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Law & Regulation
Civil Code of the People's Republic of China (Part III Contracts)
发布日期:2020-12-28 15:42:56
 

第三编 合 同
PART III CONTRACT


第一分编 通 则
Subpart I General Principles
第一章 一 般 规 定
CHAPTER 1 GENERAL PROVISIONS
第四百六十三条 本编调整因合同产生的民事关系。
Article 463 This Part deals with civil relations arising out of contracts.
第四百六十四条 合同是民事主体之间设立、变更、终止民事法律关系的协议。
Article 464. A contract is an agreement between civil subjects which establishes, modifies or
terminates a civil legal relationship.
婚姻、收养、监护等有关身份关系的协议,适用有关该身份关系的法律规定;没有
规定的,可以根据其性质参照适用本编规定。
Agreements concerning personal relationships such as marriage, adoption and guardianship
shall be governed by the provisions of the law governing such personal relationships; where no
such provisions exist, the provisions of this Part may be applied by reference and in light of the
nature of such agreements.
第四百六十五条 依法成立的合同,受法律保护。
Article 465 A contract established in accordance with the law is protected by the law.
依法成立的合同,仅对当事人具有法律约束力,但是法律另有规定的除外。
Unless otherwise provided by law, a contract concluded in accordance with the law shall be
legally binding only on the parties.
第四百六十六条
当事人对合同条款的理解有争议的,应当依据本法第一百四十二条第一款的规定,确定争议
条款的含义。
Article 466 Where a dispute arises between the parties over the understanding of a contractual
clause, the meaning of the disputed clause shall be determined in accordance with the provisions of
the first paragraph of Article 142 of this Law.
合同文本采用两种以上文字订立并约定具有同等效力的,对各文本使用的词句推定
具有相同含义。各文本使用的词句不一致的,应当根据合同的相关条款、性质、目的以
及诚信原则等予以解释。
Where a contract is concluded in two or more languages and it is agreed that all versions are
equally authentic, the words and sentences in each version are presumed to have the same
meaning. In case of any discrepancy in the words and sentences used in different versions, such
words and sentences shall be interpreted in accordance with the relevant articles, nature and
purpose of the contract as well as the principle of good faith.
第四百六十七条
本法或者其他法律没有明文规定的合同,适用本编通则的规定,并可以参照适用本编或者其
他法律最相类似合同的规定。
Article 467 Where this Law or another law does not expressly provide for contracts, the
provisions of the General Principles of this Part shall apply, and reference may be made to the
provisions of this Part or other laws relating to contracts the closest to such contracts.
在中华人民共和国境内履行的中外合资经营企业合同、中外合作经营企业合同、中
外合作勘探开发自然资源合同,适用中华人民共和国法律。
The law of the People's Republic of China shall apply to contracts that are to be performed
within the territory of the People's Republic of China, namely contracts for Chinese-foreign
equity joint ventures, Chinese-foreign contractual joint ventures and Chinese-foreign cooperative
exploration and development of natural resources.
第四百六十八条
非因合同产生的债权债务关系,适用有关该债权债务关系的法律规定;没有规定的,适用本
编通则的有关规定,但是根据其性质不能适用的除外。
Article 468 As to the creditor-debtor relationship that does not arise from contracts, the legal provisions on the said creditor-debtor relationship shall apply; if there is no such provision, the
relevant provisions in the General Principles of this Part shall apply, unless the said relationship is
not applicable in light of its nature.
第二章 合同的订立
Chapter 2 Conclusion of Contracts
第四百六十九条 当事人订立合同,可以采用书面形式、口头形式或者其他形式。
Article 469. The parties may conclude a contract in writing, orally or in some other form.
书面形式是合同书、信件、电报、电传、传真等可以有形地表现所载内容的形式。
An agreement is in writing if it is contained in the tangible form of a document such as a
contract, letter, telegram, telex, or facsimile.
以电子数据交换、电子邮件等方式能够有形地表现所载内容,并可以随时调取查用
的数据电文,视为书面形式。
Any electronic data that can show, in material form, the contents that it specifies through
electronic data exchange or e-mail and can be accessed for reference and used at any time shall
be regarded as a written form.
第四百七十条 合同的内容由当事人约定,一般包括下列条款:
Article 470 The contents of a contract shall be agreed upon by the parties, and shall generally
contain the following clauses:
(一)当事人的姓名或者名称和住所;
1. Names or titles and domiciles of the parties;
(二)标的;
(II) subject matter;
(三)数量;
(III) quantity;
(四)质量;
(IV) quality;
(五)价款或者报酬;
(V) price or remuneration;
(六)履行期限、地点和方式;
(VI) time limit, place and method of performance;
(七)违约责任;
(VII) Liabilities for breach of contract;
(八)解决争议的方法。
(VIII) dispute settlement method.
当事人可以参照各类合同的示范文本订立合同。
The parties may conclude a contract by reference to a model text of each type of contract.
第四百七十一条 当事人订立合同,可以采取要约、承诺方式或者其他方式。
Article 471. The parties may conclude a contract through the use of an offer, acceptance or
other methods.
第四百七十二条
要约是希望与他人订立合同的意思表示,该意思表示应当符合下列条件:
Article 472 An offer is an expression of an intent to conclude a contract with another person.
Such expression of intent shall satisfy the following conditions:
(一)内容具体确定;
1. the contents shall be specific and definite;
(二)表明经受要约人承诺,要约人即受该意思表示约束。
(II) it indicates that the offeror will be bound by the expression of intent in case of
acceptance by the offeree.
第四百七十三条 要约邀请是希望他人向自己发出要约的表示。拍卖公告、招标公告、
招股说明书、债券募集办法、基金招募说明书、商业广告和宣传、寄送的价目表等为要
约邀请。
Article 473 An invitation to offer is an expression of a desire that another person make an offer
to oneself. Announcements of auction, public tender, prospectus, measures for raising bonds,
prospectus of fund raising, commercial advertisements and publicity, price lists sent are invitations to offer.
商业广告和宣传的内容符合要约条件的,构成要约。
Contents of commercial advertisements and publicity in line with conditions of offer
constitute an offer.
第四百七十四条 要约生效的时间适用本法第一百三十七条的规定。
Article 474 The provisions of Article 137 of this Law shall apply as to the time when the offer
becomes effective.
第四百七十五条 要约可以撤回。要约的撤回适用本法第一百四十一条的规定。
Article 475. An offer may be withdrawn. The provisions of Article 141 of this Law shall apply
to the withdrawal of an offer.
第四百七十六条 要约可以撤销,但是有下列情形之一的除外:
Article 476 An offer may be revoked, except in any of the following circumstances:
(一)要约人以确定承诺期限或者其他形式明示要约不可撤销;
1. the offeror indicates expressly in a fixed time limit for acceptance or in any other form
that the offer is irrevocable; or
(二)受要约人有理由认为要约是不可撤销的,并已经为履行合同做了合理准备工
作。
(II) the offeree has reasons to believe that the offer is irrevocable and has made reasonable
preparations to perform the contract.
第四百七十七条
撤销要约的意思表示以对话方式作出的,该意思表示的内容应当在受要约人作出承诺之前为
受要约人所知道;撤销要约的意思表示以非对话方式作出的,应当在受要约人作出承诺之前
到达受要约人。
Article 477 If the revocation of the offer is expressed in a verbal form, the contents of the
expression of intention shall become known to the offeree before it has been accepted by the offeree;
if the revocation of the offer is expressed in a non-verbal form, such contents shall reach the offeree
before it has been accepted by the offeree.
第四百七十八条 有下列情形之一的,要约失效:
Article 478 An offer shall be null and void under any of the following circumstances:
(一)要约被拒绝;
1. the offer is rejected;
(二)要约被依法撤销;
(II) the offer is revoked in accordance with the law;
(三)承诺期限届满,受要约人未作出承诺;
(III) the offeree fails to make an acceptance within the time limit for acceptance; or
(四)受要约人对要约的内容作出实质性变更。
(IV) the offeree materially alters the contents of the offer.
第四百七十九条 承诺是受要约人同意要约的意思表示。
Article 479 An acceptance is a manifestation of the offeree's assent to the offer.
第四百八十条
承诺应当以通知的方式作出;但是,根据交易习惯或者要约表明可以通过行为作出承诺的除
外。
Article 480 An acceptance shall be made by notification, except where acceptance may be
made by an act on the basis of customary business practice or as expressed in the offer.
第四百八十一条 承诺应当在要约确定的期限内到达要约人。
Article 481 An acceptance shall reach the offeror within the time limit fixed in the offer.
要约没有确定承诺期限的,承诺应当依照下列规定到达:
Where no time limit is fixed in the offer, an acceptance shall reach the offeror in
accordance with the following provisions:
(一)要约以对话方式作出的,应当即时作出承诺;
1. if the offer is made verbally, the acceptance shall be made immediately; and
(二)要约以非对话方式作出的,承诺应当在合理期限内到达。
(II) if the offer is made in a form other than verbal communication, the acceptance shall
reach the offeror within a reasonable time limit.
第四百八十二条 要约以信件或者电报作出的,承诺期限自信件载明的日期或者电报
交发之日开始计算。信件未载明日期的,自投寄该信件的邮戳日期开始计算。要约以电
话、传真、电子邮件等快速通讯方式作出的,承诺期限自要约到达受要约人时开始计算。
Article 482 Where an offer is made by letter or telegram, the time limit for acceptance
commences from the date shown in the letter or from the date on which the telegram is handed in for
dispatch. If no such date is shown in the letter, the time limit commences from the postmark date on
the envelope. Where the offer is made by means of instantaneous communication, such as telephone,
facsimile or electronic mail, the time limit for acceptance commences from the time the offer reaches
the offeree.
第四百八十三条 承诺生效时合同成立,但是法律另有规定或者当事人另有约定的除外。
Article 483. A contract is concluded at the time an acceptance takes effect, except where laws
stipulate otherwise or the parties agree otherwise.
第四百八十四条 以通知方式作出的承诺,生效的时间适用本法第一百三十七条的规定。
Article 484 The provisions of Article 137 of this Law shall apply to the time when an
acceptance entered into force by means of a notification.
承诺不需要通知的,根据交易习惯或者要约的要求作出承诺的行为时生效。
If an acceptance does not require notification, it becomes effective when an act of
acceptance is performed in accordance with trade practices or as required in the offer.
第四百八十五条 承诺可以撤回。承诺的撤回适用本法第一百四十一条的规定。
Article 485. An acceptance may be withdrawn. The provisions of Article 141 of this Law shall
apply to withdrawal of acceptance.
第四百八十六条
受要约人超过承诺期限发出承诺,或者在承诺期限内发出承诺,按照通常情形不能及时到达
要约人的,为新要约;但是,要约人及时通知受要约人该承诺有效的除外。
Article 486 Where the offeree accepts the offer beyond the time limit for acceptance or within
the time limit for acceptance but under normal circumstances it is not possible for the acceptance to
reach the offeror in time, it shall constitute a new offer, except where the offeror informs the offeree that the said acceptance is effective.
