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Law & Regulation
Civil Code of the People's Republic of China (Part II Real Rights)
发布日期:2020-12-28 15:44:05
 

第二编 物 权
Part II Real Rights

第一分编 通 则
Subpart I General Principles
第一章 一 般 规 定
CHAPTER 1 GENERAL PROVISIONS
第二百零五条 本编调整因物的归属和利用产生的民事关系。
Article 205 This Part deals with the civil relations arising from the attribution and utilization of
property.
第二百零六条
国家坚持和完善公有制为主体、多种所有制经济共同发展,按劳分配为主体、多种分配方式
并存,社会主义市场经济体制等社会主义基本经济制度。
Article 206 The State upholds and improves the socialist basic economic system, under which
public ownership is dominant and diverse forms of ownership develop side by side, and distribution
according to work remains the dominant form and a variety of other modes of distribution coexist.
国家巩固和发展公有制经济,鼓励、支持和引导非公有制经济的发展。
The State consolidates and develops the public economy, and encourages, supports and
guides the development of the non-public economy.
国家实行社会主义市场经济,保障一切市场主体的平等法律地位和发展权利。
The State implements a socialist market economy, and protects equal legal status and
development rights of all market entities.
第二百零七条
国家、集体、私人的物权和其他权利人的物权受法律平等保护,任何组织或者个人不得侵犯。
Article 207 The real rights of the State, collective real rights, private real rights and the real
rights of other rights holders shall be protected equally by the law and shall not be infringed by any
organization or individual.
第二百零八条
不动产物权的设立、变更、转让和消灭,应当依照法律规定登记。动产物权的设立和转让,应当依照法律规定交付。
Article 208 The creation, alteration, alienation or termination of the real right of a real property
shall be subject to registration in accordance with the law. The creation or alienation of the real right
of a movable property shall be delivered in accordance with the law.
第二章 物权的设立、变更、转让和消灭
Chapter 2 Creation, Alteration, Alienation and Termination of Real Right
第一节 不动产登记
Section 1 Registration of Real Property
第二百零九条
不动产物权的设立、变更、转让和消灭,经依法登记,发生效力;未经登记,不发生效力,
但是法律另有规定的除外。
Article 209 Creation, variation, transfer and extinguishment of real right of real property shall
take effect upon registration pursuant to the law; and shall not take effect without registration, unless
otherwise stipulated by the law.
依法属于国家所有的自然资源,所有权可以不登记。
Registration is not required for natural resources which belong to the State pursuant to the
law.
第二百一十条 不动产登记,由不动产所在地的登记机构办理。
Article 210 The registration of real property shall be handled by the registration organ of the
place where the real property is located.
国家对不动产实行统一登记制度。统一登记的范围、登记机构和登记办法,由法律
、行政法规规定。
The State implements a unified registration system for real property. The scope, authority
and measures for uniform registration shall be specified by the relevant laws and administrative
regulations.
第二百一十一条
当事人申请登记,应当根据不同登记事项提供权属证明和不动产界址、面积等必要材料。
Article 211 In light of the different registration items, an applicant shall, when applying for
registration, provide such necessary materials as the ownership certificate of the real property and the location and area of the real property, etc.
第二百一十二条 登记机构应当履行下列职责:
Article 212 The registrar shall perform the following duties:
(一)查验申请人提供的权属证明和其他必要材料;
1. Examining the ownership certificate and other necessary materials as provided by the
applicant;
(二)就有关登记事项询问申请人;
(II) to inquire the applicant about the registration items concerned;
(三)如实、及时登记有关事项;
(III) Registering the relevant matters in a faithful and timely manner;
(四)法律、行政法规规定的其他职责。
(IV) other duties stipulated by laws and administrative regulations.
申请登记的不动产的有关情况需要进一步证明的,登记机构可以要求申请人补充材
料,必要时可以实地查看。
Where further proof is required for the relevant information of the real property under
application for registration, the registration authority may require the applicant to provide
supplementary materials, and may conduct onsite inspection where necessary.
第二百一十三条 登记机构不得有下列行为:
Article 213 No registration organ may commit any of the acts as follows:
(一)要求对不动产进行评估;
1. to ask for an evaluation of the real property;
(二)以年检等名义进行重复登记;
(II) Repeated registration in the name of annual inspection;
(三)超出登记职责范围的其他行为。
(III) Other acts beyond the scope of registration duties.
第二百一十四条 不动产物权的设立、变更、转让和消灭,依照法律规定应当登记的,
自记载于不动产登记簿时发生效力。
Article 214 As regards the creation, alteration, alienation or termination of the real right of a
real property, it shall go into effect since the day when it is recorded in the register of real property in
case the registration thereof is required by law.
第二百一十五条 当事人之间订立有关设立、变更、转让和消灭不动产物权的合同,除法律另有规定或者当事人另有约定外,自合同成立时生效;未办理物权登记的,不影响合同效力。
Article 215 Where a contract is concluded by the related parties concerning the creation,
alteration, alienation or termination of the real right of a real property, the contract shall come into
force upon the conclusion of the contract, unless it is otherwise prescribed by any law; and the
validity of the contract is not affected, whether the real right has been registered or not.
第二百一十六条 不动产登记簿是物权归属和内容的根据。
Article 216 The register of real property shall be the basis of ownership and contents of real
right.
不动产登记簿由登记机构管理。
The real property register shall be under the management of the registration institution.
第二百一十七条
不动产权属证书是权利人享有该不动产物权的证明。不动产权属证书记载的事项,应当与不
动产登记簿一致;记载不一致的,除有证据证明不动产登记簿确有错误外,以不动产登记簿
为准。
Article 217 A real property title deed is the proof of the right holder's entitlement to the real
property rights. The items recorded in the certificate of real property ownership shall conform to
those recorded in the register of real property; except where there is evidence showing that there is
definite error in the register of real property, those recorded in the register of real property shall be
taken as the standard.
第二百一十八条
权利人、利害关系人可以申请查询、复制不动产登记资料,登记机构应当提供。
Article 218 A rights holder or a stakeholder may apply for enquiry or replication of real
property registration materials, and the registration authorities shall provide the materials.
第二百一十九条 利害关系人不得公开、非法使用权利人的不动产登记资料。
Article 219 The interested party shall not make public or illegally use the real property
registration materials of the right holder.
第二百二十条 权利人、利害关系人认为不动产登记簿记载的事项错误的,可以申请
更正登记。不动产登记簿记载的权利人书面同意更正或者有证据证明登记确有错误的,
登记机构应当予以更正。
Article 220 A rights holder or a stakeholder who is of the opinion that there is an error in the
records of the register of real property may apply for correction of registration. Where the rights
holder recorded in the real property register agrees to make correction in writing or there is evidence
to prove that the registration contains an error, the registration authority shall make the correction.
不动产登记簿记载的权利人不同意更正的,利害关系人可以申请异议登记。登记机构予以异议登记,申请人自异议登记之日起十五日内不提起诉讼的,异议登记失效。异议登记不当,造成权利人损害的,权利人可以向申请人请求损害赔偿。
Where the right holder recorded in the real property register does not agree to the correction,
the interested party may apply for dissidence registration. Where the registration authority grants
dissent registration but the applicant does not file a lawsuit within 15 days from the date of
dissent registration, the dissent registration shall become void. Where the objection registration
is improper and causes the rights holder to suffer damages, the rights holder may seek
compensation for damages from the applicant.
第二百二十一条 当事人签订买卖房屋的协议或者签订其他不动产物权的协议,为保障将来实现物权,按照约定可以向登记机构申请预告登记。预告登记后,未经预告登记的权利人同意,处分该不动产的,不发生物权效力。
Article 221 Where the related parties have concluded an agreement on the purchase and sale of
houses or an agreement on the real right of any other real property, they may apply to the registration
organ for advance notice registration so as to ensure the realization of the real right in the future.
Without the consent of the right holder in the advance-announcement registration, any disposal of the real property after the advance-announcement registration shall be invalid.
预告登记后,债权消灭或者自能够进行不动产登记之日起九十日内未申请登记的,预告登记失效。
Following pre-registration, where the creditor's rights are extinguished or an application for
registration is not made within 90 days from the date on which real property registration can be
made, the pre-registration shall become void.
第二百二十二条 当事人提供虚假材料申请登记,造成他人损害的,应当承担赔偿责任。
Article 222 Where a party concerned provides false materials in an application for registration
and causes others to suffer damages, the party concerned shall bear compensation liability.
因登记错误,造成他人损害的,登记机构应当承担赔偿责任。登记机构赔偿后,可
以向造成登记错误的人追偿。
In case any registration organ causes damages to any other person by virtue of any mistake
in registration, it shall assume the liability for compensation. The registration authority may,
after making compensation, seek recourse against the person responsible for the error in
registration.
第二百二十三条
不动产登记费按件收取,不得按照不动产的面积、体积或者价款的比例收取。
Article 223 Real property registration fees shall be charged per unit, and may not be charged on
the basis of the size, volume or price of the real property.
第二节 动 产 交 付
Section 2 Production and Delivery
第二百二十四条 动产物权的设立和转让,自交付时发生效力,但是法律另有规定的
除外。
Article 224 Unless it is otherwise prescribed by any law, the creation or alienation of the real right of a movable property shall come into force upon delivery.
第二百二十五条
船舶、航空器和机动车等的物权的设立、变更、转让和消灭,未经登记,不得对抗善意第三
人。
Article 225 The creation, alteration, alienation or termination of the real right of any vessel,
aircraft or motor vehicle and so on may not challenge any bona fide third party if it is not registered.
第二百二十六条 动产物权设立和转让前,权利人已经占有该动产的,物权自民事法律行为生效时发生效力。
Article 226 In case a right holder has possessed the movable property prior to the establishment
or alienation of the real right of a movable property, the real right shall come into effect upon the
effectiveness of the civil juristic act.
第二百二十七条
动产物权设立和转让前,第三人占有该动产的,负有交付义务的人可以通过转让请求第三人返还原物的权利代替交付。
Article 227 Where a third party has taken possession of a movable property prior to the creation
and transfer of real right of the movable property, the party under an obligation to make delivery may
substitute delivery by transferring the right to require the third party to return the original property.
第二百二十八条 动产物权转让时,当事人又约定由出让人继续占有该动产的,物权
自该约定生效时发生效力。
Article 228 In case both parties agree to let the transferor continuously possess the movable
property when the real rights of a movable property are transferred, the real rights shall go into effect
upon the effectiveness of the agreement.
第三节 其 他 规 定
Section 3 Miscellaneous Provisions
第二百二十九条
因人民法院、仲裁机构的法律文书或者人民政府的征收决定等,导致物权设立、变更、转让
或者消灭的,自法律文书或者征收决定等生效时发生效力。
Article 229 In case the creation, alteration, alienation or termination of a real right is resulted
from a legal document of the people's court or an arbitration institution or a requisition decision of
the people's government, etc., the real right shall come into effect upon the effectiveness of the legal
document or the requisition decision.
第二百三十条 因继承取得物权的,自继承开始时发生效力。
Article 230 Where real rights are acquired through succession, the real rights take effect upon
the commencement of succession.
第二百三十一条
因合法建造、拆除房屋等事实行为设立或者消灭物权的,自事实行为成就时发生效力。
Article 231 Where real rights are created or terminated as a result of such factual events as the
legal construction or demolition of houses, the real rights take effect upon the accomplishment of the
factual event.
第二百三十二条 处分依照本节规定享有的不动产物权,依照法律规定需要办理登记
的,未经登记,不发生物权效力。
Article 232 In case the real right of a real property enjoyed according to the provisions of this
Section is disposed and registration is required according to law, the real right shall have no effect if
it is not registered.
第三章 物权的保护
Chapter 3 Protection of Real Right
第二百三十三条 物权受到侵害的,权利人可以通过和解、调解、仲裁、诉讼等途径解决。
Article 233 Where real right are infringed, the rights holder may resolve the matter through
settlement, mediation, arbitration, litigation, etc.
第二百三十四条 因物权的归属、内容发生争议的,利害关系人可以请求确认权利。
Article 234 Where there is a dispute over the ownership and contents of real right, an interested
party may request for a confirmation of rights.
第二百三十五条 无权占有不动产或者动产的,权利人可以请求返还原物。
Article 235 Where a person has no right to possess real property or movable property, the rights
holder may request for the return of the original item.
第二百三十六条 妨害物权或者可能妨害物权的,权利人可以请求排除妨害或者消除危险。
Article 236 Where real rights are under obstruction or may be obstructed, the right holder may
request the removal of the impediment or the elimination of the danger.
第二百三十七条 造成不动产或者动产毁损的,权利人可以依法请求修理、重作、更换或者恢复原状。
Article 237 Where damage is caused to the real property or the movable property, the rights
holder may request for repair, redo, replacement or restoration of the original conditions pursuant to the law.
第二百三十八条
侵害物权,造成权利人损害的,权利人可以依法请求损害赔偿,也可以依法请求承担其他民
事责任。
Article 238 In case the infringement upon a real right causes damages to the right holder, the
right holder may require the compensation for the damages or the assumption of any other civil
liability in accordance with the law.
第二百三十九条
本章规定的物权保护方式,可以单独适用,也可以根据权利被侵害的情形合并适用。
Article 239 The ways for protecting real right as prescribed in the present Law may apply
either independently or jointly in light of the specific situation of an injury of real right.
第二分编 所 有 权
Subdivision II. Powers
第四章 一 般 规 定
CHAPTER 4 GENERAL PROVISIONS
第二百四十条
所有权人对自己的不动产或者动产,依法享有占有、使用、收益和处分的权利。
Article 240 An owner of a real property or movable property shall have the right to possess, use,
benefit and dispose of the real property or movable property pursuant to the law.
第二百四十一条
所有权人有权在自己的不动产或者动产上设立用益物权和担保物权。用益物权人、担保物权
人行使权利,不得损害所有权人的权益。
Article 241 An owner shall have the right to create usufructuary rights and Security Right over
its own real property or movable property. When exercising the right, the holder of usufructuary
right or Security Right may not infringe upon the rights and interests of the owner.
第二百四十二条 法律规定专属于国家所有的不动产和动产,任何组织或者个人不能
取得所有权。
Article 242 No organization or individual may acquire the ownership of any real property or
movable property that, as provided for by law, is exclusively owned by the State.
第二百四十三条
为了公共利益的需要,依照法律规定的权限和程序可以征收集体所有的土地和组织、个人的
房屋以及其他不动产。
Article 243 Collectively-owned land and housing properties and other real property of organizations and individuals may be requisitioned pursuant to the authority and procedures
stipulated by the law for public interest needs.
征收集体所有的土地,应当依法及时足额支付土地补偿费、安置补助费以及农村村民住宅、其他地上附着物和青苗等的补偿费用,并安排被征地农民的社会保障费用,保障被征地农民的生活,维护被征地农民的合法权益。
When requisitioning land owned collectively, it is required to, in accordance with law and
in a timely manner and in full amount, pay land compensation fees, resettlement subsidies and
compensations for rural residential houses and other above-ground fixtures as well as young
crops, arrange for social security fees for the farmers with land requisitioned, guarantee their
livelihood and safeguard their legitimate rights and interests.
