行为无效。
Article 154 Where an actor colludes with another party to perform a civil juristic act that
damages others' legitimate rights and interests, such act shall be null and void.
第一百五十五条 无效的或者被撤销的民事法律行为自始没有法律约束力。
Article 155 A civil juristic act that is null and void or revoked shall not be legally binding from
the very beginning.
第一百五十六条 民事法律行为部分无效,不影响其他部分效力的,其他部分仍然有效。
Article 156 If part of a civil juristic act is null and void and it does not affect the validity of
other parts, such other parts shall remain valid.
第一百五十七条 民事法律行为无效、被撤销或者确定不发生效力后,行为人因该行
为取得的财产,应当予以返还;不能返还或者没有必要返还的,应当折价补偿。有过错
的一方应当赔偿对方由此所受到的损失;各方都有过错的,应当各自承担相应的责任。
法律另有规定的,依照其规定。
Article 157 When a civil juristic act becomes null and void, or has been revoked or has been
determined as having no binding force, the actor who acquired property as a result of such act shall
return the same; if it is impossible or unnecessary to return such property, compensation shall be paid
at an estimated price. The party at fault shall compensate the other party for the loss it suffers as a
result of the act; if both parties are at fault, they shall bear the corresponding responsibilities
respectively. Where the laws provide otherwise, such provisions shall prevail.
第四节 民事法律行为的附条件和附期限
Section 4 Civil Juristic Acts with Conditions and Time Limits
第一百五十八条
民事法律行为可以附条件,但是根据其性质不得附条件的除外。附生效条件的民事法律行为
,自条件成就时生效。附解除条件的民事法律行为,自条件成就时失效。
Article 158 A civil juristic act may be subject to conditions, except that conditions are not
allowed to be imposed according to the nature of the civil juristic act. If a civil juristic act is subject
to a condition on its entry into effect, it becomes effective upon fulfillment of the condition. The civil
juristic acts with termination conditions shall terminate when the conditions are met.
第一百五十九条
附条件的民事法律行为,当事人为自己的利益不正当地阻止条件成就的,视为条件已经成就
;不正当地促成条件成就的,视为条件不成就。
Article 159 For a conditional civil juristic act, if a party concerned prevents the fulfillment of a
condition by improper means for the sake of its own interests, the condition shall be deemed to have
been fulfilled; where a party concerned hastens the fulfillment of a condition by improper means, the
condition shall be deemed not to have been fulfilled.
第一百六十条
民事法律行为可以附期限,但是根据其性质不得附期限的除外。附生效期限的民事法律行为
,自期限届至时生效。附终止期限的民事法律行为,自期限届满时失效。
Article 160 A civil juristic act may be subject to a time limit, except that the time limit is not allowed to be imposed according to the nature of the civil juristic act. If a civil juristic act is subject
to a time limit in effect, it becomes effective upon expiration of the time limit. If a civil juristic act is subject to a time limit for termination, it ceases to be effective upon expiration of the time limit.
第七章 代 理
CHAPTER 7 AGENCY
第一节 一 般 规 定
SECTION 1 GENERAL PROVISIONS
第一百六十一条 民事主体可以通过代理人实施民事法律行为。
Article 161 A civil subject may perform civil juristic acts through agents.
依照法律规定、当事人约定或者民事法律行为的性质,应当由本人亲自实施的民事
法律行为,不得代理。
Civil juristic acts that shall be performed by the principal himself or herself pursuant to
legal provisions or an agreement between the parties or the nature of such civil juristic acts, shall
not be performed through an agent.
第一百六十二条
代理人在代理权限内,以被代理人名义实施的民事法律行为,对被代理人发生效力。
Article 162 Civil juristic acts that are performed by an agent in the name of the principal within
the scope of the power of agency shall have binding force on the principal.
第一百六十三条 代理包括委托代理和法定代理。
Article 163 Agency shall include entrusted agency and statutory agency. (Related articles: two
articles of laws and regulations)
委托代理人按照被代理人的委托行使代理权。法定代理人依照法律的规定行使代理
权。
An entrusted agent shall exercise the power of agency as entrusted by the principal. The
statutory agent shall exercise the power of agency in accordance with the provisions of the law.
第一百六十四条
代理人不履行或者不完全履行职责,造成被代理人损害的,应当承担民事责任。
Article 164 Where an agent fails to perform or does not fully perform his or her duties, thereby
causing damage to the principal, the agent shall undertake civil liability.