第四百八十七条
受要约人在承诺期限内发出承诺,按照通常情形能够及时到达要约人,但是因其他原因致使
承诺到达要约人时超过承诺期限的,除要约人及时通知受要约人因承诺超过期限不接受该承
诺外,该承诺有效。
Article 487 If an offeree, within the time limit for acceptance, dispatches an acceptance which
would under normal circumstances be able to reach the offeror in due time but for other reasons
reaches the offeror after the time limit for acceptance has expired, the acceptance shall be effective,
unless the offeror notifies the offeree in a timely manner that the acceptance is not accepted because
it exceeds the time limit for acceptance.
第四百八十八条 承诺的内容应当与要约的内容一致。受要约人对要约的内容作出实
质性变更的,为新要约。有关合同标的、数量、质量、价款或者报酬、履行期限、履行
地点和方式、违约责任和解决争议方法等的变更,是对要约内容的实质性变更。
Article 488 The contents of an acceptance shall be consistent with those of the offer. If the
offeree substantially modifies the contents of the offer, it shall constitute a new offer. The
modification relating to the subject matter, quantity, quality, price or remuneration, time limit, place
and method of performance, liability for breach of contract and method of dispute resolution, etc.
shall constitute the substantial modification of an offer.
第四百八十九条
承诺对要约的内容作出非实质性变更的,除要约人及时表示反对或者要约表明承诺不得对要
约的内容作出任何变更外,该承诺有效,合同的内容以承诺的内容为准。
Article 489 If an acceptance immaterially modifies the contents of the offer, it shall be
effective, and the contents of the contract shall be subject to those of the acceptance, except as
rejected promptly by the offeror or indicated in the offer that an acceptance may not modify the offer
at all.
第四百九十条 当事人采用合同书形式订立合同的,自当事人均签名、盖章或者按指
印时合同成立。在签名、盖章或者按指印之前,当事人一方已经履行主要义务,对方接受时,该合同成立。
Article 490 Where the parties conclude a contract in written form, the contract is established
when both parties have signed it, affixed their seals thereon or have affixed their fingerprints thereon.
A contract is established when one party has performed its principal obligations before signing,
sealing or affixing its fingerprint and the other party accepts them.
法律、行政法规规定或者当事人约定合同应当采用书面形式订立,当事人未采用书面形式但是一方已经履行主要义务,对方接受时,该合同成立。
Where a contract is to be concluded in written form as provided for by laws and
administrative regulations or as agreed by the parties, and the parties fail to conclude the contract
in written form, but one party has performed its principal obligation and the other party has
accepted it, the contract is established.
第四百九十一条
当事人采用信件、数据电文等形式订立合同要求签订确认书的,签订确认书时合同成立。
Article 491 Where the parties concerned conclude a contract in the form of a letter or electronic
data etc. to require execution of a letter of confirmation, the contract shall be concluded at the time of
execution of the letter of confirmation.
当事人一方通过互联网等信息网络发布的商品或者服务信息符合要约条件的,对方
选择该商品或者服务并提交订单成功时合同成立,但是当事人另有约定的除外。
Where the information of any commodity or service released by one party via the internet
or other information network meets the conditions of offer, the contract shall be established
when the other party successfully selects such commodity or service and submits an order, unless
otherwise agreed by the parties.
第四百九十二条 承诺生效的地点为合同成立的地点。
Article 492 The place of effectiveness of an acceptance shall be the place of formation of the
contract.
采用数据电文形式订立合同的,收件人的主营业地为合同成立的地点;没有主营业
地的,其住所地为合同成立的地点。当事人另有约定的,按照其约定。
If a contract is concluded in the form of electronic messages, the main business place of the
recipient shall be the place of establishment of the contract; if there is no main business place, the domicile thereof shall be the place of establishment of the contract. Where the parties agree
otherwise, their agreement shall prevail.
第四百九十三条
当事人采用合同书形式订立合同的,最后签名、盖章或者按指印的地点为合同成立的地点,
但是当事人另有约定的除外。
Article 493 Where the parties conclude a contract in written form, the place of establishment of
the contract shall be the place where the parties last sign or affix their seals on it or place their fingerprints on it, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties.
第四百九十四条
国家根据抢险救灾、疫情防控或者其他需要下达国家订货任务、指令性任务的,有关民事主
体之间应当依照有关法律、行政法规规定的权利和义务订立合同。
Article 494 The State may, according to emergency rescue and disaster relief, epidemic
prevention and control or other needs, assign ordering tasks or mandatory tasks to the State, The
relevant civil subjects shall conclude a contract between them in accordance with the rights and
obligations provided by the relevant laws and administrative regulations.
依照法律、行政法规的规定负有发出要约义务的当事人,应当及时发出合理的要约。
Any party who is obligated to make an offer in accordance with the provisions of laws and
administrative regulations shall make a reasonable offer without delay.
依照法律、行政法规的规定负有作出承诺义务的当事人,不得拒绝对方合理的订立
合同要求。
The parties that are obligated to make commitments in accordance with the laws or
administrative regulations may not refuse the reasonable request of the other party for conclusion
of the contract.
第四百九十五条
当事人约定在将来一定期限内订立合同的认购书、订购书、预订书等,构成预约合同。
Article 495 A letter of subscription, letter of order, and letter of reservation, which the parties
agree to conclude a contract within a certain period in the future, shall constitute an advance contract.
当事人一方不履行预约合同约定的订立合同义务的,对方可以请求其承担预约合同的违约责任。
Where one party fails to perform the obligations under the advance contract, the other party
may request it to assume the liabilities for breach of the advance contract.
第四百九十六条
格式条款是当事人为了重复使用而预先拟定,并在订立合同时未与对方协商的条款。
Article 496 Standard terms are clauses which are prepared in advance for repeated use by one
party and which are not the subject of negotiation with the other party when concluding a contract.
采用格式条款订立合同的,提供格式条款的一方应当遵循公平原则确定当事人之间
的权利和义务,并采取合理的方式提示对方注意免除或者减轻其责任等与对方有重大利
害关系的条款,按照对方的要求,对该条款予以说明。提供格式条款的一方未履行提示
或者说明义务,致使对方没有注意或者理解与其有重大利害关系的条款的,对方可以主
张该条款不成为合同的内容。
Where standard terms are adopted in concluding a contract, the party supplying the standard
terms shall observe the principle of fairness in defining the rights and obligations of the parties,
remind the other party in a reasonable way of the provisions that greatly affect the other party,
such as those that exclude or mitigate the other party's liabilities, and explain the standard terms
at the request of the other party. If the party providing the standard terms fails to perform the
obligation of presentation or explanation, causing the other party to fail to notice or understand
the terms in which it has a material interest, the other party may claim that the terms do not form
the contents of the contract.
第四百九十七条 有下列情形之一的,该格式条款无效:
Article 497 Under any of the following circumstances, the standard terms shall be invalid:
(一)具有本法第一编第六章第三节和本法第五百零六条规定的无效情形;
1. Invalid circumstances under Section 3 of Chapter VI of Part One of this Law and under
Article 506 of this Law;
(二)提供格式条款一方不合理地免除或者减轻其责任、加重对方责任、限制对方
主要权利;
(II) a Party unreasonably exempts or reduces its liabilities, increases the liabilities of the
other Party and limits the major rights of the other Party;
(三)提供格式条款一方排除对方主要权利。
(III) the party supplying the standard terms excludes the main rights of the other party.
第四百九十八条 对格式条款的理解发生争议的,应当按照通常理解予以解释。对格
式条款有两种以上解释的,应当作出不利于提供格式条款一方的解释。格式条款和非格
式条款不一致的,应当采用非格式条款。
Article 498 If a dispute over the understanding of a standard term occurs, the term shall be
interpreted based on the usual understanding. Where there are two or more interpretations for such
term, the interpretation unfavorable to the party supplying such term shall prevail. Where a standard
term is inconsistent with a non- standard term, the non- standard term shall prevail.
第四百九十九条
悬赏人以公开方式声明对完成特定行为的人支付报酬的,完成该行为的人可以请求其支付。
Article 499 Where a person who offers a reward makes a public announcement on payment of
remuneration to a person who performs a specific act, the person who performs the specific act may
request for payment of remuneration.
第五百条
当事人在订立合同过程中有下列情形之一,造成对方损失的,应当承担赔偿责任:
Article 500 A party shall be liable for compensation if it falls under any of the following
circumstances in the course of concluding a contract, thereby causing losses to the other party:
(一)假借订立合同,恶意进行磋商;
1. negotiating the contract in bad faith under the pretext of concluding a contract;
(二)故意隐瞒与订立合同有关的重要事实或者提供虚假情况;
(II) deliberately concealing important facts relating to the conclusion of the contract or
providing false information;
(三)有其他违背诚信原则的行为。
(III) Having any other act against the principle of good faith.
第五百零一条
当事人在订立合同过程中知悉的商业秘密或者其他应当保密的信息,无论合同是否成立,不得泄露或者不正当地使用;泄露、不正当地使用该商业秘密或者信息,造成对方损失的,应
当承担赔偿责任。
Article 501 A party shall not disclose or improperly use business secrets or other confidential
information known to it in the course of concluding a contract, no matter whether the contract is
established or not; if it discloses or improperly uses such business secrets or information and causes
losses to the other party, it shall be liable for compensation.
第三章 合同的效力
Chapter 3 Validity of the Contracts
第五百零二条
依法成立的合同,自成立时生效,但是法律另有规定或者当事人另有约定的除外。
Article 502. A contract which is concluded in accordance with the law takes effect from the
time it is concluded, except where the law stipulates otherwise or the parties agree otherwise.
依照法律、行政法规的规定,合同应当办理批准等手续的,依照其规定。未办理批
准等手续影响合同生效的,不影响合同中履行报批等义务条款以及相关条款的效力。应
当办理申请批准等手续的当事人未履行义务的,对方可以请求其承担违反该义务的责任。
Where a contract is subject to approval or other procedures in accordance with laws and
administrative regulations, such provisions shall be followed. Where the validity of a contract is
affected due to failure to complete approval or other formalities, the validity of the obligations of
reporting for approval and other clauses in the contract and the relevant clauses shall not be
affected. Where the party concerned required to complete approval formalities etc. does not
perform its obligations, the other party may request that the party concerned bear liability for
violation of such obligations.
依照法律、行政法规的规定,合同的变更、转让、解除等情形应当办理批准等手续
的,适用前款规定。
Where the laws and administrative regulations provide that the alteration, transfer,
rescission of a contract etc. shall undergo approval formalities, the provisions of the preceding
paragraph shall apply.
第五百零三条
无权代理人以被代理人的名义订立合同,被代理人已经开始履行合同义务或者接受相对人履行的,视为对合同的追认。
Article 503 Where an agent without the power of agency enters into a contract in the name of
the principal, and the principal has begun to perform the contractual obligations or accepts the
performance of such obligations by the counterparty, the contract shall be deemed to have been
ratified.
第五百零四条
法人的法定代表人或者非法人组织的负责人超越权限订立的合同,除相对人知道或者应当知
道其超越权限外,该代表行为有效,订立的合同对法人或者非法人组织发生效力。
Article 504 Where the legal representative of a legal person or the responsible person of an
unincorporated association concludes a contract beyond the scope of his authority, such act of
representation shall be valid and the concluded contract shall have binding force on the legal person
or unincorporated association, unless the counterparty knows or ought to know that such person is
exceeding the scope of his authority.