征收组织、个人的房屋以及其他不动产,应当依法给予征收补偿,维护被征收人的
合法权益;征收个人住宅的,还应当保障被征收人的居住条件。
If any houses or other real property of organizations and individuals are to be expropriated,
compensation for expropriation shall be made to protect the lawful rights and interests of the
expropriated; and if residential houses of individuals are to be expropriated, the housing
conditions of the expropriated shall be guaranteed.
任何组织或者个人不得贪污、挪用、私分、截留、拖欠征收补偿费等费用。
No organization or individual may embezzle, misappropriate, privately divide, detain or
delay the payment of compensation fees for requisition and other fees.
第二百四十四条 国家对耕地实行特殊保护,严格限制农用地转为建设用地,控制建
设用地总量。不得违反法律规定的权限和程序征收集体所有的土地。
Article 244 The State shall implement special protection for arable land, strictly restrict
conversion of agricultural land to development land use, and control the total quantity of
development land use. No one may requisition any land owned collectively with violation of the
statutory power limit and procedures.
第二百四十五条
因抢险救灾、疫情防控等紧急需要,依照法律规定的权限和程序可以征用组织、个人的不动产或者动产。被征用的不动产或者动产使用后,应当返还被征用人。组织、个人的不动产或
者动产被征用或者征用后毁损、灭失的,应当给予补偿。
Article 245 For meeting urgent needs of emergency, disaster relief and epidemic prevention and
control, the real property or movable property of organizations and individuals may be expropriated
in accordance with the authority and procedures prescribed by law. The requisitioned real property or
movable property shall, after its use, be returned to the persons affected by the requisition. Where the real property or movable property of an organization or individual is requisitioned or where it is
damaged or lost after requisition, compensation shall be made.
第五章 国家所有权和集体所有权、私人所有权
Chapter 5 State Ownership, Collective Ownership, Private Ownership
第二百四十六条 法律规定属于国家所有的财产,属于国家所有即全民所有。
Article 246 Property owned by the State as provided by law shall belong to the State, that is, to
the whole people.
国有财产由国务院代表国家行使所有权。法律另有规定的,依照其规定。
The State Council shall exercise the ownership of state-owned property on behalf of the
State. Where the laws provide otherwise, such provisions shall prevail.
第二百四十七条 矿藏、水流、海域属于国家所有。
Article 247 Mineral deposits, waters and sea areas shall be in the ownership of the state.
第二百四十八条 无居民海岛属于国家所有,国务院代表国家行使无居民海岛所有权。
Article 248 Uninhabited sea islands shall belong to the State and the State Council shall
exercise the ownership of Uninhabited sea islands on behalf of the State.
第二百四十九条
城市的土地,属于国家所有。法律规定属于国家所有的农村和城市郊区的土地,属于国家所
有。
Article 249 Urban lands shall be in the ownership of the state. Land in the rural areas and
suburban areas legally owned by the State is owned by the State.
第二百五十条
森林、山岭、草原、荒地、滩涂等自然资源,属于国家所有,但是法律规定属于集体所有的
除外。
Article 250 Natural resources such as forests, mountains, grasslands, wastelands and tidal flats are owned by the State, except for those owned collectively by law.
第二百五十一条 法律规定属于国家所有的野生动植物资源,属于国家所有。
Article 251 As regards the wild animal and plant resources that shall be owned by the state as
provisioned by law, they shall be in the ownership of the state.
第二百五十二条 无线电频谱资源属于国家所有。
Article 252 Radio frequency spectrum resources shall be owned by the State.
第二百五十三条 法律规定属于国家所有的文物,属于国家所有。
Article 253 Cultural relics owned by the State as provided by law shall belong to the State.
第二百五十四条 国防资产属于国家所有。
Article 254 Defense assets are owned by the State.
铁路、公路、电力设施、电信设施和油气管道等基础设施,依照法律规定为国家所
有的,属于国家所有。
Infrastructures such as railways, highways, electric power facilities, telecommunication
facilities, and petrol and gas pipelines legally owned by the State are owned by the State.
第二百五十五条
国家机关对其直接支配的不动产和动产,享有占有、使用以及依照法律和国务院的有关规定
处分的权利。
Article 255 State agencies shall have the right to possess, use and dispose of real property and
movable property under their direct control pursuant to the laws and the relevant provisions of the
State Council.
第二百五十六条
国家举办的事业单位对其直接支配的不动产和动产,享有占有、使用以及依照法律和国务院
的有关规定收益、处分的权利。
Article 256 Institutions established by the State shall have the right to possess, use and,
pursuant to the laws and the relevant provisions of the State Council, benefit and dispose of real property and movable property under their direct control.
第二百五十七条
国家出资的企业,由国务院、地方人民政府依照法律、行政法规规定分别代表国家履行出资
人职责,享有出资人权益。
Article 257 The State Council and the local people's governments shall, in accordance with the
relevant laws and administrative regulations, perform the contributor's duties and enjoy the rights
and interests on behalf of the State for state-invested enterprises.
第二百五十八条
国家所有的财产受法律保护,禁止任何组织或者个人侵占、哄抢、私分、截留、破坏。
Article 258 Property owned by the State shall be protected by law and shall not be occupied,
looted, privately divided, withheld or damaged by any organization or individual.
第二百五十九条
履行国有财产管理、监督职责的机构及其工作人员,应当依法加强对国有财产的管理、监督
,促进国有财产保值增值,防止国有财产损失;滥用职权,玩忽职守,造成国有财产损失的
,应当依法承担法律责任。
Article 259 Institutions and their personnel in charge of administration and supervision of
State-owned assets shall strengthen administration and supervision of State-owned assets pursuant to
the law, promote value preservation and value-add of State-owned assets and prevent losses of State-owned assets; legal liability shall be borne pursuant to the law for abuse of official powers and
dereliction of duties which cause losses of State-owned assets.
违反国有财产管理规定,在企业改制、合并分立、关联交易等过程中,低价转让、
合谋私分、擅自担保或者以其他方式造成国有财产损失的,应当依法承担法律责任。
Whoever, in violation of the provisions on the administration of state-owned property,
causes any loss to state-owned property in the process of enterprise restructuring, merger,
division or related-party transaction by conducting a transfer at a low price, conspiring to divide
up privately, providing a guarantee without authorization or in any other manner shall bear legal
liability in accordance with the law.
第二百六十条 集体所有的不动产和动产包括:
Article 260 Collectively-owned real property and movable property include:
(一)法律规定属于集体所有的土地和森林、山岭、草原、荒地、滩涂;
1. land, forests, mountains, grasslands, unreclaimed land and beaches owned by collectives
as provided for by law;
(二)集体所有的建筑物、生产设施、农田水利设施;
(II) Buildings, production facilities, and irrigation and water conservancy facilities that are
owned collectively;
(三)集体所有的教育、科学、文化、卫生、体育等设施;
(III) Collectively-owned facilities for education, science, culture, public health and sports;
(四)集体所有的其他不动产和动产。
(IV) Other collectively-owned real property and movable property.
第二百六十一条 农民集体所有的不动产和动产,属于本集体成员集体所有。
Article 261 Real property and movable property collectively-owned by farmers shall be
collectively-owned by members of the collective.
下列事项应当依照法定程序经本集体成员决定:
Members of a collective shall decide on the following matters according to statutory
procedures:
(一)土地承包方案以及将土地发包给本集体以外的组织或者个人承包;
1. The land contracting plan and whether to contract land out to organizations or
individuals that are not part of the collective concerned;
(二)个别土地承包经营权人之间承包地的调整;
(II) The adjustment of contracted land among the rights holders of the contracted
management of land;
(三)土地补偿费等费用的使用、分配办法;
(III) the methods for using and distributing land compensation fees and other expenses;
(四)集体出资的企业的所有权变动等事项;
(IV) The alteration of ownership or any other related issue of an enterprise invested by the
collective;
(五)法律规定的其他事项。
(V) other matters as stipulated by law.
第二百六十二条
对于集体所有的土地和森林、山岭、草原、荒地、滩涂等,依照下列规定行使所有权:
Article 262 With regard to any land, forest, mountain, grassland, wasteland or tidal flat under
collective ownership, the ownership thereof shall be exercised according to the following provisions:
(一)属于村农民集体所有的,由村集体经济组织或者村民委员会依法代表集体行
使所有权;
1. Where owned by a rural collective of a village, the village collective economic
organization or the villagers committee shall exercise the ownership on behalf of the collective
according to law;
(二)分别属于村内两个以上农民集体所有的,由村内各该集体经济组织或者村民
小组依法代表集体行使所有权;
(II) Where owned by two or more rural collectives, all the collective economic
organizations or villagers groups of the village shall exercise the ownership on behalf of the
collective according to law; and
(三)属于乡镇农民集体所有的,由乡镇集体经济组织代表集体行使所有权。
(III) Where owned by a rural collective of a town, the collective economic organization of
the town shall exercise the ownership on behalf of the collective.
第二百六十三条
城镇集体所有的不动产和动产,依照法律、行政法规的规定由本集体享有占有、使用、收益
和处分的权利。
Article 263 As regards any real property or movable property owned by an urban collective, the
urban collective is entitled to possess, use, seek profits from and dispose of it pursuant to the laws
and administrative regulations.
第二百六十四条
农村集体经济组织或者村民委员会、村民小组应当依照法律、行政法规以及章程、村规民约
向本集体成员公布集体财产的状况。集体成员有权查阅、复制相关资料。
Article 264 The rural collective economic organization, villagers' committee or villagers' group shall, in accordance with the relevant laws, administrative regulations, articles of association and
village regulations and villagers' pledges, publicize the situation of the properties owned by a
collective to the members of the collective. Group members shall have the right to access and make
copies of such materials.
第二百六十五条
集体所有的财产受法律保护,禁止任何组织或者个人侵占、哄抢、私分、破坏。
Article 265 Property owned by a collective is protected by law. It is prohibited for any
organization or individual to occupy, fraudulently seize, privately divide or damage such property.
农村集体经济组织、村民委员会或者其负责人作出的决定侵害集体成员合法权益的
,受侵害的集体成员可以请求人民法院予以撤销。
Where the legitimate rights and interests of any member of the collective are infringed upon
by any decision made by a rural collective economic organization, villagers' committee or the
principle thereof, such member may request the people's court to revoke the decision.
第二百六十六条 私人对其合法的收入、房屋、生活用品、生产工具、原材料等不动
产和动产享有所有权。
Article 266 An individual has the right to own his legal income, premise, articles for daily use,
tools for production, raw materials and other real property and movable property.
第二百六十七条 私人的合法财产受法律保护,禁止任何组织或者个人侵占、哄抢、破坏。
Article 267 An individual's legal properties shall be protected by law, any organization or
individual may not encroach, plunder or destroy them.
第二百六十八条 国家、集体和私人依法可以出资设立有限责任公司、股份有限公司或者其他企业。国家、集体和私人所有的不动产或者动产投到企业的,由出资人按照约定或者出资比例享有资产收益、重大决策以及选择经营管理者等权利并履行义务。
Article 268 The State, any collective or individual may invest to establish a limited liability
company, a joint stock limited company or any other enterprise in accordance with the law. Where
the State, a collective or an individual invests the real property or movable property owned by it in
an enterprise, the contributor shall, in accordance with the agreement or on the basis of his proportion of investment, enjoy such rights as return on assets, major decisions and selection of
operators and managers and perform his obligations.
第二百六十九条
营利法人对其不动产和动产依照法律、行政法规以及章程享有占有、使用、收益和处分的权
利。
Article 269 A profit-making legal person has the right to possess, utilize, profit from and
dispose of its real property and movable property in accordance with the laws, administrative
regulations and its articles of association.
营利法人以外的法人,对其不动产和动产的权利,适用有关法律、行政法规以及章
程的规定。
The provisions of the relevant laws, administrative regulations and articles of association
shall apply to rights over real property and movable property of legal persons other than profitmaking legal persons.
第二百七十条 社会团体法人、捐助法人依法所有的不动产和动产,受法律保护。
Article 270 The real property and movable property lawfully owned by social organizations as
legal persons or legal persons of donation shall be protected by law.
第六章 业主的建筑物区分所有权
Chapter 6 Owner's Partitioned Ownership of Building
第二百七十一条
业主对建筑物内的住宅、经营性用房等专有部分享有所有权,对专有部分以外的共有部分享有共有和共同管理的权利。
Article 271 An owner is entitled to the ownership of the private areas including residential
premises or premises used for business purposes within a building, and to the common ownership
and management over the common areas other than the private areas.
第二百七十二条
业主对其建筑物专有部分享有占有、使用、收益和处分的权利。业主行使权利不得危及建筑
物的安全,不得损害其他业主的合法权益。
Article 272 An owner is entitled to possess, use, seek profits from and dispose of the exclusive
parts of the building. No owner may endanger the safety of the building or infringe upon the
legitimate rights and interests of any other owner when exercising his rights.
第二百七十三条
业主对建筑物专有部分以外的共有部分,享有权利,承担义务;不得以放弃权利为由不履行
义务。
Article 273 An owner enjoys the rights and assumes the obligations over the common parts
other than the exclusive parts of the building, and may not refuse to perform the obligations on the
ground of waiving the rights.
业主转让建筑物内的住宅、经营性用房,其对共有部分享有的共有和共同管理的权
利一并转让。
In case an owner transfers his residential house or house used for business purposes within
the building, the common ownership and management right enjoyed by him/her over the
common parts shall be transferred at the same time.
第二百七十四条 建筑区划内的道路,属于业主共有,但是属于城镇公共道路的除外。
建筑区划内的绿地,属于业主共有,但是属于城镇公共绿地或者明示属于个人的除外。
建筑区划内的其他公共场所、公用设施和物业服务用房,属于业主共有。
Article 274 The roads within the building's premises shall be co-owned by the owners, with the
exception of public roads owned by the urban township. Green space within the building's premises
shall be co-owned by the owners, with the exception of public green space owned by the urban
townships or individuals where it is expressly stated. Other public premises, common facilities and
premises used for estate services within the building's premises shall be co-owned by the owners.
第二百七十五条
建筑区划内,规划用于停放汽车的车位、车库的归属,由当事人通过出售、附赠或者出租等
方式约定。
Article 275 The ownership of the parking spaces and garages within the building area planned as vehicle parking spaces shall be agreed upon by the related parties in the manners of selling, gifting
or leasing, etc.
占用业主共有的道路或者其他场地用于停放汽车的车位,属于业主共有。
The parking places, which occupy the roads or other places commonly owned by all owners,
shall be in the common ownership of all the owners.
第二百七十六条 建筑区划内,规划用于停放汽车的车位、车库应当首先满足业主的需要。
Article 276 Parking spaces and garages within the building area planned as vehicle parking
spaces shall first be used to meet the needs of the owners.
第二百七十七条
业主可以设立业主大会,选举业主委员会。业主大会、业主委员会成立的具体条件和程序,
依照法律、法规的规定。
Article 277 Owners may establish an owners' group and elect an owners' committee. The
specific conditions and procedures for the establishment of the assembly of property owners and the
committee of property owners shall be subject to the provisions of laws and regulations.
地方人民政府有关部门、居民委员会应当对设立业主大会和选举业主委员会给予指
导和协助。
The relevant departments of the local People's Government and residents' committees shall
provide guidance and assistance for establishment of owners' groups and election of owners'
committees.