代理人和相对人恶意串通,损害被代理人合法权益的,代理人和相对人应当承担连
带责任。
If an agent and the other party commit malicious collusion, thereby harming the principal's
legitimate rights and interests, the agent and the other party shall be held jointly liable.
第二节 委 托 代 理
Section 2 Delegation
第一百六十五条
委托代理授权采用书面形式的,授权委托书应当载明代理人的姓名或者名称、代理事项、权
限和期限,并由被代理人签名或者盖章。
Article 165 Where a civil juristic act is entrusted to an agent in written form, the power of
attorney shall clearly state the agent's name, the entrusted matters and the scope and duration of the
power of agency, and be signed or sealed by the principal.
第一百六十六条
数人为同一代理事项的代理人的,应当共同行使代理权,但是当事人另有约定的除外。
Article 166 Where a matter is entrusted to several agents, all of such agents shall exercise the
power of agency jointly, unless otherwise agreed by the parties concerned.
第一百六十七条
代理人知道或者应当知道代理事项违法仍然实施代理行为,或者被代理人知道或者应当知道
代理人的代理行为违法未作反对表示的,被代理人和代理人应当承担连带责任。
Article 167 If an agent knows or should have known that the matters entrusted are illegal but
still exercises the agency power, or if a principal knows or should have known that his or her agent's acts are illegal but fails to raise an objection, the principal and the agent shall be held jointly liable.
第一百六十八条
代理人不得以被代理人的名义与自己实施民事法律行为,但是被代理人同意或者追认的除外。
Article 168 An agent shall not perform a civil juristic act in the name of the principal with
himself or herself, unless otherwise with the consent or acknowledgment of the principal.
代理人不得以被代理人的名义与自己同时代理的其他人实施民事法律行为,但是被
代理的双方同意或者追认的除外。
An agent shall not perform a civil juristic act in the name of the principal with any other
party who entrusts such agent simultaneously, unless otherwise with the consent or
acknowledgment of both principals.
第一百六十九条 代理人需要转委托第三人代理的,应当取得被代理人的同意或者追认。
Article 169 Where an agent needs to transfer its agency to a third party, he or she shall seek the
consent or acknowledgment from the principal.
转委托代理经被代理人同意或者追认的,被代理人可以就代理事务直接指示转委托
的第三人,代理人仅就第三人的选任以及对第三人的指示承担责任。
With the consent or acknowledgment of the principal regarding the transfer of agency, the
principal may directly instruct the third party to whom the agency has been transferred the
matters entrusted, and the agent shall only bear the liability for the selection of the third party
and the instructions to the third party.
转委托代理未经被代理人同意或者追认的,代理人应当对转委托的第三人的行为承
担责任;但是,在紧急情况下代理人为了维护被代理人的利益需要转委托第三人代理的
除外。
Without the consent or acknowledgment of the principal regarding the transfer of agency,
the agent shall bear the liability for the acts of the third party to whom the agency has been
transferred, except where it is necessary for the agent to transfer the agency to a third party in an
emergency in order to safeguard the interests of the principal.
第一百七十条
执行法人或者非法人组织工作任务的人员,就其职权范围内的事项,以法人或者非法人组织的名义实施的民事法律行为,对法人或者非法人组织发生效力。
Article 170 Civil juristic acts that are performed by a person who performs work tasks for a
legal person or an unincorporated association on matters within his or her scope of functions and
powers in the name of the legal person or the unincorporated association shall have binding force on such legal person or unincorporated association.
法人或者非法人组织对执行其工作任务的人员职权范围的限制,不得对抗善意相对人。
Any restrictions imposed by the legal person or unincorporated association on the scope of
functions and powers of the person performing work tasks for the legal person or unincorporated
association shall not be a valid defense against any bona fide other party.
第一百七十一条
行为人没有代理权、超越代理权或者代理权终止后,仍然实施代理行为,未经被代理人追认
的,对被代理人不发生效力。
Article 171 Any acts of agency continually performed by an actor without the power of agency,
beyond the scope of his or her power of agency or after his or her power of agency has expired shall
not be binding on the principal without the acknowledgement of such principal.
相对人可以催告被代理人自收到通知之日起三十日内予以追认。被代理人未作表示
的,视为拒绝追认。行为人实施的行为被追认前,善意相对人有撤销的权利。撤销应当
以通知的方式作出。
The counterparties may urge the principals to confirm the conducts within 30 days of the
date of receipt of the notice. Where the principal does not respond, subsequent confirmation shall
be deemed to have been refused. Before the acknowledgment of the acts performed by an actor,
the bona fide other party has the right of revocation. The revocation shall be made by giving a
notice.