第五百零五条
当事人超越经营范围订立的合同的效力,应当依照本法第一编第六章第三节和本编的有关规
定确定,不得仅以超越经营范围确认合同无效。
Article 505 The validity of a contract concluded by the parties in excess of the business scope
shall be determined in accordance with the relevant provisions of Section 3 of Chapter VI of Part
One and this Part. It shall not be permitted to determine a contract as invalid only on the ground of
exceeding the business scope.
第五百零六条 合同中的下列免责条款无效:
Article 506 The following exception clauses in a contract shall be null and void:
(一)造成对方人身损害的;
1. those that cause personal injury to the other party;
(二)因故意或者重大过失造成对方财产损失的。
(II) those involving property damage to the other party as a result of deliberate intent or gross negligence.
第五百零七条
合同不生效、无效、被撤销或者终止的,不影响合同中有关解决争议方法的条款的效力。
Article 507 If a contract is ineffective, invalid, revoked or terminated, it shall not affect the
validity of the clauses on the methods of dispute settlement contained in the contract.
第五百零八条 本编对合同的效力没有规定的,适用本法第一编第六章的有关规定。
Article 508 If this Part does not specify the validity of a contract, the relevant provisions of
Chapter VI of Part One of this Law shall apply.
第四章 合同的履行
CHAPTER 4 EXECUTION OF CONTRACT
第五百零九条 当事人应当按照约定全面履行自己的义务。
Article 509. The parties shall perform their respective obligations in full accordance with the
parties' agreement.
当事人应当遵循诚信原则,根据合同的性质、目的和交易习惯履行通知、协助、保
密等义务。
The parties shall observe the principle of good faith, and perform such obligations as
notification, rendering assistance and maintaining confidentiality according to the nature and
purpose of the contract as well as trade practices.
当事人在履行合同过程中,应当避免浪费资源、污染环境和破坏生态。
In the course of performing a contract, the parties shall avoid wasting resources, polluting
the environment and damaging the ecology.
第五百一十条
合同生效后,当事人就质量、价款或者报酬、履行地点等内容没有约定或者约定不明确的,
可以协议补充;不能达成补充协议的,按照合同相关条款或者交易习惯确定。
Article 510 Where, after a contract becomes effective, there is no agreement in the contract between the parties on the terms regarding quality, price or remuneration or place of performance, or
such agreement is unclear, the parties may agree upon supplementary terms through consultation; if a supplementary agreement cannot be reached, such terms shall be determined in accordance with the relevant terms of the contract or trade practices.
第五百一十一条
当事人就有关合同内容约定不明确,依据前条规定仍不能确定的,适用下列规定:
Article 511 Where the relevant terms of a contract are unclear, and cannot be determined in
accordance with the provisions of the preceding article, the following provisions shall apply:
(一)质量要求不明确的,按照强制性国家标准履行;没有强制性国家标准的,按
照推荐性国家标准履行;没有推荐性国家标准的,按照行业标准履行;没有国家标准、
行业标准的,按照通常标准或者符合合同目的的特定标准履行。
1. if quality requirements are unclear, performance shall be in accordance with the
compulsory national standards; in the absence of compulsory national standards, performance
shall be in accordance with recommended national standards; in the absence of recommended
national standards, performance shall be in accordance with industry standards; in the absence of
national standards or industry standards, performance shall be in accordance with usual standards
or specific standards in conformity with the purpose of the contract;
(二)价款或者报酬不明确的,按照订立合同时履行地的市场价格履行;依法应当
执行政府定价或者政府指导价的,依照规定履行。
(II) if the price or remuneration is unclear, the market price of the place of performance at
the time the contract was concluded shall apply; if the government-fixed price or government directed price shall be followed in accordance with the law, the relevant provisions shall apply;
and
(三)履行地点不明确,给付货币的,在接受货币一方所在地履行;交付不动产的
,在不动产所在地履行;其他标的,在履行义务一方所在地履行。
(III) if the place of performance is unclear, and the payment is in monetary terms, the
performance shall be effected at the place of the party receiving the payment; if real property is
to be delivered, the performance shall be effected at the place of the real property; in the case of
other subject matters, the performance shall be effected at the place of the party fulfilling the
obligations.
(四)履行期限不明确的,债务人可以随时履行,债权人也可以随时请求履行,但
是应当给对方必要的准备时间。
(IV) if the time of performance is unclear, the obligor may perform, and the obligee may
request performance, at any time, provided that the other party shall be given the time required
for preparation;
(五)履行方式不明确的,按照有利于实现合同目的的方式履行。
(V) if the method of performance is unclear, performance shall be rendered in a manner
which is conducive to realizing the purpose of the contract; and
(六)履行费用的负担不明确的,由履行义务一方负担;因债权人原因增加的履行
费用,由债权人负担。
(VI) if the party responsible for the expenses of performance is unclear, the expenses shall
be borne by the party fulfilling the obligations; the expenses increased due to the creditor's
reason shall be borne by the creditor.
第五百一十二条 通过互联网等信息网络订立的电子合同的标的为交付商品并采用快
递物流方式交付的,收货人的签收时间为交付时间。电子合同的标的为提供服务的,生
成的电子凭证或者实物凭证中载明的时间为提供服务时间;前述凭证没有载明时间或者
载明时间与实际提供服务时间不一致的,以实际提供服务的时间为准。
Article 512 Where the subject matter of an electronic contract concluded through the Internet or
other information network is delivery of goods and the express logistics method is adopted for
delivery, the time of receipt by the consignee shall be the time of delivery. Where the subject matter
of the electronic contract is provision of services, the time specified in the generated electronic or
physical voucher shall be the time of provision of services; if the time specified in the foregoing
voucher fails to be specified or the time specified in the foregoing voucher is inconsistent with the
time of actual provision of services, the time of actual provision of services shall prevail.
电子合同的标的物为采用在线传输方式交付的,合同标的物进入对方当事人指定的
特定系统且能够检索识别的时间为交付时间。
Where the subject matter of an electronic contract is delivered via online transmission, the
delivery time shall be the time when the subject matter enters the specific system designated by
the other party and can be retrieved and identified.
电子合同当事人对交付商品或者提供服务的方式、时间另有约定的,按照其约定。
Where the parties to an electronic contract have agreed otherwise on the method and time
for delivery of goods or provision of services, such agreement shall prevail.
第五百一十三条
执行政府定价或者政府指导价的,在合同约定的交付期限内政府价格调整时,按照交付时的
价格计价。逾期交付标的物的,遇价格上涨时,按照原价格执行;价格下降时,按照新价格
执行。逾期提取标的物或者逾期付款的,遇价格上涨时,按照新价格执行;价格下降时,按
照原价格执行。
Article 513 Where the government-fixed price or government-directed price shall be followed
in a contract, if the said price is readjusted within the time limit for delivery as stipulated in the
contract, the payment shall be calculated based on the price at the time of delivery. Where a party
delays in delivering the subject matter, the original price shall be adopted if the price rises, and the
new price shall be adopted if the price falls. Where a party delays in taking delivery of the subject
matter or making payment, the new price shall be adopted if the price rises, and the original price
shall be adopted if the price falls.
第五百一十四条
以支付金钱为内容的债,除法律另有规定或者当事人另有约定外,债权人可以请求债务人以
实际履行地的法定货币履行。
Article 514 With respect to the payment of money for a debt, the creditor may require the
debtor to pay in the legal tender of the place where actual performance takes place, unless otherwise
stipulated by the law or agreed by the parties.
第五百一十五条
标的有多项而债务人只需履行其中一项的,债务人享有选择权;但是,法律另有规定、当事
人另有约定或者另有交易习惯的除外。
Article 515 Where there are several subject matters and the debtor only needs to perform one
of them, the debtor shall have the right to choose, unless otherwise stipulated by the law or agreed
between the parties concerned, or there are other transaction practices.
享有选择权的当事人在约定期限内或者履行期限届满未作选择,经催告后在合理期
限内仍未选择的,选择权转移至对方。
Where the party entitled to the option fails to make a choice within the agreed time limit or
upon expiry of the performance period, and fails to make a choice within a reasonable time limit
after being urged, the option shall be transferred to the other party.
第五百一十六条 当事人行使选择权应当及时通知对方,通知到达对方时,标的确定。
标的确定后不得变更,但是经对方同意的除外。
Article 516 In exercising his option, the party concerned shall promptly notify the other party,
and the subject matter shall be determined when the notice reaches the other party. The object shall
not be changed after being determined, unless otherwise agreed by the other party.
可选择的标的发生不能履行情形的,享有选择权的当事人不得选择不能履行的标的,但是该不能履行的情形是由对方造成的除外。
Where an event of impossibility of performance occurs to a chosen subject matter, the party
who has an option may not choose the subject matter of impossibility of performance unless the impossibility is caused by the other party.
第五百一十七条
债权人为二人以上,标的可分,按照份额各自享有债权的,为按份债权;债务人为二人以上
,标的可分,按照份额各自负担债务的,为按份债务。
Article 517 When there are two or more creditors, the subject matter is divisible, and each
creditor is entitled to its own share of the debt, the claim is divided into shares. When there are two
or more debtors, and each creditor is entitled to its own share of the subject matter, the claim is
divided into shares.
按份债权人或者按份债务人的份额难以确定的,视为份额相同。
If it is difficult to determine the share of the creditor or the debtor by share, they shall be
deemed to be the same.
第五百一十八条
债权人为二人以上,部分或者全部债权人均可以请求债务人履行债务的,为连带债权;债务
人为二人以上,债权人可以请求部分或者全部债务人履行全部债务的,为连带债务。
Article 518 When there are two or more creditors, and some or all of them may request the
debtor to perform the debt, this is joint and several obligations. When there are two or more creditors, and the creditors may request part or all of them to perform all of the debt, this is joint and several
obligation.
连带债权或者连带债务,由法律规定或者当事人约定。
Joint creditor's rights or joint liabilities shall be stipulated by the law or agreed by the
parties concerned.
第五百一十九条 连带债务人之间的份额难以确定的,视为份额相同。
Article 519 Where it is difficult to determine the shares held among the joint and several
debtors, they shall be deemed to be the same.
实际承担债务超过自己份额的连带债务人,有权就超出部分在其他连带债务人未履
行的份额范围内向其追偿,并相应地享有债权人的权利,但是不得损害债权人的利益。
其他连带债务人对债权人的抗辩,可以向该债务人主张。
Where a joint and several debtor has actually borne debts in excess of his own share, he shall be entitled to seek recourse against the other joint and several debtors in respect of the
excess portion within the scope of their unperformed share, and shall enjoy the rights of a
creditor correspondingly, provided that the interests of the creditor are not prejudiced. The other
joint debtors may, in respect of the obligee, avail themselves of any defense they have against
the obligor.
被追偿的连带债务人不能履行其应分担份额的,其他连带债务人应当在相应范围内
按比例分担。
Where the joint debtors who are recovered cannot perform their shares, other joint debtors
shall perform their shares on a pro rata basis within the corresponding scope.