第二百七十八条 下列事项由业主共同决定:
Article 278 The following matters should be decided jointly by the property owners:
(一)制定和修改业主大会议事规则;
1. Formulating and modifying the rules of the owners' congress;
(二)制定和修改管理规约;
(II) The formulation and revision of the management regulations;
(三)选举业主委员会或者更换业主委员会成员;
(III) The election or replacement of members of the committee of property owners;
(四)选聘和解聘物业服务企业或者其他管理人;
(IV) Selecting and dismissing the realty service enterprise or any other manager;
(五)使用建筑物及其附属设施的维修资金;
(V) Using maintenance funds for buildings and auxiliary facilities; and
(六)筹集建筑物及其附属设施的维修资金;
(VI) To raise funds for maintaining buildings and auxiliary facilities;
(七)改建、重建建筑物及其附属设施;
(VII) The renovation or reconstruction of buildings and attached facilities; and
(八)改变共有部分的用途或者利用共有部分从事经营活动;
(VIII) Changing the use of common parts or conducting operational activities by using
common parts;
(九)有关共有和共同管理权利的其他重大事项。
(IX) Other important matters related to common ownership and joint management rights.
业主共同决定事项,应当由专有部分面积占比三分之二以上的业主且人数占比三分
之二以上的业主参与表决。决定前款第六项至第八项规定的事项,应当经参与表决专有
部分面积四分之三以上的业主且参与表决人数四分之三以上的业主同意。决定前款其他
事项,应当经参与表决专有部分面积过半数的业主且参与表决人数过半数的业主同意。
Issues to be jointly decided by the owners shall be voted by the owners whose area of
occupied areas constitutes two-thirds or more of the total number of owners who constitute two thirds or more of the total number of owners. A decision on a matter stipulated in item (6) to
item (8) of the preceding paragraph shall require the consent of three-fourths or more of the
owners who voted on the matter and three-fourths or more of the owners who voted on the
matter. A decision on any other matter stipulated in the preceding paragraph shall require the
consent of more than half of the owners who have voted for more than half of the exclusive areas
and more than half of the owners who voted for such matter.
第二百七十九条
业主不得违反法律、法规以及管理规约,将住宅改变为经营性用房。业主将住宅改变为经营
性用房的,除遵守法律、法规以及管理规约外,应当经有利害关系的业主一致同意。
Article 279 Any owner may not alter a residential house into a house used for business
purposes by violating any law, regulation or management stipulation. An owner shall, when
changing a residential house into a house used for business purposes, obtain the unanimous consent
of the interested owners, in addition to observing the laws, regulations and management stipulations.
第二百八十条 业主大会或者业主委员会的决定,对业主具有法律约束力。
Article 280 Decisions of the assembly of property owners and the committee of property
owners are legally binding on property owners.
业主大会或者业主委员会作出的决定侵害业主合法权益的,受侵害的业主可以请求
人民法院予以撤销。
Where a decision of the assembly of property owners or the committee of property owners
harms the legitimate rights and interests of a property owner, said property owner may request
that the people's court nullify the decision.
第二百八十一条
建筑物及其附属设施的维修资金,属于业主共有。经业主共同决定,可以用于电梯、屋顶、
外墙、无障碍设施等共有部分的维修、更新和改造。建筑物及其附属设施的维修资金的筹集
、使用情况应当定期公布。
Article 281 Funds for maintaining a building and the affiliated facilities thereof shall be
commonly owned by the owners of the building. The funds may, upon the codetermination of the
owners, be used for the maintenance, renewal and reconstruction of elevators, roofs, exterior walls,
barrier-free facilities and other common parts. Raising and use of maintenance and repair funds for
buildings and auxiliary facilities shall be announced on a regular basis.
紧急情况下需要维修建筑物及其附属设施的,业主大会或者业主委员会可以依法申
请使用建筑物及其附属设施的维修资金。
Where there is a need to repair a building and its auxiliary facilities under emergency
circumstances, the owners' group or the owners' committee may apply for use of the repair and
maintenance fund for the building and its auxiliary facilities pursuant to the law.
第二百八十二条
建设单位、物业服务企业或者其他管理人等利用业主的共有部分产生的收入,在扣除合理成
本之后,属于业主共有。
Article 282 Income derived by a developer, estate services enterprise or any other manager
from utilizing the common area of the owners shall, upon deduction of reasonable costs, belong to the owners.
第二百八十三条
建筑物及其附属设施的费用分摊、收益分配等事项,有约定的,按照约定;没有约定或者约
定不明确的,按照业主专有部分面积所占比例确定。
Article 283 The apportionment of expenses and distribution of gains in respect of a building
and its auxiliary facilities shall be determined pursuant to the agreement where available; where no
agreement exists or the agreement is ambiguous, the apportionment of expenses and distribution of
gains shall be determined pursuant to the ratio of the area occupied exclusively by the owners.
第二百八十四条
业主可以自行管理建筑物及其附属设施,也可以委托物业服务企业或者其他管理人管理。
Article 284 The owners of a building may manage the building and affiliated facilities thereof
by themselves or they may entrust a realty service enterprise or any other manager to conduct the
management.
对建设单位聘请的物业服务企业或者其他管理人,业主有权依法更换。
As regards the realty service enterprise or any other manager hired by the construction
entity, the owners are entitled to alter it in accordance with law.
第二百八十五条
物业服务企业或者其他管理人根据业主的委托,依照本法第三编有关物业服务合同的规定管理建筑区划内的建筑物及其附属设施,接受业主的监督,并及时答复业主对物业服务情况提出的询问。
Article 285 The realty service enterprise or any other manager shall, upon the entrustment of
the owners and pursuant to the relevant provisions of Part III of this Law on realty service contracts,
manage the building and affiliated facilities thereof within the building area, accept the supervision
of the owners and make timely replies to the inquiries of the owners about the realty services.
物业服务企业或者其他管理人应当执行政府依法实施的应急处置措施和其他管理措施,积极配合开展相关工作。
The estate services enterprise or manager shall implement emergency measures and other
management measures implemented by the government pursuant to the law, and actively cooperate in the relevant tasks.
第二百八十六条 业主应当遵守法律、法规以及管理规约,相关行为应当符合节约资
源、保护生态环境的要求。对于物业服务企业或者其他管理人执行政府依法实施的应急
处置措施和其他管理措施,业主应当依法予以配合。
Article 286 Owners shall comply with the laws, regulations and management rules, the relevant
acts shall satisfy the requirements for conservation of resources and protection of ecological
environment. Where the estate services enterprise or manager implements emergency handling
measures and other management measures implemented by the government pursuant to the law, the
owners shall render cooperation pursuant to the law.
业主大会或者业主委员会,对任意弃置垃圾、排放污染物或者噪声、违反规定饲养
动物、违章搭建、侵占通道、拒付物业费等损害他人合法权益的行为,有权依照法律、
法规以及管理规约,请求行为人停止侵害、排除妨碍、消除危险、恢复原状、赔偿损失。
As regards any act infringing upon the lawful rights and interests of others, such as
discarding wastes at will, discharging pollutants and noises, breeding animals in violation of the
related provisions, illegally building shelters, occupying passageways or rejecting paying realty
management fees, etc., the owners' congress or the owners' committee has the right, in
accordance with the relevant laws, regulations or management stipulations, to request the actor to
stop the infringing act, remove the impediment, eliminate the danger, restore the house to its
original state or compensate for the losses.
业主或者其他行为人拒不履行相关义务的,有关当事人可以向有关行政主管部门报告或者投诉,有关行政主管部门应当依法处理。
If proprietors or other actors refuse to fulfill their obligations, the concerned parties may
report or complain to the competent administrative department. The competent administrative
department shall handle the case according to law.
第二百八十七条
业主对建设单位、物业服务企业或者其他管理人以及其他业主侵害自己合法权益的行为,有
权请求其承担民事责任。
Article 287 Where a developer, an estate services enterprise or an estate manager or any other
owner has committed an act which harms its legitimate rights and interests, the owner shall have the right to request that the developer, the estate services enterprise or the manager bears civil liability.
第七章 相 邻 关 系
Chapter 7 Adjacent Relationships
第二百八十八条 不动产的相邻权利人应当按照有利生产、方便生活、团结互助、公
平合理的原则,正确处理相邻关系。
Article 288 A neighboring right holder of a real property shall, in accordance with the
principles of facilitating production and living, solidarity and mutual assistance, fairness and
reasonableness, handle the neighboring relationship properly.
第二百八十九条
法律、法规对处理相邻关系有规定的,依照其规定;法律、法规没有规定的,可以按照当地
习惯。
Article 289 In case there exists any provision on the disposal of neighboring relationship in any
law or regulation, such provision shall apply; in the case of no such provision, the neighboring
relationship shall be disposed of in light of the local customs.
第二百九十条 不动产权利人应当为相邻权利人用水、排水提供必要的便利。
Article 290 A right holder of real property shall provide necessary convenience for the
neighboring right holders in terms of the use or drainage of water.
对自然流水的利用,应当在不动产的相邻权利人之间合理分配。对自然流水的排放
,应当尊重自然流向。
The utilization of natural running water shall be rationally distributed among the
neighboring right holders of the real property. The natural current direction shall be respected
when draining natural running water.
第二百九十一条 不动产权利人对相邻权利人因通行等必须利用其土地的,应当提供
必要的便利。
Article 291 A right holder of real property shall provide necessary convenience where a neighboring right holder has to use his land by virtue of passage or for any other reason.
第二百九十二条
不动产权利人因建造、修缮建筑物以及铺设电线、电缆、水管、暖气和燃气管线等必须利用
相邻土地、建筑物的,该土地、建筑物的权利人应当提供必要的便利。
Article 292 Where a right holder of real property has to use a neighboring land or building by
virtue of the construction or repairing of a building, or the laying of wires, cables, water pipes,
heating pipelines or fuel gas pipelines, etc., necessary convenience shall be provided by the right
holder of such land or building.
第二百九十三条
建造建筑物,不得违反国家有关工程建设标准,不得妨碍相邻建筑物的通风、采光和日照。
Article 293 The construction of a building may not violate the relevant engineering
construction standards of the State or obstruct the ventilation, lighting or sunshine of any
neighboring building.
第二百九十四条 不动产权利人不得违反国家规定弃置固体废物,排放大气污染物、
水污染物、土壤污染物、噪声、光辐射、电磁辐射等有害物质。
Article 294 No right holder of real property may discard solid waste or discharge such harmful
substances as atmospheric pollutants, water pollutants, soil pollutants, noise, light radiation and
electromagnetic radiation in violation of the provisions of the State.
第二百九十五条 不动产权利人挖掘土地、建造建筑物、铺设管线以及安装设备等,
不得危及相邻不动产的安全。
Article 295 An obligee of real property may not, when excavating a land, constructing a
building, laying a pipeline or installing an equipment, endanger the safety of any neighboring real
property.
第二百九十六条
不动产权利人因用水、排水、通行、铺设管线等利用相邻不动产的,应当尽量避免对相邻的
不动产权利人造成损害。
Article 296 An obligee of real property shall, when utilizing his neighboring real property for
the purpose of using water, drainage, passage or laying pipelines, try his best to avoid causing
damages to the obligee of neighboring real property.
第八章 共 有
Chapter 8 JOINT OWNERSHIP
第二百九十七条 不动产或者动产可以由两个以上组织、个人共有。共有包括按份共
有和共同共有。
Article 297. Real property or movable property may be jointly owned by two or more
organizations or individuals. Common ownership includes co-ownership by shares and joint
ownership.
第二百九十八条 按份共有人对共有的不动产或者动产按照其份额享有所有权。
Article 298 As regards a commonly owned real property or movable property, a several coowner shall, on the basis of his proportion, enjoy the ownership.
第二百九十九条 共同共有人对共有的不动产或者动产共同享有所有权。
Article 299 As regards a commonly owned real property or movable property, a joint owner
shall, on a common basis, enjoy the ownership thereof.
第三百条
共有人按照约定管理共有的不动产或者动产;没有约定或者约定不明确的,各共有人都有管
理的权利和义务。
Article 300 Each of the co-owners shall manage the jointly owned real property or movable
property in accordance with the terms of the contract. Where there is no agreement or such
agreement is unclear, each co-owner shall have the right and obligation of management.
第三百零一条 处分共有的不动产或者动产以及对共有的不动产或者动产作重大修缮、
变更性质或者用途的,应当经占份额三分之二以上的按份共有人或者全体共同共有人同意,但是共有人之间另有约定的除外。
Article 301 As regards the disposal of a commonly owned real property or movable property, or
any major repair, change of nature or use of a commonly owned real property or movable property,
unless it is otherwise stipulated between the co-owners, the consent of the several co-owners holding
2/3 shares or all joint owners shall be obtained.
第三百零二条
共有人对共有物的管理费用以及其他负担,有约定的,按照其约定;没有约定或者约定不明
确的,按份共有人按照其份额负担,共同共有人共同负担。
Article 302 As regards the management expenses or any other liabilities of a commonly owned
res, in case there exists any stipulation on these, such stipulation shall apply; in the case of no or
unclear stipulation, the expenses shall be assumed by the several co-owners in accordance with their
respective shares or commonly assumed by all joint owners.
第三百零三条
共有人约定不得分割共有的不动产或者动产,以维持共有关系的,应当按照约定,但是共有
人有重大理由需要分割的,可以请求分割;没有约定或者约定不明确的,按份共有人可以随
时请求分割,共同共有人在共有的基础丧失或者有重大理由需要分割时可以请求分割。因分割造成其他共有人损害的,应当给予赔偿。
Article 303 Where the co-owners of a co-owned real property or movable property have agreed
not to partition the property so as to maintain the relationship of co-ownership, such agreement shall
apply. However, where any co-owner has certain significant reasons for partitioning the property, he
may request the partition. Where there is no agreement or such agreement is unclear, a divided coowner may request the partition at any time, and a joint co-owner may request the partition when the
basis for co-ownership no longer exists or he has certain significant reasons. In case any damage is
caused to any other person by division, compensation shall be made.
第三百零四条
共有人可以协商确定分割方式。达不成协议,共有的不动产或者动产可以分割且不会因分割
减损价值的,应当对实物予以分割;难以分割或者因分割会减损价值的,应当对折价或者拍卖、变卖取得的价款予以分割。
Article 304 The co-owners of a commonly owned realty or chattel may decide on through
negotiation the way of partition. Where no agreement is reached, the jointly owned real property or
movable property may be partitioned without impairing its value, the physical object shall be
partitioned; where it is difficult to partition the physical object or its value would be impaired by the
partition, the proceeds from its discounting, auction or sale shall be partitioned.
共有人分割所得的不动产或者动产有瑕疵的,其他共有人应当分担损失。
Where there is any defect in the real property or movable property obtained from the
partition by the co-owners, the other co-owners shall share the loss.
第三百零五条 按份共有人可以转让其享有的共有的不动产或者动产份额。其他共有
人在同等条件下享有优先购买的权利。
Article 305 A several co-owner may transfer his share of the commonly owned real property or
share of the movable property. The other co-owners shall have the right of preemption under the
same conditions.