行为人实施的行为未被追认的,善意相对人有权请求行为人履行债务或者就其受到
的损害请求行为人赔偿。但是,赔偿的范围不得超过被代理人追认时相对人所能获得的
利益。
Where the principal refuses to acknowledge such acts performed by an actor, the bona fide
other party has the right to request the actor to perform obligations or pay compensation for any
injury incurred. However, the scope of compensation shall not exceed the benefits obtained by the other party at the time of ratification by the principal.
相对人知道或者应当知道行为人无权代理的,相对人和行为人按照各自的过错承担
责任。
Where the other party knows or should have known that the actor has no power of agency,
the other party and the actor shall respectively bear the liability according to their own faults.
第一百七十二条
行为人没有代理权、超越代理权或者代理权终止后,仍然实施代理行为,相对人有理由相信
行为人有代理权的,代理行为有效。
Article 172 For any acts of agency continually performed by an actor without the power of
agency, beyond the scope of his or her power of agency or after his or her power of agency has
expired, such acts of agency shall be valid if the other party has reasons to believe that the actor has
the power of agency.
第三节 代 理 终 止
Section 3 — Termination of Agency
第一百七十三条 有下列情形之一的,委托代理终止:
Article 173 An entrusted agency shall be terminated under any of the following circumstances:
(一)代理期限届满或者代理事务完成;
1. when the period of agency expires or when the tasks entrusted are completed;
(二)被代理人取消委托或者代理人辞去委托;
(II) when the principal dissolves the entrustment or the agent declines the entrustment;
(三)代理人丧失民事行为能力;
(III) when the principal loses his or her capacity for civil conduct;
(四)代理人或者被代理人死亡;
(IV) Where the agent or the principal dies; or
(五)作为代理人或者被代理人的法人、非法人组织终止。
(V) a legal person or an unincorporated association acting as the principal or an agent is
terminated.
第一百七十四条
被代理人死亡后,有下列情形之一的,委托代理人实施的代理行为有效:
Article 174 The acts of agency performed by an entrusted agent after the principal dies shall
be valid under any of the following circumstances:
(一)代理人不知道且不应当知道被代理人死亡;
1. the agent does not know and should not have known that the principal has died;
(二)被代理人的继承人予以承认;
(II) Where the successors of the principal acknowledge such acts;
(三)授权中明确代理权在代理事务完成时终止;
(III) The power of attorney explicitly states that the power of agency shall terminate upon
completion of the matters entrusted; or
(四)被代理人死亡前已经实施,为了被代理人的继承人的利益继续代理。
(IV) Where such acts have been performed before the principal dies and continue for the
sake of the principal's successors.
作为被代理人的法人、非法人组织终止的,参照适用前款规定。
Where a legal person or an unincorporated association acting as the principal is terminated,
the provisions of the preceding paragraph shall apply mutatis mutandis.
第一百七十五条 有下列情形之一的,法定代理终止:
Article 175 The statutory agency shall be terminated under any of the following circumstances:
(一)被代理人取得或者恢复完全民事行为能力;
1. the principal obtains or recovers the full capacity for civil conduct;
(二)代理人丧失民事行为能力;
(II) when the principal loses his or her capacity for civil conduct;
(三)代理人或者被代理人死亡;
(III) Where the agent or the principal dies; or
(四)法律规定的其他情形。
(IV) other circumstances stipulated by the law arise.
第八章 民 事 责 任
Chapter 8 Civil Liabilities
第一百七十六条
民事主体依照法律规定或者按照当事人约定,履行民事义务,承担民事责任。
Article 176 A civil subject shall fulfill his or her civil obligations and bear civil liability in
accordance with provisions of the law or agreements reached between the parties concerned.
第一百七十七条
二人以上依法承担按份责任,能够确定责任大小的,各自承担相应的责任;难以确定责任大
小的,平均承担责任。
Article 177 Where two or more persons share civil liability according to the law, they shall
bear the corresponding civil liability respectively if their respective liability can be determined; or
evenly undertake civil liability if it is difficult to determine their respective liability.
第一百七十八条
二人以上依法承担连带责任的,权利人有权请求部分或者全部连带责任人承担责任。
Article 178 Where two or more persons are jointly held liable according to the law, the obligee
is entitled to request part or all of the persons jointly held liable to bear the relevant liability.