第五百二十条
部分连带债务人履行、抵销债务或者提存标的物的,其他债务人对债权人的债务在相应范围
内消灭;该债务人可以依据前条规定向其他债务人追偿。
Article 520 If part of the joint debtors perform, offset or place in escrow the obligations, the
obligations of the other debtors to the creditors shall be extinguished within the corresponding scope;
the debtor may have recourse against the other debtors according to the provisions of the preceding
article.
部分连带债务人的债务被债权人免除的,在该连带债务人应当承担的份额范围内,其他债务人对债权人的债务消灭。
Where part of the debts of the joint and several debtor is released by the creditor, the debts
of other debtors to the creditor shall be extinguished within the scope of the share that the joint
and several debtor shall assume.
部分连带债务人的债务与债权人的债权同归于一人的,在扣除该债务人应当承担的
份额后,债权人对其他债务人的债权继续存在。
Where part of the debts of a joint and several debtor belongs to the same creditor, the
creditor's rights against other debtors shall continue to exist after deduction of the share to be
borne by the debtor.
债权人对部分连带债务人的给付受领迟延的,对其他连带债务人发生效力。
Where the creditor delays in receiving payment from part of the joint debtors, such act shall
be binding on the other joint debtors.
第五百二十一条 连带债权人之间的份额难以确定的,视为份额相同。
Article 521 Where the shares among the joint creditors are difficult to determine, they shall be
deemed to be the same.
实际受领债权的连带债权人,应当按比例向其他连带债权人返还。
The joint creditors who have actually received the claims shall return them to the other joint
creditors on a pro rata basis.
连带债权参照适用本章连带债务的有关规定。
The relevant provisions of this Chapter on joint and several debts shall apply as reference to
joint and several creditor's rights.
第五百二十二条
当事人约定由债务人向第三人履行债务,债务人未向第三人履行债务或者履行债务不符合约
定的,应当向债权人承担违约责任。
Article 522 Where the parties agree that the obligor performs obligations for a third party, but
the obligor fails to perform the obligations for the third party or the performance does not comply
with the terms of the contract, the obligor shall be liable to the obligee for breach of contract.
法律规定或者当事人约定第三人可以直接请求债务人向其履行债务,第三人未在合
理期限内明确拒绝,债务人未向第三人履行债务或者履行债务不符合约定的,第三人可以请求债务人承担违约责任;债务人对债权人的抗辩,可以向第三人主张。
Where the laws stipulate or the parties agree that a third party may directly request the
obligor to perform the obligation for him, but the third party does not specifically refuse to
perform the obligation within a reasonable period, and the obligor fails to perform the obligation
for the third party or the performance does not comply with the terms of the contract, the third
party may request the obligor to bear liability for breach of contract; the obligor may avail itself
of any defense it has against the obligee.
第五百二十三条
当事人约定由第三人向债权人履行债务,第三人不履行债务或者履行债务不符合约定的,债
务人应当向债权人承担违约责任。
Article 523 Where the parties agree that a third party performs obligations for the obligee, but
the third party fails to perform the obligations or the performance does not comply with the terms of
the contract, the obligor shall be liable to the obligee for breach of contract.
第五百二十四条
债务人不履行债务,第三人对履行该债务具有合法利益的,第三人有权向债权人代为履行;
但是,根据债务性质、按照当事人约定或者依照法律规定只能由债务人履行的除外。
Article 524 Where the obligor fails to perform its obligations, and a third party has the
legitimate interest in the performance of such obligations, the third party shall have the right to
perform the obligations on behalf of the obligee, except where the obligations can only be performed
by the obligor in accordance with the nature of the obligations, the agreement between the parties or
the provisions of the law.
债权人接受第三人履行后,其对债务人的债权转让给第三人,但是债务人和第三人
另有约定的除外。
After the obligee accepts performance by a third party, the obligee's rights against the
obligor shall be assigned to such third party, unless otherwise agreed by the obligor and such
third party.
第五百二十五条
当事人互负债务,没有先后履行顺序的,应当同时履行。一方在对方履行之前有权拒绝其履行请求。一方在对方履行债务不符合约定时,有权拒绝其相应的履行请求。
Article 525 Where both parties have obligations towards one another and there is no order of
priority in respect of the performance of obligations, the parties shall perform the obligations
simultaneously. A party has the right to reject any request for performance by the other party prior to its performance. A Party has the right to reject the corresponding request of the other Party for
performance if such other Party’s performance does not comply with the provisions hereof.
第五百二十六条 当事人互负债务,有先后履行顺序,应当先履行债务一方未履行的,
后履行一方有权拒绝其履行请求。先履行一方履行债务不符合约定的,后履行一方有权
拒绝其相应的履行请求。
Article 526 Where both parties have obligations toward each other and there is an order of
priority in respect of the performance of the obligations, and the party which shall first perform its
obligations has not performed the obligations, the other party has the right to reject the other party's
request for performance. If the performance of the obligations of the party who is to perform first is
not in conformity with the agreement, the party who is to perform later has the right to reject the
corresponding performance request.
第五百二十七条
应当先履行债务的当事人,有确切证据证明对方有下列情形之一的,可以中止履行:
Article 527 The party which shall render its performance first may suspend its performance if
it has conclusive evidence proving that the other party falls under any of the following circumstances:
(一)经营状况严重恶化;
1. Its business is seriously deteriorating;
(二)转移财产、抽逃资金,以逃避债务;
(II) Transferring property or surreptitiously withdrawing funds in order to evade debts;
(三)丧失商业信誉;
(III) the other party loses its business reputation; or
(四)有丧失或者可能丧失履行债务能力的其他情形。
(IV) Other circumstances showing that it has lost or is likely to lose the ability to perform
its obligations.
当事人没有确切证据中止履行的,应当承担违约责任。
Where a party suspends performance without conclusive evidence, it shall be liable for
breach of contract.
第五百二十八条
当事人依据前条规定中止履行的,应当及时通知对方。对方提供适当担保的,应当恢复履行
。中止履行后,对方在合理期限内未恢复履行能力且未提供适当担保的,视为以自己的行为
表明不履行主要债务,中止履行的一方可以解除合同并可以请求对方承担违约责任。
Article 528 If a party suspends performance in accordance with the provisions of the preceding
Article, it shall promptly notify the other party. Where the other party provides an appropriate
guarantee, the party shall resume performance. After the suspension of the performance, if the other
Party fails to restore its capacity for performance and provide appropriate guarantee within a
reasonable time, it shall be deemed to be unable to perform its major obligations by its acts, the Party
suspending the performance may rescind the Contract and may request the other Party to bear the
liabilities for breach of contract.
第五百二十九条
债权人分立、合并或者变更住所没有通知债务人,致使履行债务发生困难的,债务人可以中止履行或者将标的物提存。
Article 529 Where the obligee fails to notify the obligor of its division, merger or change of
domicile, thereby making it difficult for the obligor to perform its obligations, the obligor may
suspend performance or have the subject matter in escrow.
第五百三十条
债权人可以拒绝债务人提前履行债务,但是提前履行不损害债权人利益的除外。
Article 530 The obligee may reject an advance performance by the obligor, except where the
advance performance does not harm the interests of the obligee.
债务人提前履行债务给债权人增加的费用,由债务人负担。
Any additional expenses incurred by the obligee from the obligor's advance performance
shall be borne by the obligor.
第五百三十一条
债权人可以拒绝债务人部分履行债务,但是部分履行不损害债权人利益的除外。
Article 531 The obligee may reject the obligor's partial performance, except that the partial
performance of its obligations does not harm the obligee's interests.
债务人部分履行债务给债权人增加的费用,由债务人负担。
Any additional expense incurred by the obligee from the obligor's partial performance shall
be borne by the obligor.
第五百三十二条
合同生效后,当事人不得因姓名、名称的变更或者法定代表人、负责人、承办人的变动而不
履行合同义务。
Article 532 Once a contract becomes effective, a party may not refuse to perform its
obligations thereunder due to a change in its name, or its legal representative, the person in charge, or the person handling the contract.
第五百三十三条
合同成立后,合同的基础条件发生了当事人在订立合同时无法预见的、不属于商业风险的重
大变化,继续履行合同对于当事人一方明显不公平的,受不利影响的当事人可以与对方重新
协商;在合理期限内协商不成的,当事人可以请求人民法院或者仲裁机构变更或者解除合同。
Article 533. After a contract has been concluded, if the basic conditions of the contract have
undergone a major change which was unforeseeable by the parties at the time it was concluded and
which does not belong to commercial risk, and it is clearly unfair for the party concerned to continue
to perform the contract, the party adversely affected may renegotiate with the other party. If
negotiation fails within a reasonable period of time, the parties may request a people's court or an
arbitration institution to modify or rescind the contract.
人民法院或者仲裁机构应当结合案件的实际情况,根据公平原则变更或者解除合同。
The people's court or arbitration institution shall, in light of the actual circumstances of the
case, amend or terminate the contract according to the principle of fairness.
第五百三十四条
对当事人利用合同实施危害国家利益、社会公共利益行为的,市场监督管理和其他有关行政
主管部门依照法律、行政法规的规定负责监督处理。
Article 534 The market supervision and administration authorities and other relevant
administrative authorities shall be responsible for supervision and handling of parties concerned that
make use of a contract to harm State interests and public interest pursuant to the provisions of laws
and administrative regulations.
第五章 合同的保全
Chapter 5 Preservation of Contracts
第五百三十五条
因债务人怠于行使其债权或者与该债权有关的从权利,影响债权人的到期债权实现的,债权
人可以向人民法院请求以自己的名义代位行使债务人对相对人的权利,但是该权利专属于债
务人自身的除外。
Article 535 Where the obligor is remiss in exercising its creditor's right or the accessory rights
related to its creditor's right, thereby affecting the realization of the creditor's due right, the obligee
may petition the People's Court for subrogation in its own name, except that such right exclusively
belongs to the obligor.
代位权的行使范围以债权人的到期债权为限。债权人行使代位权的必要费用,由债
务人负担。
The scope of subrogation shall be limited to the creditor's due claim. The expenses
necessary for the obligee to exercise such subrogation rights shall be borne by the obligor.
相对人对债务人的抗辩,可以向债权人主张。
A counterparty may, in respect of the obligee, avail itself of any defense it has against the
obligor.
第五百三十六条
债权人的债权到期前,债务人的债权或者与该债权有关的从权利存在诉讼时效期间即将届满
或者未及时申报破产债权等情形,影响债权人的债权实现的,债权人可以代位向债务人的相
对人请求其向债务人履行、向破产管理人申报或者作出其他必要的行为。
Article 536 Prior to the expiration of the creditor's right of a creditor, where the
expiration of the limitation of action period for the creditor's right of the debtor or the accessory rights related to the creditor's right is coming to an end or the creditor's right of
bankruptcy is not declared in time, thus affecting the realization of the creditor's right, the
creditor may request the other party of the debtor to perform its obligations to the debtor, declare to
the bankruptcy administrator or take other necessary acts on its behalf.