第三百零六条
按份共有人转让其享有的共有的不动产或者动产份额的,应当将转让条件及时通知其他共有
人。其他共有人应当在合理期限内行使优先购买权。
Article 306 Where a divided co-owner transfers his share of a commonly owned real property
or share of movable property, he shall promptly notify the other co-owners of the conditions for
transfer. The other co-owners shall exercise pre-emptive rights within a reasonable period.
两个以上其他共有人主张行使优先购买权的,协商确定各自的购买比例;协商不成
的,按照转让时各自的共有份额比例行使优先购买权。
If more than two other co-owners exercise the right of first refusal, they shall determine
their respective purchase percentage through consultation; if such consultation fails, they shall
exercise the right of first refusal in proportion to their respective co-ownership shares at the time
of transfer.
第三百零七条 因共有的不动产或者动产产生的债权债务,在对外关系上,共有人享
有连带债权、承担连带债务,但是法律另有规定或者第三人知道共有人不具有连带债权
债务关系的除外;在共有人内部关系上,除共有人另有约定外,按份共有人按照份额享有债权、承担债务,共同共有人共同享有债权、承担债务。偿还债务超过自己应当承担
份额的按份共有人,有权向其他共有人追偿。
Article 307 As regards an obligee's right or a debt generated from a co-owned real property or
movable property, unless it is otherwise prescribed by any law or the third party is aware of the fact
that the co-owner does not have the relationship of joint and several creditor's right or debt, a coowner shall enjoy joint and several creditor's right or undertake joint and several debt in terms of
external relationship. In terms of the internal relationship among the co-owners, unless it is otherwise
stipulated by the co-owners, a divided co-owner shall enjoy the creditor's right or undertake the debt
on the basis of his own share, while a joint co-owner shall enjoy the creditor's right or undertake the
debt on a common basis. Where any several co-owner overpays his share of the debt, he has the right
to recover the overpaid amount from the other co-owners.
第三百零八条 共有人对共有的不动产或者动产没有约定为按份共有或者共同共有,
或者约定不明确的,除共有人具有家庭关系等外,视为按份共有。
Article 308 Where the co-owners of a co-owned real property or movable property have not
agreed on whether the real property or movable property is under divided co-ownership or joint coownership, or such agreement is unclear, unless a family relationship exists between the co-owners,
the real property or movable property shall be deemed as under divided co-ownership.
第三百零九条
按份共有人对共有的不动产或者动产享有的份额,没有约定或者约定不明确的,按照出资额
确定;不能确定出资额的,视为等额享有。
Article 309 A divided co-owner's share of a commonly owned real property or movable
property shall be determined according to his amount of capital contribution in the case of no or
unclear agreement. Where it is impossible to determine the amount of capital contribution, each
divided co-owner shall enjoy an equal share.
第三百一十条 两个以上组织、个人共同享有用益物权、担保物权的,参照适用本章
的有关规定。
Article 310 Where two or more organizations or individuals jointly hold a usufructuary right or
Security Right, the relevant provisions of this Chapter shall apply by reference.
第九章 所有权取得的特别规定
Chapter 9 Special Provisions Regarding Acquisition of Ownership
第三百一十一条
无处分权人将不动产或者动产转让给受让人的,所有权人有权追回;除法律另有规定外,符合下列情形的,受让人取得该不动产或者动产的所有权:
Article 311 Where a person without the disposal right of a real property or movable property
transfers the real property or movable property to an assignee, the owner is entitled to recover the
property; unless otherwise provided by law, the assignee shall obtain the ownership of the real
property or movable property under any of the following circumstances:
(一)受让人受让该不动产或者动产时是善意;
1. The assignee accepts the real property or movable property in good faith;
(二)以合理的价格转让;
(II) Transfer at a reasonable price;
(三)转让的不动产或者动产依照法律规定应当登记的已经登记,不需要登记的已
经交付给受让人。
(III) The transferred real property or movable property that is required by law to be
registered has been registered. Those that do not require registration have been delivered to the
assignee.
受让人依据前款规定取得不动产或者动产的所有权的,原所有权人有权向无处分权
人请求损害赔偿。
Where the transferee has obtained ownership of the real property or movable property
pursuant to the provisions of the preceding paragraph, the original owner shall have the right to
claim for compensation of damages from the transferor with no right of disposal.
当事人善意取得其他物权的,参照适用前两款规定。
In case a related party obtains any other form of real right in good faith, the preceding two
paragraphs shall apply as reference.
第三百一十二条 所有权人或者其他权利人有权追回遗失物。该遗失物通过转让被他
人占有的,权利人有权向无处分权人请求损害赔偿,或者自知道或者应当知道受让人之日起二年内向受让人请求返还原物;但是,受让人通过拍卖或者向具有经营资格的经营
者购得该遗失物的,权利人请求返还原物时应当支付受让人所付的费用。权利人向受让
人支付所付费用后,有权向无处分权人追偿。
Article 312 An owner or any other rights holder shall have the right to recover a lost property.
In case the lost property is possessed by any other person through alienation, the right holder shall
have the right to require the person unauthorized to dispose of the property to compensate for
damages, or, require the assignee to return the original property within two years from the date the
right holder becomes aware of or should have become aware of the assignee. However, where the
assignee purchases the lost property through auction or from a qualified operator, the right holder
shall, when requiring the return of the original property, pay the assignee the amount the assignee
paid for purchasing the property. The claimant, after paying the expenses to the assignee, is entitled
to recover them from the person without disposal rights.
第三百一十三条 善意受让人取得动产后,该动产上的原有权利消灭。但是,善意受让人在受让时知道或者应当知道该权利的除外。
Article 313 After a bona fide assignee obtains the movable property, the original rights on the
movable property shall be terminated. However, the exception is in cases where the bona fide
assignee knew or ought to have known the right at the time of the assignment.
第三百一十四条
拾得遗失物,应当返还权利人。拾得人应当及时通知权利人领取,或者送交公安等有关部门。
Article 314 A lost-and-found object shall be returned to the right holder. The person finding
such object shall inform the right holder to claim it or hand it over to such related departments as the
public security department in time.
第三百一十五条
有关部门收到遗失物,知道权利人的,应当及时通知其领取;不知道的,应当及时发布招领
公告。
Article 315 Upon receipt of a lost property, where the relevant authorities know the rights
holder, they shall promptly notify the rights holder to collect the property; where the relevant
authorities do not know, they shall promptly make a public announcement on collection of lost property.
第三百一十六条 拾得人在遗失物送交有关部门前,有关部门在遗失物被领取前,应
当妥善保管遗失物。因故意或者重大过失致使遗失物毁损、灭失的,应当承担民事责任。
Article 316 The person who finds the property shall, prior delivery of the property to the
relevant authorities, safe keep the property with due care; and the relevant authorities shall safe keep
the property with due care prior to collection by the right holder. Civil liability shall be borne where
the lost property is damaged or lost as a result of willful conduct or gross negligence.
第三百一十七条
权利人领取遗失物时,应当向拾得人或者有关部门支付保管遗失物等支出的必要费用。
Article 317 The right holder of the property, when claiming a lost property, shall pay the finder
or the related department the expenses incurred from the safekeeping of the property.
权利人悬赏寻找遗失物的,领取遗失物时应当按照承诺履行义务。
Where a right holder has offered a reward for finding the property, he shall fulfill his
obligation of granting the reward when claiming the property.
拾得人侵占遗失物的,无权请求保管遗失物等支出的费用,也无权请求权利人按照
承诺履行义务。
Where the person who finds the object misappropriates the object, he/she shall be deprived
of the right to ask for paying the expenses he/she has paid for safekeeping the object or require
the right holder to perform the obligation as promised.
第三百一十八条 遗失物自发布招领公告之日起一年内无人认领的,归国家所有。
Article 318 Where a lost-and-found object fails to be claimed within one year as of the date
when the claiming announcement is published, it shall be owned by the state.
第三百一十九条 拾得漂流物、发现埋藏物或者隐藏物的,参照适用拾得遗失物的有
关规定。法律另有规定的,依照其规定。
Article 319 In case a drift item, an item buried underground or a hidden item is found, the
relevant provisions on the finding of a lost-and-found item shall apply by reference. Where the laws
provide otherwise, such provisions shall prevail.
第三百二十条 主物转让的,从物随主物转让,但是当事人另有约定的除外。
Article 320 Unless it is otherwise stipulated by the parties concerned, the accessory res shall be
alienated together with the alienation of the principal res.
第三百二十一条 天然孳息,由所有权人取得;既有所有权人又有用益物权人的,由
用益物权人取得。当事人另有约定的,按照其约定。
Article 321 The owner shall be entitled to natural fruits of the property. Where there are both an
owner and a usufructuary right holder, the usufructuary right holder shall be entitled to the natural
fruits of the property. Where the parties agree otherwise, their agreement shall prevail.
法定孳息,当事人有约定的,按照约定取得;没有约定或者约定不明确的,按照交易习惯取得。
In the event of an agreement on statutory fruits, the parties concerned shall obtain statutory
fruits in accordance with the agreement. Where there is no agreement or such agreement is
unclear, statutory fruits shall be obtained in light of trading practices.
第三百二十二条 因加工、附合、混合而产生的物的归属,有约定的,按照约定;没
有约定或者约定不明确的,依照法律规定;法律没有规定的,按照充分发挥物的效用以
及保护无过错当事人的原则确定。因一方当事人的过错或者确定物的归属造成另一方当
事人损害的,应当给予赔偿或者补偿。
Article 322 The ownership of property arising from processing, attachment or mixing shall be
determined according to the agreement where available; where no agreement exists or the agreement
is unclear, the ownership shall be determined in accordance with the law; where the law does not
provide, the ownership shall be determined in accordance with the principles of maximizing the
utility of the property and protecting innocent parties. If one party's fault or the ownership of the
property established has caused damage to the other party, compensation or reimbursement shall be
given.
第三分编 用 益 物 权
Subdivision III. Usufruct Rights
第十章 一 般 规 定
CHAPTER 10 GENERAL PROVISIONS
第三百二十三条 用益物权人对他人所有的不动产或者动产,依法享有占有、使用和收益的权利。
Article 323 As regards the real property or movable property owned by another person, a
usufructuary right holder is entitled to possess, use and seek proceeds from it.
第三百二十四条
国家所有或者国家所有由集体使用以及法律规定属于集体所有的自然资源,组织、个人依法
可以占有、使用和收益。
Article 324 As regards the natural resources that are owned by the state or that are owned by
the state but used by the collective as well as those that are owned by the collective as prescribed by
law, the organizations and individuals may possess, use and seek proceeds from them.
第三百二十五条 国家实行自然资源有偿使用制度,但是法律另有规定的除外。
Article 325 Unless the law provides to the contrary, the State implements the system of
compensated use of natural resources.
第三百二十六条 用益物权人行使权利,应当遵守法律有关保护和合理开发利用资源、
保护生态环境的规定。所有权人不得干涉用益物权人行使权利。
Article 326 When exercising his rights, a usufructuary right holder shall comply with the
provisions on protecting, reasonably exploiting and utilizing resources and protecting the ecological
environment. The owner shall not interfere with the usufructuary right holder's exercise of rights.
第三百二十七条
因不动产或者动产被征收、征用致使用益物权消灭或者影响用益物权行使的,用益物权人有
权依据本法第二百四十三条、第二百四十五条的规定获得相应补偿。
Article 327 Where the usufructuary right is terminated or its exercise is affected due to
expropriation or requisition of real property or movable property, the usufructuary right holder has
the right to obtain corresponding compensations in accordance with Articles 243 and 245 of the present Law.
第三百二十八条 依法取得的海域使用权受法律保护。
Article 328 The lawfully obtained right to use sea areas shall be protected by law.
第三百二十九条
依法取得的探矿权、采矿权、取水权和使用水域、滩涂从事养殖、捕捞的权利受法律保护。
Article 329 The mineral prospecting right, the mining right, the water drawing right and the
right to use water areas or tidal flats for breeding or fishery shall be protected by law.
第十一章 土地承包经营权
Chapter 11 Rights to Land Contractual Management
第三百三十条 农村集体经济组织实行家庭承包经营为基础、统分结合的双层经营体制。
Article 330 The rural collective economic organizations shall apply the dual operation system
characterized by the combination of centralized operation with decentralized operation on the basis
of operation by households under a contract.
农民集体所有和国家所有由农民集体使用的耕地、林地、草地以及其他用于农业的
土地,依法实行土地承包经营制度。
As regards the cultivated land, forestland, grassland, and other land for agricultural use that
are owned by farmer collectives as well as those that are owned by the state and used by farmer
collectives, the system of land contractual management shall be adopted.
第三百三十一条
土地承包经营权人依法对其承包经营的耕地、林地、草地等享有占有、使用和收益的权利,
有权从事种植业、林业、畜牧业等农业生产。
Article 331 A holder of rights to contractual land operations shall, pursuant to the law, have the
right to possess, use and benefit from arable land, forest land, grassland, etc. under contractual
operations and the right to engage in planting, forestry, husbandry, etc.
第三百三十二条
耕地的承包期为三十年。草地的承包期为三十年至五十年。林地的承包期为三十年至七十年。
Article 332 The term of contract for arable land is 30 years. The contractual term for grassland
shall be 30 to 50 years. The contractual term for forestland shall be 30 up to 70 years.
前款规定的承包期限届满,由土地承包经营权人依照农村土地承包的法律规定继续
承包。
Upon expiry of the contractual period stipulated in the preceding paragraph, the holder of
rights to contractual land operations may continue contractual operations pursuant to the
provisions of the rural land contract law.
第三百三十三条 土地承包经营权自土地承包经营权合同生效时设立。
Article 333 Rights to contractual land operations shall be created from the effective date of the
contract for contractual land operations.
登记机构应当向土地承包经营权人发放土地承包经营权证、林权证等证书,并登记
造册,确认土地承包经营权。
The registration authority shall issue the certificate of the right to the contracted
management of land or the certificate of the right to forestland contractual management to the
holder, register it in the register so as to confirm such right.
第三百三十四条 土地承包经营权人依照法律规定,有权将土地承包经营权互换、转
让。未经依法批准,不得将承包地用于非农建设。
Article 334 A holder of rights to contractual land operations shall, pursuant to the provisions of
the law, have the right to exchange or transfer the rights to contractual land operations. Without
approval granted according to law, no contracted land may be used for non-agricultural development.
第三百三十五条
土地承包经营权互换、转让的,当事人可以向登记机构申请登记;未经登记,不得对抗善意
第三人。
Article 335 In the event of exchange or transfer of land contracted management rights, the
parties concerned may apply to the registration authorities for registration; no claims may be made
against a bona fide third party interest where registration is not processed.
第三百三十六条 承包期内发包人不得调整承包地。
Article 336 The contract-letting party may not readjust the contracted land within the term of a
contract.
因自然灾害严重毁损承包地等特殊情形,需要适当调整承包的耕地和草地的,应当
依照农村土地承包的法律规定办理。
Where appropriate adjustments need to be made to the contracted arable land or grassland
due to serious damage from natural disasters or other special circumstances, the matter shall be
dealt with pursuant to the provisions of the laws on rural land contract.
第三百三十七条 承包期内发包人不得收回承包地。法律另有规定的,依照其规定。
Article 337 The contract-letting party may not take back the contracted land within the term of
the contract. Where the laws provide otherwise, such provisions shall prevail.