连带责任人的责任份额根据各自责任大小确定;难以确定责任大小的,平均承担责
任。实际承担责任超过自己责任份额的连带责任人,有权向其他连带责任人追偿。
The share of liability of persons jointly held liable shall be determined based on the liability
borne respectively; and they shall evenly undertake the liability if it is difficult to determine the
liability borne respectively. Where liability actually borne by a person jointly held liable exceeds
his or her share of liability, he or she is entitled to claim compensation from other persons jointly
held liable.
连带责任,由法律规定或者当事人约定。
The joint and several liability shall be provided by law or agreed by the parties.
第一百七十九条 承担民事责任的方式主要有:
Article 179 The methods of bearing civil liability mainly include:
(一)停止侵害;
1. cessation of infringements;
(二)排除妨碍;
(II) Removal of obstacles;
(三)消除危险;
(III) elimination of dangers;
(四)返还财产;
(IV) return of property;
(五)恢复原状;
(V) restoration to the original condition;
(六)修理、重作、更换;
(VI) repair, reworking or replacement;
(七)继续履行;
(VII) Continuous performance;
(八)赔偿损失;
(VIII) compensation for losses;
(九)支付违约金;
(IX) payment of damages for breach of contract;
(十)消除影响、恢复名誉;
(X) elimination of ill effects and rehabilitation of reputation; and
(十一)赔礼道歉。
(XI) extension of an apology.
法律规定惩罚性赔偿的,依照其规定。
Where the law contains provisions on punitive compensation, such provisions shall apply.
本条规定的承担民事责任的方式,可以单独适用,也可以合并适用。
The ways of bearing civil liability set forth in this Article may be applied exclusively or
concurrently.
第一百八十条
因不可抗力不能履行民事义务的,不承担民事责任。法律另有规定的,依照其规定。
Article 180 If civil obligations fail to be performed due to force majeure, no civil liability shall be borne. Where the laws provide otherwise, such provisions shall prevail.
不可抗力是不能预见、不能避免且不能克服的客观情况。
Force majeure is unforeseeable, unavoidable and insurmountable objective events.
第一百八十一条 因正当防卫造成损害的,不承担民事责任。
Article 181 A person who causes harm in exercising a justifiable defense shall not bear civil
liability.
正当防卫超过必要的限度,造成不应有的损害的,正当防卫人应当承担适当的民事
责任。
If such justifiable defense exceeds the limits of necessity and undue harm is caused, the
person exercising such justifiable defense shall bear civil liability on a reasonable basis.
第一百八十二条 因紧急避险造成损害的,由引起险情发生的人承担民事责任。
Article 182 If an injury is caused by an action taken to avoid an imminent danger, the person who gave rise to such danger shall bear civil liability.
危险由自然原因引起的,紧急避险人不承担民事责任,可以给予适当补偿。
If the danger arose from natural causes, the person acting to avoid such danger shall not
bear civil liability, and may pay reasonable compensation.
紧急避险采取措施不当或者超过必要的限度,造成不应有的损害的,紧急避险人应
当承担适当的民事责任。
If the action taken to avoid such danger is improper or exceeds the limit of necessity and
undue harm is caused, the person acting to avoid such danger shall bear civil liability on a
reasonable basis.
第一百八十三条
因保护他人民事权益使自己受到损害的,由侵权人承担民事责任,受益人可以给予适当补偿。没有侵权人、侵权人逃逸或者无力承担民事责任,受害人请求补偿的,受益人应当给予适当补偿。
Article 183 Where a person acts in order to protect any other's civil rights and interests, thereby
harming himself or herself, the infringer shall bear civil liability and the beneficiary may pay
reasonable compensation. Where there is no infringer, or the infringer has fled or is unable to bear civil liability, the beneficiary shall pay appropriate compensation if the infringed claims
compensation.
第一百八十四条 因自愿实施紧急救助行为造成受助人损害的,救助人不承担民事责任。
Article 184 A person who causes harm to any recipient in volunteering to provide emergency
relief shall not bear civil liability.) >
第一百八十五条
侵害英雄烈士等的姓名、肖像、名誉、荣誉,损害社会公共利益的,应当承担民事责任。
Article 185 Any party that damages the public interests by infringing upon the name, portrait,
reputation or honor of a hero or a martyr shall bear civil liability.
第一百八十六条
因当事人一方的违约行为,损害对方人身权益、财产权益的,受损害方有权选择请求其承担
违约责任或者侵权责任。
Article 186 Where a party concerned breaches an agreement, thus causing harm to the other
party's personal or property rights and interests, the aggrieved party has the right to request such
party to assume the liability for the breach or for the infringement.