第五百三十七条
人民法院认定代位权成立的,由债务人的相对人向债权人履行义务,债权人接受履行后,债权人与债务人、债务人与相对人之间相应的权利义务终止。债务人对相对人的债权或者与该
债权有关的从权利被采取保全、执行措施,或者债务人破产的,依照相关法律的规定处理。
Article 537 Where the People's Court determines that subrogation is established, the other
party to the debtor shall perform obligations towards the creditor; upon acceptance of performance
by the creditor, the corresponding rights and obligations between the creditor and the debtor, and
between the debtor and the other party, shall be terminated. Where preservation or enforcement
measures are adopted in respect of the creditor's rights of a debtor against the counterparty or the
collateral rights relating to the creditor's rights, or the debtor is bankrupt, the matter shall be dealt
with pursuant to the provisions of the relevant laws.
第五百三十八条
债务人以放弃其债权、放弃债权担保、无偿转让财产等方式无偿处分财产权益,或者恶意延
长其到期债权的履行期限,影响债权人的债权实现的,债权人可以请求人民法院撤销债务人
的行为。
Article 538 Where the debtor disposes of its property rights and interests without
compensation by giving up its creditor's right, giving up the guarantee of the creditor's right,
transferring the property without compensation, or maliciously extending the performance
term of its due creditor's right, which influences the realization of the creditor's right, the creditor
may require the people's court to revoke the debtor's act.
第五百三十九条
债务人以明显不合理的低价转让财产、以明显不合理的高价受让他人财产或者为他人的债务
提供担保,影响债权人的债权实现,债务人的相对人知道或者应当知道该情形的,债权人可
以请求人民法院撤销债务人的行为。
Article 539 Where the obligor transfers its property at an obviously unreasonable low price, or
accepts the transfer of another's property at an obviously unreasonable high price, or provides a
guarantee for the debts of another party, thereby affecting the realization of the obligee's rights, and
the other party to the obligor knows or ought to know of such circumstance, the obligee may petition
the People's Court for cancellation of the obligor's act.
第五百四十条
撤销权的行使范围以债权人的债权为限。债权人行使撤销权的必要费用,由债务人负担。
Article 540 The extent to which the right to cancel can be exercised is limited to the rights of
the obligee. The necessary expenses incurred by the obligee in exercising the right of revocation
shall be borne by the obligor.
第五百四十一条 撤销权自债权人知道或者应当知道撤销事由之日起一年内行使。自债务人的行为发生之日起五年内没有行使撤销权的,该撤销权消灭。
Article 541 The right to cancel shall be exercised within one year from the date the obligee
knows or ought to know of the matter for cancellation. If the right of revocation is not exercised
within five years from the date the act of the obligor takes place, the right of revocation shall be
extinguished.
第五百四十二条 债务人影响债权人的债权实现的行为被撤销的,自始没有法律约束力。
Article 542 Any act of a debtor that affects the fulfillment of the obligee's rights shall be null
and void ab initio.
第六章 合同的变更和转让
Chapter 6 Modification and Assignment of Contracts
第五百四十三条 当事人协商一致,可以变更合同。
Article 543 A contract may be modified if the parties reach a consensus through consultation.
第五百四十四条 当事人对合同变更的内容约定不明确的,推定为未变更。
Article 544 Where an agreement by the parties on the contents of a modification is unclear, the
contract shall be presumed as not having been modified.
第五百四十五条
债权人可以将债权的全部或者部分转让给第三人,但是有下列情形之一的除外:
Article 545 The obligee may assign, in whole or in part, its obligatory rights to a third party,
except under any of the following circumstances:
(一)根据债权性质不得转让;
1. The rights may not be assigned in light of the nature of the claims;
(二)按照当事人约定不得转让;
(II) such rights may not be assigned according to the agreement between the parties;
(三)依照法律规定不得转让。
(III) such rights may not be assigned according to the provisions of the laws.
当事人约定非金钱债权不得转让的,不得对抗善意第三人。当事人约定金钱债权不
得转让的,不得对抗第三人。
Where the parties concerned have agreed that the non-monetary creditor's rights cannot be
transferred, the parties concerned shall not assert claims against a bona fide third party. Where
the parties agree that the monetary claim may not be assigned, such an agreement shall not be
enforceable against any third party.
第五百四十六条 债权人转让债权,未通知债务人的,该转让对债务人不发生效力。
Article 546 Where the obligee assigns its claims without notifying the obligor, the assignment
is not binding on the obligor.
债权转让的通知不得撤销,但是经受让人同意的除外。
Notification of the assignment of the claims shall not be revoked, except with the consent of
the assignee.
第五百四十七条
债权人转让债权的,受让人取得与债权有关的从权利,但是该从权利专属于债权人自身的除
外。
Article 547 Where the obligee assigns its claims, the assignee shall acquire the collateral rights related to the claims, except that the collateral rights exclusively belong to the obligee.
受让人取得从权利不因该从权利未办理转移登记手续或者未转移占有而受到影响。
The accessory rights obtained by the assignee shall not be affected because the accessory
rights are not registered for transfer or are not transferred for possession.
第五百四十八条
债务人接到债权转让通知后,债务人对让与人的抗辩,可以向受让人主张。
Article 548 Upon receipt of the notice of assignment of rights, the obligor may assert against
the assignee any defenses it has against the assignor.
第五百四十九条 有下列情形之一的,债务人可以向受让人主张抵销:
Article 549 Under any of the following circumstances, the obligor may claim set-off against
the assignee:
(一)债务人接到债权转让通知时,债务人对让与人享有债权,且债务人的债权先
于转让的债权到期或者同时到期;
1. Upon receipt by the obligor of the notice of assignment of the claims, the obligor shall
have claims against the assignor which are due prior to or at the same time as the assigned claims;
(二)债务人的债权与转让的债权是基于同一合同产生。
(II) The obligee's right of the obligor and the assigned right of the obligee arise from the
same contract.
第五百五十条 因债权转让增加的履行费用,由让与人负担。
Article 550 The expenses increased due to the transfer of the obligatory right shall be borne by
the transferor.
第五百五十一条 债务人将债务的全部或者部分转移给第三人的,应当经债权人同意。
Article 551. Where the obligor assigns all or part of its obligations to a third party, the consent
of the obligee must be obtained.
债务人或者第三人可以催告债权人在合理期限内予以同意,债权人未作表示的,视
为不同意。
The debtor or a third party may urge the creditor to give his consent within a reasonable period. If the creditor does not respond, his consent shall be deemed not to have been given.
第五百五十二条
第三人与债务人约定加入债务并通知债权人,或者第三人向债权人表示愿意加入债务,债权
人未在合理期限内明确拒绝的,债权人可以请求第三人在其愿意承担的债务范围内和债务人
承担连带债务。
Article 552 Where a third party agrees with the obligor to join in the debt and notifies the
obligee of its intention to join in the debt, or where the third party indicates to the obligee that
it is willing to join in the debt, but the obligee does not explicitly refuse to do so within a reasonable
period, the obligee may request the third party to bear joint and several debts with the obligor to the
extent of the debts it is willing to bear.
第五百五十三条
债务人转移债务的,新债务人可以主张原债务人对债权人的抗辩;原债务人对债权人享有债
权的,新债务人不得向债权人主张抵销。
Article 553. Where the obligor assigns its obligations, the new obligor may assert any defenses
which the original obligor had against the obligee; where the original obligor has claims against the
obligee, the new obligor may not assert any set-off against the obligee.
第五百五十四条
债务人转移债务的,新债务人应当承担与主债务有关的从债务,但是该从债务专属于原债务
人自身的除外。
Article 554. Where the obligor assigns its obligations, the new obligor shall assume all
accessory obligations related to the main obligation, except where the said accessory obligation
exclusively belongs to the original obligor.
第五百五十五条
当事人一方经对方同意,可以将自己在合同中的权利和义务一并转让给第三人。
Article 555. A party may, with the consent of the other party, assign to a third party all its
rights together with its obligations under the contract.
第五百五十六条 合同的权利和义务一并转让的,适用债权转让、债务转移的有关规定。
Article 556 Where the rights and obligations under a contract are assigned together, the
relevant provisions on assignment of creditor's rights and assignment of debts shall apply.
第七章 合同的权利义务终止
Chapter 7 Termination of Contractual Rights and Obligations
第五百五十七条 有下列情形之一的,债权债务终止:
Article 557 The creditor's rights and debts shall be terminated under any of the following
circumstances:
(一)债务已经履行;
1. The debts have been repaid;
(二)债务相互抵销;
(II) the obligations are mutually offset;
(三)债务人依法将标的物提存;
(III) the obligor has escrowed the subject matter in accordance with the law;
(四)债权人免除债务;
(IV) the creditor waives the debt; or
(五)债权债务同归于一人;
(V) Both claims and obligations belong to the same person;
(六)法律规定或者当事人约定终止的其他情形。
(VI) other circumstances for termination as stipulated by the law or agreed upon by the
parties concerned.
合同解除的,该合同的权利义务关系终止。
The rights and obligations arising from the rescission of this contract shall be terminated.
第五百五十八条
债权债务终止后,当事人应当遵循诚信等原则,根据交易习惯履行通知、协助、保密、旧物
回收等义务。
Article 558 Upon termination of creditor's rights and debts, the parties concerned shall comply with the principles of honesty, etc., and perform obligations of notification, assistance, confidentiality,
recycling of used items, etc. in accordance with transaction practices.
第五百五十九条
债权债务终止时,债权的从权利同时消灭,但是法律另有规定或者当事人另有约定的除外。
Article 559 Unless otherwise stipulated by the law or agreed between the parties concerned, the
incidental rights shall be extinguished simultaneously upon termination of the creditor's rights and
debts.
第五百六十条
债务人对同一债权人负担的数项债务种类相同,债务人的给付不足以清偿全部债务的,除当
事人另有约定外,由债务人在清偿时指定其履行的债务。
Article 560 Where the debtor bears the same variety of debts to the same creditor and the
payment by the debtor is insufficient to pay off all the debts, unless otherwise stipulated by the
parties, the debtor shall designate the debtor to pay off the debts when paying off the debts.
债务人未作指定的,应当优先履行已经到期的债务;数项债务均到期的,优先履行
对债权人缺乏担保或者担保最少的债务;均无担保或者担保相等的,优先履行债务人负
担较重的债务;负担相同的,按照债务到期的先后顺序履行;到期时间相同的,按照债
务比例履行。
In the absence of such appointment by the obligor, priority shall be given to the
performance of the obligations that are due; where several of the obligations are due, priority
shall be given to the performance of the obligation for which there is no security to the obligee or
the obligation with the least security; where there is no security in place for all of the obligations
or the obligations are secured equally, priority shall be given to the performance of the obligation
to which the obligor bears a heavier burden; where the burdens borne are the same, the
obligations shall be performed in the order of their maturity; and where two or more obligations
are due at the same time, they shall be performed in proportion to their respective obligations.
第五百六十一条
债务人在履行主债务外还应当支付利息和实现债权的有关费用,其给付不足以清偿全部债务
的,除当事人另有约定外,应当按照下列顺序履行:
Article 561 In addition to the performance of the principal obligation, the obligor shall also
pay any interest accrued thereon and any expenses incurred in the realization of the obligee's rights.