第三百三十八条
承包地被征收的,土地承包经营权人有权依据本法第二百四十三条的规定获得相应补偿。
Article 338 In case a contracted land is expropriated, the holder of the right to the contracted
management of such land has the right to obtain corresponding compensations in accordance with
Article 243 of the present Law.
第三百三十九条
土地承包经营权人可以自主决定依法采取出租、入股或者其他方式向他人流转土地经营权。
Article 339 A holder of rights to contractual land operations may, at its own discretion, transfer
its rights to others by way of lease, equity participation or any other method pursuant to the law.
第三百四十条
土地经营权人有权在合同约定的期限内占有农村土地,自主开展农业生产经营并取得收益。
Article 340 A holder of land management rights shall have the right to occupy rural land within
the period stipulated in the contract, carry out agricultural production and operation independently
and derive gains.
第三百四十一条 流转期限为五年以上的土地经营权,自流转合同生效时设立。当事
人可以向登记机构申请土地经营权登记;未经登记,不得对抗善意第三人。
Article 341 The right to the management of land under transfer with the term of more than five
years shall be established when the transfer contract comes into effect. The parties concerned may
apply to the registration authority for registration of land management rights; no claims may be made against a bona fide third party interest where registration has not been completed.
第三百四十二条
通过招标、拍卖、公开协商等方式承包农村土地,经依法登记取得权属证书的,可以依法采
取出租、入股、抵押或者其他方式流转土地经营权。
Article 342 Where a person enters into a contract for rural land through bid invitation, auction
or public consultation and obtains the ownership certificate after registration according to law, he
may, according to law, circulate his right to land management by means of leasing, buying a stake in, mortgaging or by other means.
第三百四十三条 国家所有的农用地实行承包经营的,参照适用本编的有关规定。
Article 343 Where contractual management is implemented over any state-owned agricultural
land, the relevant provisions of this Part shall be referred to.
第十二章 建设用地使用权
Chapter 12 Right to Use Construction Land
第三百四十四条
建设用地使用权人依法对国家所有的土地享有占有、使用和收益的权利,有权利用该土地建
造建筑物、构筑物及其附属设施。
Article 344 Right to use construction land
The owner of construction land has the right to possess, use and seek proceeds from the land owned by the state, and shall have the right to use the land to construct buildings, fixtures and their auxiliary facilities.
第三百四十五条 建设用地使用权可以在土地的地表、地上或者地下分别设立。
Article 345 The Right to use construction land may be created separately on the surface of or
above or under the land.
第三百四十六条
设立建设用地使用权,应当符合节约资源、保护生态环境的要求,遵守法律、行政法规关于
土地用途的规定,不得损害已经设立的用益物权。
Article 346 Right to use construction land shall be created in conformity with the requirements
for saving resources and protecting the ecological environment, in conformity with the provisions on land use in laws and administrative regulations and without prejudice to any established usufructuary rights.
第三百四十七条 设立建设用地使用权,可以采取出让或者划拨等方式。
Article 347 The right to use construction land may be created through transfer or allotment, or
by other means.
工业、商业、旅游、娱乐和商品住宅等经营性用地以及同一土地有两个以上意向用
地者的,应当采取招标、拍卖等公开竞价的方式出让。
Public bidding methods such as tender, auction, etc. shall be adopted for assignment of land
use rights for profit-oriented land use such as industrial, commercial, tourism, entertainment and
commercial housing, etc., and land use rights for which there are two or more prospective land
users.
严格限制以划拨方式设立建设用地使用权。
Right to use construction land created by means of allocation shall be strictly restricted.
第三百四十八条 通过招标、拍卖、协议等出让方式设立建设用地使用权的,当事人
应当采用书面形式订立建设用地使用权出让合同。
Article 348 In case the Right to Use Construction Land is created through bid invitation,
auction or agreement, etc., the parties concerned shall conclude a written contract on transfer of the
Right to Use Construction Land.
建设用地使用权出让合同一般包括下列条款:
In general, a contract for the grant of Right to Use Construction Land shall contain the
following terms:
(一)当事人的名称和住所;
1. the names and domiciles of the parties concerned;
(二)土地界址、面积等;
(II) Boundaries and area, etc. of the land;
(三)建筑物、构筑物及其附属设施占用的空间;
(III) space to be occupied by buildings, structures and auxiliary facilities thereof;
(四)土地用途、规划条件;
(IV) Land use and planning conditions;
(五)建设用地使用权期限;
(V) Right to use construction land within the prescribed term;
(六)出让金等费用及其支付方式;
(VI) Payments of transfer fees and other expenses;
(七)解决争议的方法。
(VII) dispute settlement method.
第三百四十九条 设立建设用地使用权的,应当向登记机构申请建设用地使用权登记。
建设用地使用权自登记时设立。登记机构应当向建设用地使用权人发放权属证书。
Article 349 For establishing the right to use construction land, an application for registering
such right shall be submitted to the registration organ. Right to use construction land shall be
established upon registration. The registration authority shall issue an ownership certificate to the
holder of the Right to Use Construction Land.
第三百五十条 建设用地使用权人应当合理利用土地,不得改变土地用途;需要改变
土地用途的,应当依法经有关行政主管部门批准。
Article 350 The holder of the Right to Use Construction Land shall reasonably use the land and
may not alter the use purpose. In case the purpose of land use needs to be altered, the approval of the
relevant administrative department shall be obtained.
第三百五十一条 建设用地使用权人应当依照法律规定以及合同约定支付出让金等费
用。
Article 351 The holder of the Right to Use Construction Land shall, according to the legal provisions and the contract, pay transfer fees and other fees.
第三百五十二条
建设用地使用权人建造的建筑物、构筑物及其附属设施的所有权属于建设用地使用权人,但
是有相反证据证明的除外。
Article 352 Unless there is evidence to the contrary, the ownership to buildings, structures and
auxiliary facilities constructed by a person who has the Right to use construction land shall belong to
the person who has the Right to use construction land.
第三百五十三条
建设用地使用权人有权将建设用地使用权转让、互换、出资、赠与或者抵押,但是法律另有
规定的除外。
Article 353 Unless it is otherwise prescribed by any law, a holder of the Right to Use
Construction Land has the right to transfer, exchange, use as equity contributions, endow or
mortgage the Right to Use Construction Land.
第三百五十四条
建设用地使用权转让、互换、出资、赠与或者抵押的,当事人应当采用书面形式订立相应的
合同。使用期限由当事人约定,但是不得超过建设用地使用权的剩余期限。
Article 354 Right to use construction land that is transferred, exchanged, contributed as capital,
donated or mortgaged shall be entered into by the parties concerned in writing. The parties may
agree on the contractual time limit, but the time limit shall not exceed the remaining period of the
Right to Use Construction Land.
第三百五十五条
建设用地使用权转让、互换、出资或者赠与的,应当向登记机构申请变更登记。
Article 355 For alienating, exchanging, using as equity contribution, endowing, or mortgaging
the Right to Use Construction Land, an application for alteration registration shall be submitted to
the registration organ.
第三百五十六条
设用地使用权转让、互换、出资或者赠与的,附着于该土地上的建筑物、构筑物及其附属
设施一并处分。
Article 356 In the event of transfer, exchange, use as equity contribution, endowment, or
mortgage of the Right to Use Construction Land, the buildings, fixtures and affiliated facilities
thereof attached to the land shall be disposed of at the same time.
第三百五十七条 建筑物、构筑物及其附属设施转让、互换、出资或者赠与的,该建
筑物、构筑物及其附属设施占用范围内的建设用地使用权一并处分。
Article 357 In the event of transfer, exchange, use as equity contribution, endowment, or
mortgage of buildings, constructions and auxiliary facilities thereof, the Right to use construction
land occupied by the buildings, constructions and auxiliary facilities thereof shall be disposed of
concurrently.
第三百五十八条 建设用地使用权期限届满前,因公共利益需要提前收回该土地的,
应当依据本法第二百四十三条的规定对该土地上的房屋以及其他不动产给予补偿,并退
还相应的出让金。
Article 358 Where, before the term of the Right to Use Construction Land expires, it is
necessary to recover the land ahead of schedule by virtue of public interests, compensations shall,
according to the provisions of Article 243 of this Law, be given to the houses and other real property
on such land, and corresponding land transfer fees shall be returned back.
第三百五十九条 住宅建设用地使用权期限届满的,自动续期。续期费用的缴纳或者
减免,依照法律、行政法规的规定办理。
Article 359 Right to use construction land for a residential purpose shall be renewed
automatically upon expiration of term. The payment, reduction or exemption of the renewal fee shall
be handled in accordance with the provisions of laws and administrative regulations.
非住宅建设用地使用权期限届满后的续期,依照法律规定办理。该土地上的房屋以
及其他不动产的归属,有约定的,按照约定;没有约定或者约定不明确的,依照法律、
行政法规的规定办理。
The extension of the term of the right to use construction land for non-residential purpose
upon expiration shall be subject to the provisions of the law. Where there is an agreement on the ownership of houses and other real property on the land, such agreement shall apply; where there is no agreement or such agreement is unclear, the ownership shall be determined in accordance with the provisions of laws and administrative regulations.
第三百六十条
建设用地使用权消灭的,出让人应当及时办理注销登记。登记机构应当收回权属证书。
Article 360 Right to use construction land that is terminated shall be cancelled registration by
the transferor in a timely manner. The registration authority shall withdraw the ownership certificate.
第三百六十一条 集体所有的土地作为建设用地的,应当依照土地管理的法律规定办理。
Article 361 Collectively-owned land used as construction land shall be handled pursuant to the
provisions of land administration laws.
第十三章 宅基地使用权
Chapter 13 Right to Use House Sites
第三百六十二条
宅基地使用权人依法对集体所有的土地享有占有和使用的权利,有权依法利用该土地建造住宅及其附属设施。
Article 362 A holder of rights to use residential land shall have the right to possess and use
collectively-owned land pursuant to the law, and have the right to use the land to construct
residential property and auxiliary facilities.
第三百六十三条
宅基地使用权的取得、行使和转让,适用土地管理的法律和国家有关规定。
Article 363 The relevant laws on land administration and the relevant provisions of the State
shall apply to obtaining, exercise and transfer of homestead use rights.
第三百六十四条
宅基地因自然灾害等原因灭失的,宅基地使用权消灭。对失去宅基地的村民,应当依法重新分配宅基地。
Article 364 The right to use house sites shall be terminated where a house site is terminated by
virtue of any natural disaster, etc. A new residential site shall be allocated to villagers affected by the loss of a residential site in accordance with the law.
第三百六十五条
已经登记的宅基地使用权转让或者消灭的,应当及时办理变更登记或者注销登记。
Article 365 Change registration or de-registration formalities shall be promptly completed for
any transfer or extinguishment of registered rights to use residential land.
第十四章 居 住 权
Chapter 14 Right of Abode
第三百六十六条
居住权人有权按照合同约定,对他人的住宅享有占有、使用的用益物权,以满足生活居住的
需要。
Article 366 The holder of the right of dwelling shall, according to the stipulations of the
contract, have the usufructuary right to possess and use the dwelling house of others so as to meet the
need of living and dwelling.
第三百六十七条 设立居住权,当事人应当采用书面形式订立居住权合同。
Article 367 For the establishment of residence rights, the parties concerned shall enter into a
written residence rights contract.
居住权合同一般包括下列条款:
In general, a residence permit contract shall contain the items as follows:
(一)当事人的姓名或者名称和住所;
1. Names or titles and domiciles of the parties;
(二)住宅的位置;
(II) Location of residence;
(三)居住的条件和要求;
(III) the conditions and requirements for residence;
(四)居住权期限;
(IV) the term of residence right;
(五)解决争议的方法。
(V) dispute settlement method.
第三百六十八条 居住权无偿设立,但是当事人另有约定的除外。设立居住权的,应
当向登记机构申请居住权登记。居住权自登记时设立。
Article 368 Residence rights shall be established without compensation, unless otherwise
agreed by the parties concerned. Those who establish residence rights shall apply to the registration
institutions for registration of residence rights. The residence right shall be established upon
registration.
第三百六十九条
居住权不得转让、继承。设立居住权的住宅不得出租,但是当事人另有约定的除外。
Article 369 The residence right shall not be transferred or inherited. Residential houses with
residential rights created shall not be leased except where the parties agree otherwise.
第三百七十条
居住权期限届满或者居住权人死亡的,居住权消灭。居住权消灭的,应当及时办理注销登记。
Article 370 The right of residence shall terminate upon the expiration of its term or upon the
death of the person who has the right of residence. Upon extinguishment of residence rights,
deregistration formalities shall be promptly completed.
第三百七十一条 以遗嘱方式设立居住权的,参照适用本章的有关规定。
Article 371 Where residence rights are established by means of a will, reference shall be made
to the relevant provisions of this Chapter.
第十五章 地 役 权
Chapter 15 SERVITUDE
第三百七十二条 地役权人有权按照合同约定,利用他人的不动产,以提高自己的不
动产的效益。
Article 372 An easement holder shall, according to the contract, be entitled to utilize the real
property of others so as to enhance the efficiency of his own real property.
前款所称他人的不动产为供役地,自己的不动产为需役地。
The real property of another person mentioned in the preceding paragraph is the servient
tenement and one's own real property is the dominant tenement.
第三百七十三条 设立地役权,当事人应当采用书面形式订立地役权合同。
Article 373 The parties concerned shall conclude a written contract of easement to create an
easement.
地役权合同一般包括下列条款:
In general, an easement contract shall contain the items as follows:
(一)当事人的姓名或者名称和住所;
1. Names or titles and domiciles of the parties;
(二)供役地和需役地的位置;
(II) Locations of the servient tenement and dominant tenement;
(三)利用目的和方法;
(III) purpose of use and method;
(四)地役权期限;
(IV) Term of easement right;
(五)费用及其支付方式;
(V) fees and payment method; and
(六)解决争议的方法。
(VI) dispute settlement method.
第三百七十四条
地役权自地役权合同生效时设立。当事人要求登记的,可以向登记机构申请地役权登记;未
经登记,不得对抗善意第三人。
Article 374 An easement shall be created from the effective date of a contract for easement.
The parties concerned may apply to the registration authorities for easement registration if they
request for registration; no claims may be made against a bona fide third party interest where an
easement is not registered.
第三百七十五条 供役地权利人应当按照合同约定,允许地役权人利用其不动产,不得妨害地役权人行使权利。
Article 375 The holder of servient tenement shall allow an easement holder to use the real
property pursuant to the contractual provisions, and shall not hinder the easement holder's exercise of rights.
第三百七十六条
地役权人应当按照合同约定的利用目的和方法利用供役地,尽量减少对供役地权利人物权的限制。
Article 376 An easement holder shall, according to the purpose and method of use as stipulated
in the contract, use the servient tenement, and make efforts to reduce the real right restrictions on the holder of the servient tenement.
第三百七十七条
地役权期限由当事人约定;但是,不得超过土地承包经营权、建设用地使用权等用益物权的
剩余期限。
Article 377 The easement period shall be agreed between the parties concerned; however, the
easement period shall not exceed the remaining period of usufructuary rights such as land contracted
management rights, right to use construction land, etc.