第一百八十七条
民事主体因同一行为应当承担民事责任、行政责任和刑事责任的,承担行政责任或者刑事责
任不影响承担民事责任;民事主体的财产不足以支付的,优先用于承担民事责任。
Article 187 Where a civil subject shall bear civil liability, administrative liability and criminal
liability simultaneously for a single act, the administrative liability or criminal liability borne does
not affect the civil liability to be borne; where the civil subject's property is insufficient to cover the
payment, the property shall be used in the first place for civil liability purposes.
第九章 诉 讼 时 效
Chapter 9 Limitation of Actions
第一百八十八条
向人民法院请求保护民事权利的诉讼时效期间为三年。法律另有规定的,依照其规定。
Article 188 The limitation of action regarding applications to a people's court for protection of
civil rights shall be three years. Where the laws provide otherwise, such provisions shall prevail.
诉讼时效期间自权利人知道或者应当知道权利受到损害以及义务人之日起计算。法
律另有规定的,依照其规定。但是,自权利受到损害之日起超过二十年的,人民法院不
予保护,有特殊情况的,人民法院可以根据权利人的申请决定延长。
A limitation of action shall run from the date when an obligee knows or should have known
that his or her rights have been infringed and who the obligor is. Where the laws provide
otherwise, such provisions shall prevail. However, the people's court shall not protect his or her
rights if 20 years have passed since the infringement. Under special circumstances, the people's
court may decide to extend the limitation of action upon application filed by the obligee.
第一百八十九条
当事人约定同一债务分期履行的,诉讼时效期间自最后一期履行期限届满之日起计算。
Article 189 Where the parties concerned have agreed that the same obligation will be
performed in installments, the limitation of action shall run from the date when the time limit for
payment of the last installment expires.
第一百九十条
无民事行为能力人或者限制民事行为能力人对其法定代理人的请求权的诉讼时效期间,自该
法定代理终止之日起计算。
Article 190 The limitation of action for the right of claim between a person who has no or
limited capacity for civil conduct and his or her agent ad litem shall run from the date when the
statutory agency is terminated.
第一百九十一条
未成年人遭受性侵害的损害赔偿请求权的诉讼时效期间,自受害人年满十八周岁之日起计算。
Article 191 The limitation of action for the right of claim for compensation for damage of a
minor who suffers from sexual assault shall run from the date when the victim reaches the age of 18.
第一百九十二条 诉讼时效期间届满的,义务人可以提出不履行义务的抗辩。
Article 192 When the limitation of action expires, an obligor may raise a plea of not fulfilling
his or her obligations.
诉讼时效期间届满后,义务人同意履行的,不得以诉讼时效期间届满为由抗辩;义
务人已经自愿履行的,不得请求返还。
If the obligor agrees to fulfill his or her obligations after the expiration of the limitation of
action, he or she shall not raise a plea on the ground of the expiration of the limitation of action;
if the obligor has fulfilled his or her obligations voluntarily, no request for return may be made.
第一百九十三条 人民法院不得主动适用诉讼时效的规定。
Article 193 A people's court shall not apply the provisions on the limitation of action actively.
第一百九十四条
在诉讼时效期间的最后六个月内,因下列障碍,不能行使请求权的,诉讼时效中止:
Article 194 A limitation of action shall be suspended during the last six months of the
limitation if the right of claim cannot be exercised because of the following obstacles:
(一)不可抗力;
1. Force majeure;
(二)无民事行为能力人或者限制民事行为能力人没有法定代理人,或者法定代理
人死亡、丧失民事行为能力、丧失代理权;
(II) the person who has no or limited capacity for civil conduct has no statutory agent, or
his or her statutory agent dies or loses the capacity for civil conduct or the power of agency;
(三)继承开始后未确定继承人或者遗产管理人;
(III) neither a successor nor a legacy caretaker has been determined after the
commencement of succession;
(四)权利人被义务人或者其他人控制;
(IV) the obligee is controlled by the obligor or other persons; and
(五)其他导致权利人不能行使请求权的障碍。
(V) Other obstacles that result in the failure of the obligee to exercise the right of claim.
自中止时效的原因消除之日起满六个月,诉讼时效期间届满。
A limitation of action shall expire after six months from the date on which the causes of suspension of the limitation are eliminated.