Where any such payment is insufficient to pay off all the obligations owed, the parties shall perform
the obligations in the following order, unless otherwise agreed by the parties:
(一)实现债权的有关费用;
1. Expenses related to the realization of creditor's rights;
(二)利息;
(II) interest;
(三)主债务。
(III) Principal debts.
第五百六十二条 当事人协商一致,可以解除合同。
Article 562 The parties may terminate a contract if they reach a consensus through consultation.
当事人可以约定一方解除合同的事由。解除合同的事由发生时,解除权人可以解除
合同。
The parties may agree upon causes for termination of the contract by either party. When a
cause for termination of the contract occurs, the party who has the right to terminate may
terminate the contract.
第五百六十三条 有下列情形之一的,当事人可以解除合同:
Article 563 The parties to a contract may rescind the contract under any of the following
circumstances:
(一)因不可抗力致使不能实现合同目的;
(1) it is impossible to achieve the purpose of the Contract due to force majeure;
(二)在履行期限届满前,当事人一方明确表示或者以自己的行为表明不履行主要
债务;
(II) the other party expressly states, or indicates through its conduct, that it will not
perform its principal obligations prior to the expiration of the performance period;
(三)当事人一方迟延履行主要债务,经催告后在合理期限内仍未履行;
(III) any party to the contract delays performing its principal obligations and fails to
perform the same within a reasonable period after being urged to do so;
(四)当事人一方迟延履行债务或者有其他违约行为致使不能实现合同目的;
(IV) the other party delays performance of its obligations, or breaches the contract in some
other manner, rendering it impossible to achieve the purpose of the contract;
(五)法律规定的其他情形。
(V) other circumstances stipulated by the law arise.
以持续履行的债务为内容的不定期合同,当事人可以随时解除合同,但是应当在合
理期限之前通知对方。
If a non-term contract contains the continuing performance of obligations, the parties may
rescind the contract at any time, provided that they notify the other party a reasonable time in
advance.
第五百六十四条
法律规定或者当事人约定解除权行使期限,期限届满当事人不行使的,该权利消灭。
Article 564 Where the laws stipulates or the parties agree upon the time limit to exercise the
right to terminate the contract, and no party exercises it when the time limit expires, the said right
shall be extinguished.
法律没有规定或者当事人没有约定解除权行使期限,自解除权人知道或者应当知道
解除事由之日起一年内不行使,或者经对方催告后在合理期限内不行使的,该权利消灭。
Where the law does not provide for or the parties do not agree upon a time limit for the
exercise of the right to rescind a contract, and no party exercises such right within one year from
the date on which the party entitled to rescind the contract knows or should have known of the
cause for rescission or fails to exercise such right within a reasonable time period after being
urged by the other party to do so, the said right shall be extinguished.
第五百六十五条 当事人一方依法主张解除合同的,应当通知对方。合同自通知到达
对方时解除;通知载明债务人在一定期限内不履行债务则合同自动解除,债务人在该期
限内未履行债务的,合同自通知载明的期限届满时解除。对方对解除合同有异议的,任
何一方当事人均可以请求人民法院或者仲裁机构确认解除行为的效力。
Article 565 A party which lawfully asserts that a contract be rescinded shall notify the other
party. The contract shall be discharged upon the receipt of the notice; if such notice specifies that the
debtor fails to perform its obligation within a certain time period, the contract shall be discharged automatically; if the debtor fails to perform its obligation within the said time period, the contract
shall be discharged upon the expiration of such time period specified in the notice. Where the other
party objects to the dissolution of the contract, either party may petition the people's court or an
arbitration institution to confirm the validity of the dissolution.
当事人一方未通知对方,直接以提起诉讼或者申请仲裁的方式依法主张解除合同,
人民法院或者仲裁机构确认该主张的,合同自起诉状副本或者仲裁申请书副本送达对方
时解除。
Where a party does not notify the other party but asserts rescission of contract pursuant to
the law by way of filing a lawsuit or applying for arbitration, and the People's Court or the
arbitration organization confirms the assertion, the contract shall be rescinded upon service of the
duplicate copy of the statement of claim or the duplicate copy of the application form for
arbitration on the other party.
第五百六十六条
合同解除后,尚未履行的,终止履行;已经履行的,根据履行情况和合同性质,当事人可以
请求恢复原状或者采取其他补救措施,并有权请求赔偿损失。
Article 566 After the termination of a contract, performance shall cease if the contract has not
been performed; if the contract has been performed, a party may, in accordance with the
circumstances of performance or the nature of the contract, request that the original position be
restored or that other remedial measures be adopted, and shall have the right to request compensation
for any losses sustained.
合同因违约解除的,解除权人可以请求违约方承担违约责任,但是当事人另有约定
的除外。
Where a contract is rescinded due to breach of contract, the party with the right to rescind
may request the breaching party to bear the liability for the breach of contract, except as
otherwise agreed upon by the parties.
主合同解除后,担保人对债务人应当承担的民事责任仍应当承担担保责任,但是担保合同另有约定的除外。
. After the principal contract has been rescinded, the security provider shall continue to bear
security liability in respect of the civil liability to be borne by the debtor, except where the
security contract stipulates otherwise.
第五百六十七条 合同的权利义务关系终止,不影响合同中结算和清理条款的效力。
Article 567 The termination of the rights and obligations under the Contract shall not affect the
validity of the provisions governing settlement and winding-up in the Contract.
第五百六十八条
当事人互负债务,该债务的标的物种类、品质相同的,任何一方可以将自己的债务与对方的
到期债务抵销;但是,根据债务性质、按照当事人约定或者依照法律规定不得抵销的除外。
Article 568. Where parties owe each other obligations, and the subject matter of the said
obligations are items of the same kind and quality, either party may offset its own obligation
against matured obligations of the other party, except where, depending on the nature of the
obligation, the parties agree or in accordance with legal provisions, the offsetting of obligations is
not permitted.
当事人主张抵销的,应当通知对方。通知自到达对方时生效。抵销不得附条件或者
附期限。
The party who claims such offset shall notify the other party. The notice shall become
effective when it reaches the other party. The offset shall not be subject to any condition or time
limit.
第五百六十九条
当事人互负债务,标的物种类、品质不相同的,经协商一致,也可以抵销。
Article 569 Where the parties have obligations towards one another, and the type and nature of
such obligations are different, the obligations may also be offset upon consensus through
consultation.
第五百七十条 有下列情形之一,难以履行债务的,债务人可以将标的物提存:
Article 570 The obligor may place the subject matter in escrow if the obligations are difficult
to be performed under any of the following circumstances:
(一)债权人无正当理由拒绝受领;
1. the obligee refuses to accept the performance without justified reasons;
(二)债权人下落不明;
(II) the whereabouts of the obligee are unknown;
(三)债权人死亡未确定继承人、遗产管理人,或者丧失民事行为能力未确定监护
人;
(III) the obligee is deceased and the successor or administrator has not been determined, or
the obligee has lost civil capacity and a guardian has not been appointed;
(四)法律规定的其他情形。
(IV) other circumstances stipulated by the law arise.
标的物不适于提存或者提存费用过高的,债务人依法可以拍卖或者变卖标的物,提存所得的价款。
Where the subject matter is not fit for escrow or the escrow expenses are too high, the
obligor may auction or sell the subject matter in accordance with the law, and escrow the
proceeds therefrom.
第五百七十一条
债务人将标的物或者将标的物依法拍卖、变卖所得价款交付提存部门时,提存成立。
Article 571 Deposit of the subject matter is established when the debtor delivers the subject
matter or proceeds from auction or sale of the subject matter pursuant to the law to the escrow
authorities.
提存成立的,视为债务人在其提存范围内已经交付标的物。
Where the deposit is admissible, the obligor shall be deemed to have delivered the subject
matter within the scope of the deposit.
第五百七十二条
标的物提存后,债务人应当及时通知债权人或者债权人的继承人、遗产管理人、监护人、财
产代管人。
Article 572. After the subject matter of the contract has been lodged, the debtor shall promptly
notify the creditor, or the creditor's heir, administrator, guardian or custodian of the property.
第五百七十三条 标的物提存后,毁损、灭失的风险由债权人承担。提存期间,标的
物的孳息归债权人所有。提存费用由债权人负担。
Article 573 Once the subject matter has been placed in escrow, the risk of damage to, destruction or loss of the subject matter shall be borne by the obligee. The obligee shall own the
fruits of the subject matter during escrow. Escrow expenses shall be borne by the obligee.
第五百七十四条 债权人可以随时领取提存物。但是,债权人对债务人负有到期债务
的,在债权人未履行债务或者提供担保之前,提存部门根据债务人的要求应当拒绝其领
取提存物。
Article 574 The obligee may claim the subject matter in escrow at any time. However, where
the obligee owes matured obligations to the obligor, the escrow institution shall, prior to the obligee's
performance of the obligations or provision of guarantee, refuse the obligee's request for collection
of the escrowed property.
债权人领取提存物的权利,自提存之日起五年内不行使而消灭,提存物扣除提存费
用后归国家所有。但是,债权人未履行对债务人的到期债务,或者债权人向提存部门书
面表示放弃领取提存物权利的,债务人负担提存费用后有权取回提存物。
The right of an obligee to claim the subject matter in escrow shall lapse if it is not exercised
within five years from the date on which the subject matter is placed in escrow. The subject
matter in escrow shall revert to the State after deduction of the escrow expenses. However, if the
obligee fails to perform its due obligations to the obligor, or the obligee waives the right to
collect the subject matter in escrow by sending a written notice to the escrow institution, the
obligor is entitled to retrieve the subject matter in escrow after paying the escrow expenses.
第五百七十五条
债权人免除债务人部分或者全部债务的,债权债务部分或者全部终止,但是债务人在合理期
限内拒绝的除外。
Article 575. If the obligee releases the obligor from its obligations in part or in whole, the
obligatory rights and obligations shall terminate in part or in whole, except where the obligor rejects
the discharge within a reasonable period of time.
第五百七十六条 债权和债务同归于一人的,债权债务终止,但是损害第三人利益的除外。
Article 576. If all the claims and obligations are assumed by the same person, the claims and
obligations shall terminate, unless they harm the interests of a third party.
第八章 违 约 责 任
Chapter 8 Liabilities for Breach
第五百七十七条
当事人一方不履行合同义务或者履行合同义务不符合约定的,应当承担继续履行、采取补救
措施或者赔偿损失等违约责任。
Article 577 If a party fails to perform its obligations under a contract, or its performance fails
to satisfy the terms of the contract, it shall bear the liabilities for breach of contract such as to
continue to perform its obligations, to take remedial measures, or to compensate for losses.
第五百七十八条
当事人一方明确表示或者以自己的行为表明不履行合同义务的,对方可以在履行期限届满前
请求其承担违约责任。
Article 578 Where one party express explicitly or indicates by its conduct that it will not
perform its obligations under a contract, the other party may request it to bear the liability for the
breach of contract before the expiry of the performance period.
第五百七十九条
当事人一方未支付价款、报酬、租金、利息,或者不履行其他金钱债务的,对方可以请求其
支付。
Article 579 In the event that one party fails to pay the price, remuneration, rental and interest,
or fails to perform the other monetary obligations, the other party may request it to pay.