第三百七十八条
土地所有权人享有地役权或者负担地役权的,设立土地承包经营权、宅基地使用权等用益物
权时,该用益物权人继续享有或者负担已经设立的地役权。
Article 378 As regards the easement enjoyed or assumed by a land owner, where such
usufructuary rights as the right to the contracted management of land, the right to use house site, etc.
are created, the aforesaid holder of usufructuary right may continuously enjoy or assume the
established easement.
第三百七十九条
土地上已经设立土地承包经营权、建设用地使用权、宅基地使用权等用益物权的,未经用益
物权人同意,土地所有权人不得设立地役权。
Article 379 Where any usufructuary right such as the right to the contracted management of
land, the Right to Use Construction Land or the right to use house site has already been established
on the land, the land owner may, without consent of the usufructuary right holder, not establish any
easement.
第三百八十条
地役权不得单独转让。土地承包经营权、建设用地使用权等转让的,地役权一并转让,但是
合同另有约定的除外。
Article 380 An easement may not be solely transferred. Unless it is otherwise stipulated by the
contract, where any such usufruct as the right to the contracted management of land, the right to use
construction land, etc. is alienated, the easement shall be alienated at the same time.
第三百八十一条 地役权不得单独抵押。土地经营权、建设用地使用权等抵押的,在
实现抵押权时,地役权一并转让。
Article 381 An easement may not be solely mortgaged. Where land management rights, Right
to Use Construction Land, etc. are mortgaged, the easement shall be alienated upon the realization of
the mortgage.
第三百八十二条 需役地以及需役地上的土地承包经营权、建设用地使用权等部分转
让时,转让部分涉及地役权的,受让人同时享有地役权。
Article 382 When the dominant tenement as well as the right to the contracted management of
land, the Right to Use Construction Land thereon are partially transferred, the transferee shall enjoy
the easement simultaneously in case the easement is involved in the transferred property.
第三百八十三条 供役地以及供役地上的土地承包经营权、建设用地使用权等部分转
让时,转让部分涉及地役权的,地役权对受让人具有法律约束力。
Article 383 When the servient tenement as well as the right to the contracted management of
land, the Right to Use Construction Land thereon are partially transferred, the easement shall be legally binding upon the transferee if the easement is involved in the transferred property.
第三百八十四条
地役权人有下列情形之一的,供役地权利人有权解除地役权合同,地役权消灭:
Article 384 The holder of the servient tenement has the right to rescind the easement contract,
and the easement shall be terminated, where an easement holder:
(一)违反法律规定或者合同约定,滥用地役权;
1. Abusing easement in violation of the law or the contract; or
(二)有偿利用供役地,约定的付款期限届满后在合理期限内经两次催告未支付费
用。
(II) as regards the paid use of servient tenement, upon expiration of the stipulated time
limit for payment, failing to pay fees within a reasonable time limit for two times after being
urged to do so.
第三百八十五条
已经登记的地役权变更、转让或者消灭的,应当及时办理变更登记或者注销登记。
Article 385 Change registration or de-registration formalities shall be promptly completed for
any change, transfer or extinguishment of a registered easement.
第四分编 担 保 物 权
Subdivision IV. Collateral Rights
第十六章 一 般 规 定
CHAPTER 16 GENERAL PROVISIONS
第三百八十六条 担保物权人在债务人不履行到期债务或者发生当事人约定的实现担保物权的情形,依法享有就担保财产优先受偿的权利,但是法律另有规定的除外。
Article 386 Where the obligor fails to pay its due debts or any circumstance for realizing the
Security Right as stipulated by the parties concerned occurs, the Security Right Holder shall have the priority to seek payments from the secured property, unless otherwise provided by law.
第三百八十七条 债权人在借贷、买卖等民事活动中,为保障实现其债权,需要担保
的,可以依照本法和其他法律的规定设立担保物权。
Article 387. In civil activities such as loans and sales, where security is required to ensure the
realization of creditors' rights, the creditor may establish Security Right in accordance with the
provisions of this Law and other laws.
第三人为债务人向债权人提供担保的,可以要求债务人提供反担保。反担保适用本
法和其他法律的规定。
Where a third party provides security to the creditor for a debtor, counter-security from the
debtor may be required. The countersecurity shall be pursuant to the present Law and other
related laws.
第三百八十八条 设立担保物权,应当依照本法和其他法律的规定订立担保合同。担保合同包括抵押合同、质押合同和其他具有担保功能的合同。担保合同是主债权债务合同的从合同。主债权债务合同无效的,担保合同无效,但是法律另有规定的除外。
Article 388 For establishing a Security Right, a security contract shall be entered into in
accordance with this Law and other laws. Security contracts shall include mortgage contract, pledge
contract and other contracts with the security function. A security contract shall be a subordinate one
to the principal contract. Unless it is otherwise prescribed by any law, the security contract shall be
invalid if the principal contract is invalid.
担保合同被确认无效后,债务人、担保人、债权人有过错的,应当根据其过错各自
承担相应的民事责任。
. If a security contract is confirmed to be void and the debtor, security provider or creditor
is at fault, he shall bear the corresponding civil liability according to his fault.
第三百八十九条
担保物权的担保范围包括主债权及其利息、违约金、损害赔偿金、保管担保财产和实现担保
物权的费用。当事人另有约定的,按照其约定。
Article 389. The security scope of the Security Right includes the principal obligation and its
interest, liquidated damages, compensatory damages, expenses incurred in the custody of the secured
property and the realization of the Security Right. Where the parties agree otherwise, their agreement shall prevail.
第三百九十条
担保期间,担保财产毁损、灭失或者被征收等,担保物权人可以就获得的保险金、赔偿金或
者补偿金等优先受偿。被担保债权的履行期限未届满的,也可以提存该保险金、赔偿金或者
补偿金等。
Article 390 Where the secured property is damaged, lost or requisitioned during the guarantee
period, the Security Right Holder may seek preferential payments in respect of the insurance money,
damages or indemnities, etc. obtained in relation thereto. If the term for performing the secured
obligee's rights has not expired, such insurance money, damages or indemnities, etc. may be
submitted to a competent authority for keeping.
第三百九十一条
第三人提供担保,未经其书面同意,债权人允许债务人转移全部或者部分债务的,担保人不
再承担相应的担保责任。
Article 391 Where a guarantee is provided by a third party and the creditor allows the debtor to
transfer all or part of the debt without the written consent of the guarantor, the guarantor shall no
longer bear the corresponding guarantee liability.
第三百九十二条 被担保的债权既有物的担保又有人的担保的,债务人不履行到期债务或者发生当事人约定的实现担保物权的情形,债权人应当按照约定实现债权;没有约定或者约定不明确,债务人自己提供物的担保的,债权人应当先就该物的担保实现债权;第三人提供物的担保的,债权人可以就物的担保实现债权,也可以请求保证人承担保证责任。提供担保的第三人承担担保责任后,有权向债务人追偿。
Article 392 Where a secured creditor's right is secured by property and a guarantor, when the
debtor defaults on its debt obligations or where circumstances for the realization of the security right
as agreed by the parties has occurred, the creditor shall realize the creditor's right as agreed. Where
there is no agreement or such agreement is unclear, and the debtor himself provides security in the
form of property, the creditor's right shall be realized first in respect of the property security. Where
the security in the form of property is provided by a third party, the creditor may realize the creditor's
right in respect of the property security or request that the guarantor assume his guarantee liability.
After undertaking the guarantee liability, the third party has the right to seek recourse against the
debtor.
第三百九十三条 有下列情形之一的,担保物权消灭:
Article 393 The Security Right shall be extinguished under any of the following circumstances:
(一)主债权消灭;
1. The principal obligee's rights are terminated;
(二)担保物权实现;
(II) The Security Right has been realized;
(三)债权人放弃担保物权;
(III) The obligee waives the Security Right; or
(四)法律规定担保物权消灭的其他情形。
(IV) Other circumstances under which the Security Right shall be terminated as provided
for by law.
第十七章 抵 押 权
Chapter 17 Right of Mortgage
第一节 一般抵押权
Section 1 General Mortgage Right
第三百九十四条
为担保债务的履行,债务人或者第三人不转移财产的占有,将该财产抵押给债权人的,债务
人不履行到期债务或者发生当事人约定的实现抵押权的情形,债权人有权就该财产优先受偿。
Article 394 Where an obligor or a third party mortgages his properties to the obligee without
transferring the possession of such properties in order to ensure the payment of debts, if the obligor
fails to pay due debts or any circumstance as stipulated by the parties concerned for realizing the
mortgage right occurs, the obligee has the right to seek preferred payments from such properties.
前款规定的债务人或者第三人为抵押人,债权人为抵押权人,提供担保的财产为抵押财产。
The debtor or third party referred to in the preceding paragraph shall be the mortgagor; the
creditor shall be the mortgagee and the property provided as a guarantee shall be the mortgaged
property.
第三百九十五条 债务人或者第三人有权处分的下列财产可以抵押:
Article 395 A mortgage may be established on the following properties of which the obligor
or third party has the right of disposal:
(一)建筑物和其他土地附着物;
1. Buildings and other objects attached to the land;
(二)建设用地使用权;
(II) Right to use construction land;
(三)海域使用权;
(III) right to use sea areas;
(四)生产设备、原材料、半成品、产品;
(IV) Manufacturing facilities, raw materials, semi-manufactured goods and finished
products;
(五)正在建造的建筑物、船舶、航空器;
(V) Buildings, vessels and aircraft under construction; and
(六)交通运输工具;
(VI) Means of transport;
(七)法律、行政法规未禁止抵押的其他财产。
(VII) Other properties not prohibited from being mortgaged by any law or administrative
regulation.
抵押人可以将前款所列财产一并抵押。
A mortgagor may mortgage all the properties listed in the preceding paragraph together.
第三百九十六条 企业、个体工商户、农业生产经营者可以将现有的以及将有的生产
设备、原材料、半成品、产品抵押,债务人不履行到期债务或者发生当事人约定的实现
抵押权的情形,债权人有权就抵押财产确定时的动产优先受偿。
Article 396 An enterprise, individual industrial and commercial household or agricultural
production operator may mortgage any existing production equipment, raw materials, semi-finished
products and products thereof or those to be owned in future, and where the obligor fails to pay
its/his due debts or any circumstance as stipulated by the parties concerned for realizing the
mortgage right happens, the obligee has the right to seek preferred payments from the movable
property at the time when the mortgaged property is determined.
第三百九十七条 以建筑物抵押的,该建筑物占用范围内的建设用地使用权一并抵押。
以建设用地使用权抵押的,该土地上的建筑物一并抵押。
Article 397 Where a building is mortgaged, the Right to use construction land as possessed by
the building shall be mortgaged together with the building. Right to use construction land that is
mortgaged shall be mortgaged together with the buildings on the land.
抵押人未依据前款规定一并抵押的,未抵押的财产视为一并抵押。
Where a mortgagor fails to mortgage the properties in accordance with the provisions in the
preceding paragraph, the properties not mortgaged shall be deemed to be mortgaged together.
第三百九十八条
乡镇、村企业的建设用地使用权不得单独抵押。以乡镇、村企业的厂房等建筑物抵押的,其
占用范围内的建设用地使用权一并抵押。
Article 398 Right to use construction land of a township or village enterprise may not be
mortgaged separately. Where a building such as factory of a township or village enterprise is
mortgaged, the Right to use construction land within the area of such building shall be mortgaged
concurrently.
第三百九十九条 下列财产不得抵押:
Article 399 The following property may not be mortgaged:
(一)土地所有权;
1. the ownership of land;
(二)宅基地、自留地、自留山等集体所有土地的使用权,但是法律规定可以抵押
的除外;
(II) the right to use such collectively-owned land as homestead, land and hills allotted for
private use, except for those that may be mortgaged as prescribed by any law; and
(三)学校、幼儿园、医疗机构等为公益目的成立的非营利法人的教育设施、医疗卫生设施和其他公益设施;
(III) educational, medical and other public welfare facilities of non-profit legal persons
established for the purpose of public welfare by schools, kindergartens, medical institutions, etc.;
(四)所有权、使用权不明或者有争议的财产;
(IV) properties with unclear or controversial ownership or use rights;
(五)依法被查封、扣押、监管的财产;
(V) properties legally sealed up, seized or under supervision; or
(六)法律、行政法规规定不得抵押的其他财产。
(VI) other properties that cannot be mortgaged as prescribed by any law or administrative
regulation.
第四百条 设立抵押权,当事人应当采用书面形式订立抵押合同。
Article 400 For establishing a mortgage right, the parties concerned shall enter into a written
mortgage contract.
抵押合同一般包括下列条款:
In general, a mortgage contract shall contain the items as follows:
(一)被担保债权的种类和数额;
1. the variety and amount of the secured obligee's rights;
(二)债务人履行债务的期限;
(II) The time limit for the obligor to fulfill obligations;
(三)抵押财产的名称、数量等情况;
(III) The name and quantity of mortgaged property;
(四)担保的范围。
(IV) The scope of guarantee.
第四百零一条
抵押权人在债务履行期限届满前,与抵押人约定债务人不履行到期债务时抵押财产归债权人
所有的,只能依法就抵押财产优先受偿。
Article 401 Where, before the expiration of the time limit for paying debts, the mortgagee and
the mortgagor stipulate that the ownership of the mortgaged property shall be attributed to the
obligee when the obligor fails to pay due debts, the mortgagee may only have priority in getting compensation from the mortgaged property.
第四百零二条 以本法第三百九十五条第一款第一项至第三项规定的财产或者第五项
规定的正在建造的建筑物抵押的,应当办理抵押登记。抵押权自登记时设立。
Article 402 Where any of the property stipulated in item (1) to item (3) of the first paragraph of
Article 395 or a building under construction as stipulated in item (5) is mortgaged, mortgage
registration formalities shall be completed. Mortgage interests shall be created at the time of
registration.
第四百零三条 以动产抵押的,抵押权自抵押合同生效时设立;未经登记,不得对抗
善意第三人。
Article 403 For a mortgage on movable property, the mortgage right shall be established as of
the date the mortgage contract comes into effect. If the mortgage is not registered, the parties
concerned may not challenge any bona fide third party.
第四百零四条
以动产抵押的,不得对抗正常经营活动中已经支付合理价款并取得抵押财产的买受人。
Article 404. The mortgage of movable property may not be used against a buyer who, in the
ordinary course of business, has already paid a reasonable price and obtained the mortgaged property.
第四百零五条
抵押权设立前,抵押财产已经出租并转移占有的,原租赁关系不受该抵押权的影响。
Article 405 Where the mortgaged property has been leased and transferred for occupation prior
to the establishment of the mortgage right, the original leasehold relation shall not be affected by
such mortgage right.
第四百零六条
抵押期间,抵押人可以转让抵押财产。当事人另有约定的,按照其约定。抵押财产转让的,
抵押权不受影响。
Article 406 The mortgagor may transfer the mortgaged property during the mortgage term.
Where the parties agree otherwise, their agreement shall prevail. Where mortgaged property is transferred, the mortgage rights shall not be affected.