第一百九十五条
有下列情形之一的,诉讼时效中断,从中断、有关程序终结时起,诉讼时效期间重新计算:
Article 195 A limitation of action shall be interrupted under any of the following
circumstances, and it shall recommence from the time when the interruption or the relevant
procedure is terminated:
(一)权利人向义务人提出履行请求;
1. the obligee claims for the fulfillment of obligations by the obligor;
(二)义务人同意履行义务;
(II) the obligor agrees to fulfill the obligations;
(三)权利人提起诉讼或者申请仲裁;
(III) The obligee files a lawsuit or applies for arbitration; or
(四)与提起诉讼或者申请仲裁具有同等效力的其他情形。
(IV) Other circumstances which have the same effect as filing a lawsuit or applying for
arbitration arise.
第一百九十六条 下列请求权不适用诉讼时效的规定:
Article 196 The limitation of action shall not apply to the following rights of claim:
(一)请求停止侵害、排除妨碍、消除危险;
1. a claim for ceasing infringements, removing obstacles and eliminating dangers;
(二)不动产物权和登记的动产物权的权利人请求返还财产;
(II) a claim of the obligee with real property rights or registered movable property rights
for returning his property;
(三)请求支付抚养费、赡养费或者扶养费;
(III) a claim for the payment of child support, alimony or maintenance; and
(四)依法不适用诉讼时效的其他请求权。
(IV) other rights of claim that shall not be subject to a limitation of action in accordance
with the law.
第一百九十七条
诉讼时效的期间、计算方法以及中止、中断的事由由法律规定,当事人约定无效。
Article 197 The periods, calculation methods, and the reasons for a suspension or interruption
in respect of the limitation of actions shall be prescribed by the law and those agreed by and between
the parties concerned shall be null and void.
当事人对诉讼时效利益的预先放弃无效。
A party's prior waiver of the benefit of the limitation of action shall be null and void.
第一百九十八条
法律对仲裁时效有规定的,依照其规定;没有规定的,适用诉讼时效的规定。
Article 198 Where the law contains provisions on the limitation of arbitration, such provisions
shall prevail; where there is no provision on the limitation of arbitration in the law, the provisions on
the limitation of action shall apply.
第一百九十九条 法律规定或者当事人约定的撤销权、解除权等权利的存续期间,除法律另有规定外,自权利人知道或者应当知道权利产生之日起计算,不适用有关诉讼时效中止、中断和延长的规定。存续期间届满,撤销权、解除权等权利消灭。
Article 199 Unless otherwise prescribed by law, the duration of such rights as the right of
revocation and the right of dissolution stipulated by the law or agreed by the parties concerned shall
run from the date when a right holder knows or should have known that such right is created. The
provisions on the suspension, interruption and extension of the limitation of actions shall no longer
apply to the above duration. At the expiration of the term, the right of revocation, termination and
other rights shall be extinguished.
第十章 期 间 计 算
Chapter 10 Interperiod Calculation
第二百条 民法所称的期间按照公历年、月、日、小时计算。
Article 200 For the purpose of the Civil Law, a time period shall be calculated by the
Gregorian calendar in years, months, days and hours.
第二百零一条 按照年、月、日计算期间的,开始的当日不计入,自下一日开始计算。
Article 201 When a time period is calculated in years, months and days, the day on which the
period begins shall not be counted as within the period; calculation shall begin from the next day.
按照小时计算期间的,自法律规定或者当事人约定的时间开始计算。
When a time period is calculated in hours, calculation of such period shall begin from the
time stipulated by the law or agreed by the parties concerned.
第二百零二条
按照年、月计算期间的,到期月的对应日为期间的最后一日;没有对应日的,月末日为期间
的最后一日。
Article 202 When a time period is calculated in years and months, the same day of the last
month as the day on which the period begins shall be taken as the last day of the time period; where
there is no such same day, the end of the last month shall be taken as the last day of the time period.
第二百零三条
期间的最后一日是法定休假日的,以法定休假日结束的次日为期间的最后一日。
Article 203 If the last day of a time period falls on a Sunday or an official holiday, the day after
the holiday shall be taken as the last day.
期间的最后一日的截止时间为二十四时;有业务时间的,停止业务活动的时间为截止时间。
The last day of a time period shall end at 24: 00. If business hours are applicable, the last
day shall end at closing time.
第二百零四条
期间的计算方法依照本法的规定,但是法律另有规定或者当事人另有约定的除外。
Article 204 The calculation of a time period shall conform to the provisions of this Law, unless
otherwise stipulated by the law or agreed by the parties concerned.

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