第五百八十条
当事人一方不履行非金钱债务或者履行非金钱债务不符合约定的,对方可以请求履行,但是
有下列情形之一的除外:
Article 580 Where a party fails to perform the non- monetary obligations or its performance of
the non- monetary obligations fails to satisfy the terms of the contract, the other party may request it
to perform it except under any of the following circumstances:
(一)法律上或者事实上不能履行;
1. it is unable to be performed in law or in fact;
(二)债务的标的不适于强制履行或者履行费用过高;
(II) the subject matter of the obligation is unfit for compulsory performance or the
performance expenses are excessively high;
(三)债权人在合理期限内未请求履行。
(III) the obligee does not request performance within a reasonable time.
有前款规定的除外情形之一,致使不能实现合同目的的,人民法院或者仲裁机构可
以根据当事人的请求终止合同权利义务关系,但是不影响违约责任的承担。
Where the purpose of a contract can no longer be achieved due to any of the exceptions
specified in the preceding paragraph, the people's court or an arbitration institution may
terminate the contractual rights and obligations at the request of the parties, without prejudice to
the assumption of liability for breach of contract.
第五百八十一条
当事人一方不履行债务或者履行债务不符合约定,根据债务的性质不得强制履行的,对方可
以请求其负担由第三人替代履行的费用。
Article 581 Where a party fails to perform, or rendered non-conforming performance, its
obligations, and the performance cannot be compelled depending on the nature of the obligations, the
other party may request that it bear the expenses of performance by a third party.
第五百八十二条
履行不符合约定的,应当按照当事人的约定承担违约责任。对违约责任没有约定或者约定不
明确,依据本法第五百一十条的规定仍不能确定的,受损害方根据标的的性质以及损失的大
小,可以合理选择请求对方承担修理、重作、更换、退货、减少价款或者报酬等违约责任。
Article 582 If the performance does not comply with the parties' agreement, liability for breach
of contract shall be borne in accordance with the parties' agreement. Where there has been no
agreement or no clear agreement as to liability for breach of contract, and it is not possible to
determine the issue in accordance with the provisions of Article 510 of this Law, the party which has
sustained the loss, in accordance with the nature of the subject matter and the size of the loss, may
reasonably choose to request that the other party assume its breach of contract by carrying out repairs,
reworking, replacing or returning the goods, or by reducing the price charged or the remuneration
received, etc.
第五百八十三条
当事人一方不履行合同义务或者履行合同义务不符合约定的,在履行义务或者采取补救措施
后,对方还有其他损失的,应当赔偿损失。
Article 583 Where a party fails to perform its obligations under the contract or its performance
fails to conform to the agreement, and the other party still suffers from other losses after the
performance of the obligations or adoption of remedial measures, such party shall compensate the
other party for such losses.
第五百八十四条
当事人一方不履行合同义务或者履行合同义务不符合约定,造成对方损失的,损失赔偿额应
当相当于因违约所造成的损失,包括合同履行后可以获得的利益;但是,不得超过违约一方
订立合同时预见到或者应当预见到的因违约可能造成的损失。
Article 584 Where a party fails to perform its obligations under the contract or its
performance fails to conform to the agreement and cause losses to the other party, the amount of
compensation for losses shall be equal to the losses caused by the breach of contract, including the interests receivable after the performance of the contract; provided not exceeding the probable losses
caused by the breach of contract which has been foreseen or ought to be foreseen when the breaching
party concludes the contract.
第五百八十五条
当事人可以约定一方违约时应当根据违约情况向对方支付一定数额的违约金,也可以约定因
违约产生的损失赔偿额的计算方法。
Article 585 The parties may agree that if one party breaches the contract, it shall pay a certain
sum of liquidated damages to the other party in light of the circumstances of the breach, and may
also agree on a method for the calculation of the amount of compensation for the damages incurred
as a result of the breach.
约定的违约金低于造成的损失的,人民法院或者仲裁机构可以根据当事人的请求予
以增加;约定的违约金过分高于造成的损失的,人民法院或者仲裁机构可以根据当事人
的请求予以适当减少。
Where the amount of liquidated damages agreed upon is lower than the losses incurred, the people's court or an arbitration institution may increase such amount upon the request of the
parties; where the amount of liquidated damages agreed upon is excessively higher than the
losses incurred, the people's court or an arbitration institution may appropriately reduce such
amount upon the request of the parties.
当事人就迟延履行约定违约金的,违约方支付违约金后,还应当履行债务。
Where the parties agree upon the amount of liquidated damages for delayed performance,
the breaching party shall perform the obligations after paying the liquidated damages.
第五百八十六条
当事人可以约定一方向对方给付定金作为债权的担保。定金合同自实际交付定金时成立。
Article 586. The parties may agree that one party pays a deposit to the other party as security
for the claim of the creditor. The deposit contract shall be formed upon the actual payment of the
deposit.
定金的数额由当事人约定;但是,不得超过主合同标的额的百分之二十,超过部分
不产生定金的效力。实际交付的定金数额多于或者少于约定数额的,视为变更约定的定
金数额。
. The amount of the deposit shall be determined by the parties; however, it shall not exceed
20 per cent of the value of the subject matter of the principal contract, and the excess portion
shall not be valid as a deposit. Where the actual payment of deposit is more or less than the
stipulated amount, the stipulated amount shall be deemed to be changed.
第五百八十七条
债务人履行债务的,定金应当抵作价款或者收回。给付定金的一方不履行债务或者履行债务
不符合约定,致使不能实现合同目的的,无权请求返还定金;收受定金的一方不履行债务或
者履行债务不符合约定,致使不能实现合同目的的,应当双倍返还定金。
Article 587 Where the debtor performs his/her obligations, the deposit shall be set off against
the price or refunded. Where the party paying the deposit fails to perform its obligation or its
obligation does not conform to the agreement, making it impossible to achieve the purpose of the
contract, the party is not entitled to demand a refund of the deposit; where the party receiving the
deposit fails to perform its obligation or its obligation does not conform to the agreement, making it
impossible to achieve the purpose of the contract, it shall refund twice the amount of the deposit.
第五百八十八条
当事人既约定违约金,又约定定金的,一方违约时,对方可以选择适用违约金或者定金条款。
Article 588 If the parties agree on both liquidated damages and a deposit, and one party is in
breach, the other party may choose to apply either the provisions for liquidated damages or that for
the deposit.
定金不足以弥补一方违约造成的损失的,对方可以请求赔偿超过定金数额的损失。
If the deposit is insufficient to compensate for the losses caused by one party's breach of
contract, the other party may request compensation for the losses exceeding the deposit.
第五百八十九条
债务人按照约定履行债务,债权人无正当理由拒绝受领的,债务人可以请求债权人赔偿增加
的费用。
Article 589 Where the obligor performs its obligations as agreed, but the obligee refuses to
accept them without justified reasons, the obligor may request the obligee to compensate the
increased expenses.
在债权人受领迟延期间,债务人无须支付利息。
During the period of delay in receipt of the payment, the debtor need not pay interest.
第五百九十条
当事人一方因不可抗力不能履行合同的,根据不可抗力的影响,部分或者全部免除责任,但
是法律另有规定的除外。因不可抗力不能履行合同的,应当及时通知对方,以减轻可能给对
方造成的损失,并应当在合理期限内提供证明。
Article 590. If a party is unable to perform the contract due to force majeure, it shall be
partially or wholly exempted from liability in light of the impact of the force majeure, except
otherwise provided by law. Where the contract cannot be performed due to force majeure, a notice
shall be given to the other party in time so as to reduce the losses possibly caused to the other party,
and the proof shall be provided within a reasonable time limit.
当事人迟延履行后发生不可抗力的,不免除其违约责任。
If force majeure occurs after a party has delayed its performance, such party's liability for
breach of contract shall not be exempted.
第五百九十一条
当事人一方违约后,对方应当采取适当措施防止损失的扩大;没有采取适当措施致使损失扩
大的,不得就扩大的损失请求赔偿。
Article 591 Where a party breached the contract, the other party shall take the appropriate
measures to prevent the losses from increasing; where the other party's failure to take appropriate
measures results in additional losses, it cannot claim compensation for the additional losses.
当事人因防止损失扩大而支出的合理费用,由违约方负担。
Any reasonable expense incurred by the other party in preventing additional losses shall be
borne by the party in breach.
第五百九十二条 当事人都违反合同的,应当各自承担相应的责任。
Article 592 If both parties breach the contract, each party shall bear its own respective
liabilities.
当事人一方违约造成对方损失,对方对损失的发生有过错的,可以减少相应的损失
赔偿额。
Where one party breaches an agreement, thereby causing the other party to incur losses, and
the other party is at fault for the occurrence of such losses, the amount of compensation for the
corresponding losses may be reduced.
第五百九十三条
当事人一方因第三人的原因造成违约的,应当依法向对方承担违约责任。当事人一方和第三
人之间的纠纷,依照法律规定或者按照约定处理。
Article 593 Where a party's breach is attributable to a third party, it shall nevertheless be liable
to the other party for breach in accordance with the law. Any dispute between the said party and the
third party shall be resolved in accordance with the provisions of the law or the agreement between
the parties.
第五百九十四条
因国际货物买卖合同和技术进出口合同争议提起诉讼或者申请仲裁的时效期间为四年。
Article 594 The limitation period for bringing a suit or applying for arbitration regarding disputes over contracts for international sale of goods and contracts for technology import and export
is four years.
第二分编 典 型 合 同
SUBPART II TYPICAL CONTRACT
第九章 买 卖 合 同
Chapter 9 Purchase and Sale Contract
第五百九十五条
买卖合同是出卖人转移标的物的所有权于买受人,买受人支付价款的合同。
Article 595 A sales contract is a contract whereby the seller transfers the ownership of a subject
matter to the buyer, and the buyer pays the price for it.
第五百九十六条
买卖合同的内容一般包括标的物的名称、数量、质量、价款、履行期限、履行地点和方式、
包装方式、检验标准和方法、结算方式、合同使用的文字及其效力等条款。
Article 596 The contents of a sale and purchase contract generally include terms such as the
name, quantity, quality, price, time limit for performance, place and method of performance,
packaging method, inspection standards and method, settlement method, and the language used in
the contract and the validity thereof.
第五百九十七条
因出卖人未取得处分权致使标的物所有权不能转移的,买受人可以解除合同并请求出卖人承
担违约责任。
Article 597 If the ownership of the subject matter cannot be transferred due to the seller's
failure to obtain the right of disposal, the buyer may rescind the contract and request the seller to
bear the liability for breach of contract.
法律、行政法规禁止或者限制转让的标的物,依照其规定。
Where the transfer of a subject matter is prohibited or restricted by laws or administrative regulations, such provisions shall apply.
第五百九十八条
出卖人应当履行向买受人交付标的物或者交付提取标的物的单证,并转移标的物所有权的义
务。
Article 598. The seller shall perform its obligation to deliver the subject matter to the purchaser
or to deliver a document entitling the purchaser to collect the subject matter, and to transfer
ownership of the subject matter.