抵押人转让抵押财产的,应当及时通知抵押权人。抵押权人能够证明抵押财产转让
可能损害抵押权的,可以请求抵押人将转让所得的价款向抵押权人提前清偿债务或者提
存。转让的价款超过债权数额的部分归抵押人所有,不足部分由债务人清偿。
Where a mortgagor assigns the mortgaged property, he shall timely notify the mortgagee. If
the mortgagee can prove that the mortgage right may be damaged by the transfer of the
mortgaged property, he may require the mortgagor to pay off the debt in advance with the money
obtained from such transfer or submit it to a competent authority for safekeeping. The value
exceeding the obligee's rights shall be attributed to the mortgagor, and the gap shall be paid off
by the obligor.
第四百零七条 抵押权不得与债权分离而单独转让或者作为其他债权的担保。债权转
让的,担保该债权的抵押权一并转让,但是法律另有规定或者当事人另有约定的除外。
Article 407 Mortgage interests may not be transferred independently from the creditor's rights
or used to secure other creditors' rights. Unless it is otherwise prescribed by any law or is otherwise
stipulated by the parties concerned, when the obligee's rights are alienated, the mortgage right
thereof shall be alienated concurrently.
第四百零八条
抵押人的行为足以使抵押财产价值减少的,抵押权人有权请求抵押人停止其行为;抵押财产
价值减少的,抵押权人有权请求恢复抵押财产的价值,或者提供与减少的价值相应的担保。
抵押人不恢复抵押财产的价值,也不提供担保的,抵押权人有权请求债务人提前清偿债务。
Article 408 Where any act of a mortgagor is sufficient to cause a reduction in value of the
mortgaged property, the mortgagee shall have the right to require the mortgagor to cease such act;
where the value of the mortgaged property is reduced, the mortgagee shall have the right to require
the mortgagor to restore the value of the mortgaged property, or provide security equivalent to the
reduced value. Where the mortgagor neither recovers the value nor provides any security, the
mortgagee has the right to request the obligor to pay off the debts in advance.
第四百零九条
抵押权人可以放弃抵押权或者抵押权的顺位。抵押权人与抵押人可以协议变更抵押权顺位以及被担保的债权数额等内容。但是,抵押权的变更未经其他抵押权人书面同意的,不得对其
他抵押权人产生不利影响。
Article 409. A mortgagee may abandon the mortgage rights or the order in respect of mortgage
rights. A mortgagee and a mortgagor may, through negotiations, alter the sequence of receiving
compensation in respect of mortgage rights or the amount of secured obligee's rights, etc. However, a
change of mortgage rights which has not been consented to in writing by the other mortgagees shall
not adversely affect such other mortgagees.
债务人以自己的财产设定抵押,抵押权人放弃该抵押权、抵押权顺位或者变更抵押
权的,其他担保人在抵押权人丧失优先受偿权益的范围内免除担保责任,但是其他担保
人承诺仍然提供担保的除外。
Where an obligor mortgages his own properties, and the mortgagee abandons the mortgage
rights, the sequence thereof or alter the mortgage rights, the other guarantors shall be exempted
from the guarantee liability, to the extent that the mortgagee has lost the right to seek preferred
payments of compensation, unless any other guarantors undertake to continue to provide the
guarantee.
第四百一十条
债务人不履行到期债务或者发生当事人约定的实现抵押权的情形,抵押权人可以与抵押人协
议以抵押财产折价或者以拍卖、变卖该抵押财产所得的价款优先受偿。协议损害其他债权人
利益的,其他债权人可以请求人民法院撤销该协议。
Article 410 When the obligor fails to pay its/his due debts or any circumstance as stipulated by
the parties concerned for realizing the mortgage right arises, the mortgagee may, upon negotiation
with the mortgagor, convert the mortgaged property into money or seek preferred payments from the
money generated from the auction or sale of the mortgaged property. Where the agreement has
harmed the interests of other creditors, the other creditors may apply to a People's Court for
revocation of the agreement.
抵押权人与抵押人未就抵押权实现方式达成协议的,抵押权人可以请求人民法院拍
卖、变卖抵押财产。
Where no agreement on the means of realizing the mortgage right is reached by the
mortgagee and the mortgagor, the mortgagee may require the people's court to auction or sell off
the mortgaged property.
抵押财产折价或者变卖的,应当参照市场价格。
When cashing or selling the mortgaged property, its market price shall be referred to.
第四百一十一条
依据本法第三百九十六条规定设定抵押的,抵押财产自下列情形之一发生时确定:
Article 411 As regards the mortgage created in accordance with Article 396 of the present
Law, the mortgaged property shall be determined when any of the following circumstances arises:
(一)债务履行期限届满,债权未实现;
1. Upon expiration of the time limit for paying debts, the obligee's rights have not been
realized;
(二)抵押人被宣告破产或者解散;
(II) The mortgagor is declared bankrupt or dissolved;
(三)当事人约定的实现抵押权的情形;
(III) Other circumstances as stipulated by the parties concerned for realizing the mortgage
right; or
(四)严重影响债权实现的其他情形。
(IV) Any other circumstance seriously impacting the realization of obligee's rights.
第四百一十二条
债务人不履行到期债务或者发生当事人约定的实现抵押权的情形,致使抵押财产被人民法院
依法扣押的,自扣押之日起,抵押权人有权收取该抵押财产的天然孳息或者法定孳息,但是
抵押权人未通知应当清偿法定孳息义务人的除外。
Article 412 When the obligor fails to pay its/his due debts or any circumstance as stipulated by
the parties concerned for realizing the mortgage right arises, and as a result of which the mortgaged
property is seized by the people's court in accordance with the law, the mortgagee has the right to
collect natural or statutory fruits of the mortgaged property as of the date of seizure, unless the
mortgagee fails to notify the obligor for statutory fruits that it/he shall pay off statutory fruits.
前款规定的孳息应当先充抵收取孳息的费用。
The "fruits" as referred to in the preceding paragraph shall be firstly used for paying the
expenses for collecting the fruits.
第四百一十三条
抵押财产折价或者拍卖、变卖后,其价款超过债权数额的部分归抵押人所有,不足部分由债务人清偿。
Article 413 Any proceeds from the discount, auction or sale of mortgaged property in excess of
the amount of the obligation shall belong to the mortgagor and any shortfall shall be borne by the
debtor.
第四百一十四条
同一财产向两个以上债权人抵押的,拍卖、变卖抵押财产所得的价款依照下列规定清偿:
Article 414 Where a property is mortgaged to two or more creditors, the proceeds from the
auction or sale of the mortgaged property shall be applied to paying debts in accordance with the
following provisions:
(一)抵押权已经登记的,按照登记的时间先后确定清偿顺序;
1. where the mortgage rights have been registered, the repayment order shall be determined
in light of the order of registration; and
(二)抵押权已经登记的先于未登记的受偿;
(II) The registered mortgage rights shall have priority over the unregistered ones for
compensation; and
(三)抵押权未登记的,按照债权比例清偿。
(III) Where no mortgage rights are registered, the payments shall be made on the basis of
the proportion of obligee’s rights.
其他可以登记的担保物权,清偿顺序参照适用前款规定。
Other Security Right that may be registered, The provisions of the preceding paragraph
shall apply mutatis mutandis to the order of repayment.
第四百一十五条
同一财产既设立抵押权又设立质权的,拍卖、变卖该财产所得的价款按照登记、交付的时间
先后确定清偿顺序。
Article 415 Where both a mortgage and a pledge are created on the same property, the
sequence of repayment from the proceeds of the auction or sale of such property shall be determined
according to the time of registration and delivery.
第四百一十六条
动产抵押担保的主债权是抵押物的价款,标的物交付后十日内办理抵押登记的,该抵押权人
优先于抵押物买受人的其他担保物权人受偿,但是留置权人除外。
Article 416 Where the principal obligation secured by a mortgage on movable property is the
price of the mortgaged property and mortgage registration formalities are completed within 10 days
after the delivery of the subject matter, the mortgagee shall have priority over other security right
holders in the buyer of the mortgaged property in receiving payment, except for the lienor.
第四百一十七条 建设用地使用权抵押后,该土地上新增的建筑物不属于抵押财产。
该建设用地使用权实现抵押权时,应当将该土地上新增的建筑物与建设用地使用权一并
处分。但是,新增建筑物所得的价款,抵押权人无权优先受偿。
Article 417 Buildings newly constructed on the land after the mortgage of the Right to Use
Construction Land shall not belong to the mortgaged property. When the mortgage right is realized
on the Right to Use Construction Land, any newly constructed building on such land shall be
disposed together with the Right to Use Construction Land. However, the mortgagee has no right to
be paid in priority with the money obtained from the newly added buildings.
第四百一十八条
以集体所有土地的使用权依法抵押的,实现抵押权后,未经法定程序,不得改变土地所有权
的性质和土地用途。
Article 418. Where collectively owned land use rights are mortgaged in accordance with the
law, following the realization of mortgage rights the nature of the land ownership rights and the
purpose of the land use must not be altered without undergoing the statutory procedures.
第四百一十九条
抵押权人应当在主债权诉讼时效期间行使抵押权;未行使的,人民法院不予保护。
Article 419 A mortgagee shall, within the limitation of action for the principal obligee's rights,
exercise the mortgage right, otherwise, such mortgage right will not be protected by the people's
court.
第二节 最高额抵押权
Section 2 Mortgage Right at Maximum Amount
第四百二十条
为担保债务的履行,债务人或者第三人对一定期间内将要连续发生的债权提供担保财产的,
债务人不履行到期债务或者发生当事人约定的实现抵押权的情形,抵押权人有权在最高债权
额限度内就该担保财产优先受偿。
Article 420 Where an obligor or third party, for the purpose of guaranteeing the payment
of debts, provides mortgaged properties for the obligee's rights that will continuously happen
within a certain term, and the obligor fails to pay its/his due debts or any circumstance as
stipulated by the parties concerned for realizing the mortgage right happens, the mortgagee
has the right to seek preferred payments from the secured properties within the maximum
amount of obligee's rights.
最高额抵押权设立前已经存在的债权,经当事人同意,可以转入最高额抵押担保的
债权范围。
The obligee's rights existing prior to the establishment of the mortgage right at maximum
amount may, upon the consent of the parties concerned, be incorporated into the scope of
obligee's rights under the mortgage security at maximum amount.
第四百二十一条
最高额抵押担保的债权确定前,部分债权转让的,最高额抵押权不得转让,但是当事人另有
约定的除外。
Article 421 Where part of an obligee's rights are transferred prior to the establishment of the
maximum amount of mortgage security, the maximum amount of mortgage rights may not be
transferred unless otherwise stipulated by the parties concerned.
第四百二十二条
最高额抵押担保的债权确定前,抵押权人与抵押人可以通过协议变更债权确定的期间、债权
范围以及最高债权额。但是,变更的内容不得对其他抵押权人产生不利影响。
Article 422 A mortgagee and a mortgagor may, by agreement, alter the period of confirmation,
the scope and maximum amount of creditors' rights before the creditors' rights secured by maximum
amount of mortgage interests are confirmed. However, the content of the change shall not have
adverse effect on other mortgagees.
第四百二十三条 有下列情形之一的,抵押权人的债权确定:
Article 423 The obligee's rights of a mortgagee shall be confirmed under any of the following
circumstances:
(一)约定的债权确定期间届满;
1. The stipulated term for the confirmation of the obligee’s rights expires;
(二)没有约定债权确定期间或者约定不明确,抵押权人或者抵押人自最高额抵押
权设立之日起满二年后请求确定债权;
(II) Where there is no agreement on the confirmation period or such agreement is unclear,
the mortgagee or the mortgagor may require confirmation of the obligee’s rights after two years
from the date the maximum amount of mortgage rights is created;
(三)新的债权不可能发生;
(III) The new creditor's right cannot arise; or
(四)抵押权人知道或者应当知道抵押财产被查封、扣押;
(IV) Where the mortgagee knows or should know that the mortgaged property is sealed up
or seized;
(五)债务人、抵押人被宣告破产或者解散;
(V) The obligor or the mortgagor is declared bankrupt or is dissolved; or
(六)法律规定债权确定的其他情形。
(VI) Any other circumstance as prescribed by any law for determining the obligee’s rights
arises.
第四百二十四条 最高额抵押权除适用本节规定外,适用本章第一节的有关规定。
Article 424 The mortgage right at maximum amount shall be governed by, in addition to the
provisions in this Section, the relevant provisions in Section 1 of this Chapter.
第十八章 质 权
Chapter 18 Pledge Right
第一节 动 产 质 权
Section 1 Movable Property Right
第四百二十五条
为担保债务的履行,债务人或者第三人将其动产出质给债权人占有的,债务人不履行到期债
务或者发生当事人约定的实现质权的情形,债权人有权就该动产优先受偿。
Article 425 Where an obligor or a third party pledges his/its movable property to an obligee for
guaranteeing the payment of debts, if the obligor fails to pay due debts or any circumstance for
realizing the pledge right as stipulated by the parties concerned occurs, the obligee has the right to
seek preferred payments from the movable property.
前款规定的债务人或者第三人为出质人,债权人为质权人,交付的动产为质押财产。
The debtor or third party referred to in the preceding paragraph shall be the pledgor; the
creditor shall be the pledgee and the delivered movable property shall be the pledged property.
第四百二十六条 法律、行政法规禁止转让的动产不得出质。
Article 426 Movable property which is prohibited by laws and administrative regulations from
being pledged may not be pledged.
第四百二十七条 设立质权,当事人应当采用书面形式订立质押合同。
Article 427 For establishing the pledge right, the parties concerned shall enter into a written
pledge contract.
质押合同一般包括下列条款:
In general, a pledge contract shall contain the items as follows:
(一)被担保债权的种类和数额;
1. the variety and amount of the secured obligee's rights;
(二)债务人履行债务的期限;
(II) The time limit for the obligor to fulfill obligations;
(三)质押财产的名称、数量等情况;
(III) The name and quantity, etc. of the pledged properties;
(四)担保的范围;
(IV) the scope of guarantee; and
(五)质押财产交付的时间、方式。
(V) The time and way of delivery of the pledged properties.
第四百二十八条
质权人在债务履行期限届满前,与出质人约定债务人不履行到期债务时质押财产归债权人所
有的,只能依法就质押财产优先受偿。
Article 428 Where, prior to the expiration of the term for paying debts, the pledgee and the
pledgor stipulate that the ownership of pledged properties shall be attributed to the obligee when the
obligor fails to pay due debts, the pledgee shall have priority in receiving payment from the pledged
properties.
第四百二十九条 质权自出质人交付质押财产时设立。
Article 429 The pledge right shall be established after the pledgee has delivered the pledged
properties.
第四百三十条 质权人有权收取质押财产的孳息,但是合同另有约定的除外。
Article 430 Unless it is otherwise stipulated in the contract, a pledgee has the right to obtain the
fruits of the pledged properties.
前款规定的孳息应当先充抵收取孳息的费用。
The "fruits" as referred to in the preceding paragraph shall be firstly used for paying the
expenses for collecting the fruits.
第四百三十一条
质权人在质权存续期间,未经出质人同意,擅自使用、处分质押财产,造成出质人损害的,
应当承担赔偿责任。
Article 431 Where a pledgee, without consent of the pledger, illegally uses or disposes of the
pledged properties within the duration of the pledge right, and thus damages are caused to the
pledger, he/it shall make compensations.
第四百三十二条
质权人负有妥善保管质押财产的义务;因保管不善致使质押财产毁损、灭失的,应当承担赔偿责任。
Article 432 A pledgee shall be obliged to properly keep pledged properties; and where pledged
properties are damaged or lost by virtue of improper safekeeping, the pledgee shall make
compensations.
质权人的行为可能使质押财产毁损、灭失的,出质人可以请求质权人将质押财产提
存,或者请求提前清偿债务并返还质押财产。
Where pledged properties may be damaged or lost by act of the pledgee, the pledger may
ask for the pledgee to submit them to a competent authority for keeping or require pay debts in
advance and take back them.
第四百三十三条
因不可归责于质权人的事由可能使质押财产毁损或者价值明显减少,足以危害质权人权利的
,质权人有权请求出质人提供相应的担保;出质人不提供的,质权人可以拍卖、变卖质押财
产,并与出质人协议将拍卖、变卖所得的价款提前清偿债务或者提存。
Article 433 Where any cause not attributable to the pledgee's fault may result in the destruction
of the pledged properties or an obvious decrease of the value of the pledged properties, and which is
sufficient to damage the pledgee's rights, the pledgee has the right to require the pledger to provide
corresponding security. If the pledger fails to do so, the pledgee may auction or sell off the pledged
properties, and may, upon negotiation with the pledger, seek preferred payments for the obligee's
rights in advance with the money generated from such auction or sell-off, or submit the said money
to a competent authority for keeping.
第四百三十四条
质权人在质权存续期间,未经出质人同意转质,造成质押财产毁损、灭失的,应当承担赔偿
责任。
Article 434 Where a pledgee transfers, without consent of the pledgor, the pledge within the
duration of the pledge right, thus causing damage or loss to the pledged properties, he/it shall make
compensations.
第四百三十五条 质权人可以放弃质权。债务人以自己的财产出质,质权人放弃该质
权的,其他担保人在质权人丧失优先受偿权益的范围内免除担保责任,但是其他担保人承诺仍然提供担保的除外。
Article 435 A pledgee may abandon the pledge right. Where an obligor provide the pledge right
by his/its own properties, and the pledgee abandons the pledge right, unless any of other security
providers promises to provide the security all the same, other security providers’ security liability
will be exempted within the scope for which the pledgee has lost the right to seek preferred payments.
第四百三十六条
债务人履行债务或者出质人提前清偿所担保的债权的,质权人应当返还质押财产。
Article 436 Where the obligor has paid off the debts or the pledger has fulfilled the secured
obligee's rights in advance, the pledgee shall return the pledged properties.
债务人不履行到期债务或者发生当事人约定的实现质权的情形,质权人可以与出质
人协议以质押财产折价,也可以就拍卖、变卖质押财产所得的价款优先受偿。
Where the debtor defaults on its debt obligations or where circumstances for the realization
of the pledge interest as agreed by the parties has occurred, the pledgee may, by agreement with
the pledgor, claim the proceeds from a discount, auction or sale of the pledged property in
priority, in satisfaction of its claim.
质押财产折价或者变卖的,应当参照市场价格。
When cashing or selling the pledged properties, their market price shall be referred to.
第四百三十七条
出质人可以请求质权人在债务履行期限届满后及时行使质权;质权人不行使的,出质人可以
请求人民法院拍卖、变卖质押财产。
Article 437 A pledgor may, upon expiration of the time limit for paying debts, request the
pledgee to exercise the pledge right in a timely manner. If the pledgee fails to do so, the pledgor may
request the people's court to auction or sell off the pledged properties.
出质人请求质权人及时行使质权,因质权人怠于行使权利造成出质人损害的,由质
权人承担赔偿责任。
Pledgor shall indemnify Pledgee for any damage suffered by Pledgor as a result of
Pledgee’s indolence in exercising the Pledge.
第四百三十八条
质押财产折价或者拍卖、变卖后,其价款超过债权数额的部分归出质人所有,不足部分由债
务人清偿。
Article 438 Any proceeds from the discount, auction or sale of pledged property in excess of
the amount of debt secured shall belong to the pledgor and any shortfall shall be borne by the debtor.
第四百三十九条 出质人与质权人可以协议设立最高额质权。
Article 439 The pledgor and the pledgee may, upon negotiation, agree on the maximum
amount of pledge rights.
最高额质权除适用本节有关规定外,参照适用本编第十七章第二节的有关规定。
The provisions of Section 2 of Chapter 17 of this Part shall apply as reference to maximum
amount of pledge rights, in addition to the relevant provisions of this Section.
第二节 权 利 质 权
Section 2 Right to Pledge
第四百四十条 债务人或者第三人有权处分的下列权利可以出质:
Article 440 The following rights of which an obligor or third party has the right of disposal
may be pledged:
(一)汇票、本票、支票;
(1) bills of exchange, promissory notes and checks;
(二)债券、存款单;
(II) Bonds and deposit receipts;
(三)仓单、提单;
(III) warehouse receipts and bills of lading;
(四)可以转让的基金份额、股权;
(IV) transferable fund units and stock rights;
(五)可以转让的注册商标专用权、专利权、著作权等知识产权中的财产权;
(V) such transferable property rights in intellectual property as exclusive trademark rights,
patent rights, copyrights, etc.;
(六)现有的以及将有的应收账款;
(VI) Receivables existing and to be existing;
(七)法律、行政法规规定可以出质的其他财产权利。
(VII) Other property rights that can be pledged as prescribed by any law or administrative
regulation.
第四百四十一条 以汇票、本票、支票、债券、存款单、仓单、提单出质的,质权自
权利凭证交付质权人时设立;没有权利凭证的,质权自办理出质登记时设立。法律另有
规定的,依照其规定。
Article 441 Where a pledge is made on bills of exchange, promissory notes, cheques, bonds,
certificates of deposit, warehouse receipts or bills of lading, the pledge rights shall be established
upon the delivery of documents of title to the pledgee. Where there is no document of title, the
pledge rights shall be established upon the registration of the pledge. Where the laws provide
otherwise, such provisions shall prevail.
第四百四十二条
汇票、本票、支票、债券、存款单、仓单、提单的兑现日期或者提货日期先于主债权到期的
,质权人可以兑现或者提货,并与出质人协议将兑现的价款或者提取的货物提前清偿债务或
者提存。
Article 442 Where the date of redemption or collection of the draft, promissory note, check,
bond, certificate of deposit, warehouse receipt or bill of lading is prior to the due date of the principal
obligee's rights, the pledgee may redeem or collect the goods, and may, upon negotiation with the
pledgor, seek early payments with the redeemed money or the collected goods, or submit the said
money or goods to a competent authority for keeping.
第四百四十三条 以基金份额、股权出质的,质权自办理出质登记时设立。
Article 443 As regards the pledge of fund units or stock rights, the pledge right shall be
established as of the date the pledge registration is handled.
基金份额、股权出质后,不得转让,但是出质人与质权人协商同意的除外。出质人
转让基金份额、股权所得的价款,应当向质权人提前清偿债务或者提存。
Pledged fund units and equity may not be transferred unless the pledgor and the pledgee
negotiated and agreed to the contrary. The pledgor shall apply the proceeds received from a transfer of fund units and equity to discharge the debt with the pledgee in advance or deposit the
amount.
第四百四十四条
以注册商标专用权、专利权、著作权等知识产权中的财产权出质的,质权自办理出质登记时
设立。
Article 444 Pledge of property rights in intellectual property such as exclusive rights to use
registered trademarks, patent rights, copyrights, etc., shall be created at the time of registration of the
pledge.
知识产权中的财产权出质后,出质人不得转让或者许可他人使用,但是出质人与质
权人协商同意的除外。出质人转让或者许可他人使用出质的知识产权中的财产权所得的
价款,应当向质权人提前清偿债务或者提存。
After the property rights in the intellectual property have been pledged, unless it is
otherwise agreed to between the pledger and the pledgee upon negotiations, the pledger may not
alienate the pledge or permit anyone else to use it. The pledgor shall apply the proceeds received
from a transfer or license of the pledged intellectual property to discharge the debt with the
pledgee in advance or deposit the amount.
第四百四十五条 以应收账款出质的,质权自办理出质登记时设立。
Article 445 As regards the pledge of accounts receivable, the pledge right shall be established
as of the date the pledge registration is handled.
应收账款出质后,不得转让,但是出质人与质权人协商同意的除外。出质人转让应
收账款所得的价款,应当向质权人提前清偿债务或者提存。
After the receivables have been pledged, unless it is otherwise agreed on by the pledger and
the pledgee upon negotiations, the pledger may not alienate the pledged receivables. The pledgor
shall apply the proceeds received from a transfer of accounts receivable to discharge the debt
with the pledgee in advance or deposit the amount.
第四百四十六条 权利质权除适用本节规定外,适用本章第一节的有关规定。
Article 446 The pledge of rights shall be governed by, in addition to the provisions prescribed
in this Section, the relevant provisions in Section 1 of this Chapter.
第十九章 留 置 权
Chapter 19: Lien
第四百四十七条 债务人不履行到期债务,债权人可以留置已经合法占有的债务人的
动产,并有权就该动产优先受偿。
Article 447 Where an obligor fails to pay off its due debts, the obligee may take lien of the
movable property that is lawfully possessed by the obligor, and has the right to seek preferred
payments from such movable property.
前款规定的债权人为留置权人,占有的动产为留置财产。
The "obligee" as referred to in the preceding Paragraph shall be the lienor, and the occupied
movable property shall be the property under lien.
第四百四十八条 债权人留置的动产,应当与债权属于同一法律关系,但是企业之间
留置的除外。
Article 448 The movable property under lien of the obligee and the obligee's rights shall fall
into a same legal relationship, except for the lien between enterprises.
第四百四十九条 法律规定或者当事人约定不得留置的动产,不得留置。
Article 449 Where movable property is prohibited by law or by agreement between the parties
from being subject to a lien, such property may not be subject to a lien.
第四百五十条 留置财产为可分物的,留置财产的价值应当相当于债务的金额。
Article 450 Where a property under lien is a divisible object, its value shall be equal to the number of debts.
第四百五十一条
留置权人负有妥善保管留置财产的义务;因保管不善致使留置财产毁损、灭失的,应当承担
赔偿责任。
Article 451 A lienor shall assume the obligation to properly keep the property under lien, and
shall make compensations in case the property under lien is damaged or lost by virtue of improper safekeeping.
第四百五十二条 留置权人有权收取留置财产的孳息。
Article 452 A lienor shall be entitled to the fruits generated from the property under lien.
前款规定的孳息应当先充抵收取孳息的费用。
The "fruits" as referred to in the preceding paragraph shall be firstly used for paying the
expenses for collecting the fruits.
第四百五十三条 留置权人与债务人应当约定留置财产后的债务履行期限;没有约定
或者约定不明确的,留置权人应当给债务人六十日以上履行债务的期限,但是鲜活易腐
等不易保管的动产除外。债务人逾期未履行的,留置权人可以与债务人协议以留置财产
折价,也可以就拍卖、变卖留置财产所得的价款优先受偿。
Article 453 A lienor shall, after a property is taken as lien, stipulate with the obligor the time
limit for the fulfillment of the obligee's rights. Where there is no such stipulation or the stipulation is
not clear, the lienor shall grant the obligor a time limit of 60 days or more for the fulfillment of the
obligee's rights, except for such movable property that is not easy to be kept as fresh goods,
perishable goods, etc. Where the debtor defaults on the debt obligations within the stipulated period,
the lienor may, by agreement with the debtor, claim the proceeds from a discount, auction or sale of
the lien property in priority, in satisfaction of its claim.
留置财产折价或者变卖的,应当参照市场价格。
Reference shall be made to the market price for any discounting or sale of lien property.
第四百五十四条
债务人可以请求留置权人在债务履行期限届满后行使留置权;留置权人不行使的,债务人可
以请求人民法院拍卖、变卖留置财产。
Article 454 An obligor may, upon expiration of the time limit for fulfilling the obligee's rights,
request the lienor to exercise the lien; and where the lienor fails to do so, the obligor may request the
People's Court to sell or auction the property under lien.
第四百五十五条
留置财产折价或者拍卖、变卖后,其价款超过债权数额的部分归债务人所有,不足部分由债
务人清偿。
Article 455 Any excess of the proceeds of the cashing, auction or sale of the property under
lien over the amount of the obligee's rights shall belong to the obligor, and any shortfall shall be
settled by the obligor.
第四百五十六条 同一动产上已经设立抵押权或者质权,该动产又被留置的,留置权
人优先受偿。
Article 456 Where a mortgage or pledge is created on the same movable property, and the said
movable property is taken as lien, the lienor has the right to seek preferential payments.
第四百五十七条
留置权人对留置财产丧失占有或者留置权人接受债务人另行提供担保的,留置权消灭。
Article 457 The lien shall perish in case a lienor losses the possession of the property under
lien or accepts other security separately provided by the obligor.
第五分编 占 有
Occupation of Subpart V
第二十章 占 有
Chapter 20 Possession
第四百五十八条
基于合同关系等产生的占有,有关不动产或者动产的使用、收益、违约责任等,按照合同约
定;合同没有约定或者约定不明确的,依照有关法律规定。
Article 458 Where possession arises out of a contractual relationship, the use, benefit and
liability for breach of contract of the relevant real property or movable property shall be subject to
the contractual provisions; where the contract is silent or the provisions are unclear, the relevant legal
provisions shall apply.
第四百五十九条
占有人因使用占有的不动产或者动产,致使该不动产或者动产受到损害的,恶意占有人应当
承担赔偿责任。
Article 459 Where a possessor causes any damage to the real property or movable property
under his possession during use, the possessor shall make compensations if he is malicious.
第四百六十条
不动产或者动产被占有人占有的,权利人可以请求返还原物及其孳息;但是,应当支付善意
占有人因维护该不动产或者动产支出的必要费用。
Article 460 Where a real property or movable property is possessed by the possessor, the right
holder may request the possessor to return the original property and any gains therefrom. However,
the right holder shall pay the bona fide possessor necessary expenses incurred in the maintenance of the real property or movable property.
第四百六十一条 占有的不动产或者动产毁损、灭失,该不动产或者动产的权利人请
求赔偿的,占有人应当将因毁损、灭失取得的保险金、赔偿金或者补偿金等返还给权利
人;权利人的损害未得到足够弥补的,恶意占有人还应当赔偿损失。
Article 461 Where any real property or movable property under possession is damaged or lost,
the possessor shall return the insurance money, damages or indemnities for the said damage or loss
to the obligee if the obligee requires compensations. A malicious possessor shall make
compensations in case the damages to the obligee have not been sufficiently made up.
第四百六十二条 占有的不动产或者动产被侵占的,占有人有权请求返还原物;对妨
害占有的行为,占有人有权请求排除妨害或者消除危险;因侵占或者妨害造成损害的,
占有人有权依法请求损害赔偿。
Article 462 Where a real property or movable property under possession is encroached upon,
the possessor has the right to request the return of the original property. Where any act impairs the
possession, the possessor has the right to request the cessation of impairment or danger; where any
damage is caused by virtue of encroachment or interference, the possessor has the right to request
compensation in accordance with law.
占有人返还原物的请求权,自侵占发生之日起一年内未行使的,该请求权消灭。
The claim of a possessor for returning the original object shall perish, if the possessor fails to exercise it within one year as of the date of encroachment.

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