第五百九十九条
出卖人应当按照约定或者交易习惯向买受人交付提取标的物单证以外的有关单证和资料。
Article 599 In addition to the document for taking delivery of the subject matter, the seller shall
deliver to the buyer the relevant documents and materials in accordance with the agreement or
transaction practices.
第六百条
出卖具有知识产权的标的物的,除法律另有规定或者当事人另有约定外,该标的物的知识产
权不属于买受人。
Article 600. With respect to the sale of subject matter containing intellectual property rights,
except where laws provide otherwise or the parties agree otherwise, the intellectual property rights in
respect of such subject matter do not belong to the purchaser.
第六百零一条 出卖人应当按照约定的时间交付标的物。约定交付期限的,出卖人可
以在该交付期限内的任何时间交付。
Article 601. The seller shall deliver the subject matter at the agreed time. Where a time period
for delivery is agreed upon, the seller may deliver at any time within the said time period.
第六百零二条
当事人没有约定标的物的交付期限或者约定不明确的,适用本法第五百一十条、第五百一十
一条第四项的规定。
Article 602. Where the parties have not agreed, or have not come to a clear agreement, on a deadline for the delivery of the subject matter, the provisions of Article 510 and Article 511 (4) of
this Law shall apply.
第六百零三条 出卖人应当按照约定的地点交付标的物。
Article 603. The seller shall deliver the subject matter at the agreed place of delivery.
当事人没有约定交付地点或者约定不明确,依据本法第五百一十条的规定仍不能确
定的,适用下列规定:
Where there is no agreement in the contract between the parties on the place to deliver the
subject matter or such agreement is unclear, nor can it be determined in accordance with the
provisions of Article 510 of the Law, the following provisions shall apply:
(一)标的物需要运输的,出卖人应当将标的物交付给第一承运人以运交给买受人;
1. if the subject matter needs carriage, the seller shall deliver the subject matter to the first
carrier so as to hand it over to the buyer;
(二)标的物不需要运输,出卖人和买受人订立合同时知道标的物在某一地点的,
出卖人应当在该地点交付标的物;不知道标的物在某一地点的,应当在出卖人订立合同
时的营业地交付标的物。
(II) the subject matter does not need carriage, Where the seller and buyer know the place of
the subject matter when concluding the contract, the seller shall deliver the subject matter at such
place; where the place is unknown, the subject matter shall be delivered at the seller's place of
business at the time of conclusion of the contract. (Relevant articles: Articles 1)
第六百零四条
标的物毁损、灭失的风险,在标的物交付之前由出卖人承担,交付之后由买受人承担,但是
法律另有规定或者当事人另有约定的除外。
Article 604. The risk of the subject matter being damaged or lost shall be borne by the seller
prior to the delivery of the subject matter, and by the purchaser after the delivery of the subject
matter, except where laws provide otherwise or the parties agree otherwise.
第六百零五条
因买受人的原因致使标的物未按照约定的期限交付的,买受人应当自违反约定时起承担标的物毁损、灭失的风险。
Article 605 Where, for reasons attributable to the buyer, a subject matter is not delivered at the
agreed time, the buyer shall, as from the time it breaches the contract, bear the risk of damage to or
loss of the subject matter.
第六百零六条
出卖人出卖交由承运人运输的在途标的物,除当事人另有约定外,毁损、灭失的风险自合同
成立时起由买受人承担。
Article 606 Where the seller sells a subject matter delivered to a carrier for carriage and is in
transit, unless otherwise agreed upon by the parties, the risk of damage to or missing of the subject
matter shall be borne by the buyer as of the time of establishment of the contract.
第六百零七条
出卖人按照约定将标的物运送至买受人指定地点并交付给承运人后,标的物毁损、灭失的风险由买受人承担。
Article 607 After the seller transports the subject matter to the place designated by the buyer and delivers the subject matter to the carrier in accordance with the contract, the risk of damage to or missing of the subject matter shall be borne by the buyer.
当事人没有约定交付地点或者约定不明确,依据本法第六百零三条第二款第一项的规定标的物需要运输的,出卖人将标的物交付给第一承运人后,标的物毁损、灭失的风险由买受人承担。
Where there is no agreement in the contract between the parties as to the place of delivery
or such agreement is not clear, and the subject matter needs carriage according to the provisions
of Item 1 of Paragraph 2 of Article 603 of the Law, the risk of damage to or missing of the
subject matter shall be borne by the buyer after the seller has delivered the subject matter to the
first carrier.
第六百零八条
出卖人按照约定或者依据本法第六百零三条第二款第二项的规定将标的物置于交付地点,买
受人违反约定没有收取的,标的物毁损、灭失的风险自违反约定时起由买受人承担。
Article 608 Where the seller has placed the subject matter at the place of delivery in
accordance with the agreement or in accordance with the provisions of Item 2 of Paragraph 2 of
Article 603 of the Law, while the buyer fails to take delivery in breach of the agreement, the risk of
damage to or missing of the subject matter shall be borne by the buyer as of the time of breach of the agreement.
第六百零九条
出卖人按照约定未交付有关标的物的单证和资料的,不影响标的物毁损、灭失风险的转移。
Article 609 The failure of the seller to deliver the documents and materials relating to the
subject matter as agreed upon shall not affect the passing of the risk of damage to or missing of the
subject matter.
第六百一十条
因标的物不符合质量要求,致使不能实现合同目的的,买受人可以拒绝接受标的物或者解除
合同。买受人拒绝接受标的物或者解除合同的,标的物毁损、灭失的风险由出卖人承担。
Article 610. Where the subject matter does not meet quality requirements, and as a result it is
impossible to realize the objectives of the contract, the purchaser may refuse to accept the subject
matter or may dissolve the contract. Where the buyer refuses to accept the subject matter or rescinds
the contract, the risk of damage to or missing of the subject matter shall be borne by the seller.
第六百一十一条
标的物毁损、灭失的风险由买受人承担的,不影响因出卖人履行义务不符合约定,买受人请
求其承担违约责任的权利。
Article 611 Where the risk of damage to or loss of the subject matter is borne by the buyer, the
buyer's right to demand the seller to bear liability for breach of contract because the seller's
performance of its obligations is not in conformity with the agreement shall not be affected.
第六百一十二条
出卖人就交付的标的物,负有保证第三人对该标的物不享有任何权利的义务,但是法律另有
规定的除外。
Article 612 Unless otherwise provided by law, the seller shall have the obligation to warrant
that no third party shall have any right in respect of the delivered subject matter.
第六百一十三条
买受人订立合同时知道或者应当知道第三人对买卖的标的物享有权利的,出卖人不承担前条
规定的义务。
Article 613 Where the buyer knows or ought to know, at the time of concluding the contract,
that a third party has rights on the subject matter to be sold, the seller does not assume the obligation
prescribed in the preceding article.
第六百一十四条
买受人有确切证据证明第三人对标的物享有权利的,可以中止支付相应的价款,但是出卖人
提供适当担保的除外。
Article 614 Where the buyer has conclusive evidence to prove that a third party has the rights
on the subject matter, it may suspend the payment of the corresponding price, unless the seller
provides a proper guaranty.
第六百一十五条
出卖人应当按照约定的质量要求交付标的物。出卖人提供有关标的物质量说明的,交付的标
的物应当符合该说明的质量要求。
Article 615. The seller shall deliver the subject matter of the contract in accordance with agreed
quality requirements. Where the seller provides the quality specifications for the subject matter, the
subject matter delivered shall comply with the quality requirements set forth therein.
第六百一十六条
当事人对标的物的质量要求没有约定或者约定不明确,依据本法第五百一十条的规定仍不能
确定的,适用本法第五百一十一条第一项的规定。
Article 616 Where there is no agreement between the parties in the contract on the quality
requirements of the subject matter or such agreement is unclear, nor can it be determined in
accordance with the provisions of Article 510 of the Law, the provisions of Item 1 of Article 511 of
the Law shall apply.
第六百一十七条
出卖人交付的标的物不符合质量要求的,买受人可以依据本法第五百八十二条至第五百八十
四条的规定请求承担违约责任。
Article 617. Where the subject matter delivered by the seller does not meet quality
requirements, the purchaser may demand that the seller assume liability for breach of contract in
accordance with the provisions of Articles 582 to 584 of this Law.
第六百一十八条
当事人约定减轻或者免除出卖人对标的物瑕疵承担的责任,因出卖人故意或者重大过失不告知买受人标的物瑕疵的,出卖人无权主张减轻或者免除责任。
Article 618 Where the parties agree to reduce or exempt the liability of the seller for the defects
of the subject matter, and the seller fails to inform the buyer of the defects of the subject matter
intentionally or due to gross negligence, the seller shall have no right to claim for reduction or
exemption of its liability.
第六百一十九条
出卖人应当按照约定的包装方式交付标的物。对包装方式没有约定或者约定不明确,依据本
法第五百一十条的规定仍不能确定的,应当按照通用的方式包装;没有通用方式的,应当采
取足以保护标的物且有利于节约资源、保护生态环境的包装方式。
Article 619. The seller shall use the agreed method of packaging when delivering the subject
matter of the contract. Where there is no agreement in the contract on packaging manner or such
agreement is unclear, nor can it be determined in accordance with the provisions of Article 510 of the
Law, the subject matter shall be packed in a general manner; where there is no general manner, a
packaging manner sufficient to protect the subject matter and conducive to resource conservation and
ecological environment protection shall be adopted.
第六百二十条 买受人收到标的物时应当在约定的检验期限内检验。没有约定检验期
限的,应当及时检验。
Article 620. When the purchaser receives the subject matter of the contract, it shall inspect the
subject matter within the agreed inspection period. Where there is no agreement on the inspection
period, the goods shall be inspected promptly.
第六百二十一条 当事人约定检验期限的,买受人应当在检验期限内将标的物的数量或者质量不符合约定的情形通知出卖人。买受人怠于通知的,视为标的物的数量或者质
量符合约定。
Article 621. Where the parties have agreed on an inspection period, the purchaser shall, within
the said inspection period, notify the seller of any circumstances whereby the quantity or quality of
the subject matter is not as agreed. Where the buyer is negligent in notifying the seller, the quantity
or quality of the subject matter is deemed to comply with the contract.
当事人没有约定检验期限的,买受人应当在发现或者应当发现标的物的数量或者质
量不符合约定的合理期限内通知出卖人。买受人在合理期限内未通知或者自收到标的物
之日起二年内未通知出卖人的,视为标的物的数量或者质量符合约定;但是,对标的物
有质量保证期的,适用质量保证期,不适用该二年的规定。
Where the parties have no agreement on an inspection period, the buyer shall notify the
seller within a reasonable period, commencing on the date when the buyer discovered or should
have discovered the quantity or quality non-compliance. Where the buyer fails to notify within a
reasonable period or fails to notify within two (2) years from the date of receipt of the subject
matter, the quantity or quality of the subject matter shall be deemed to comply with the parties'
agreement. However, if the subject matter has a quality guarantee period, the said quality
guarantee period shall apply, and the said two-year provision shall not apply.
出卖人知道或者应当知道提供的标的物不符合约定的,买受人不受前两款规定的通知时间的限制。
Where the seller knows or ought to know that the subject matter to be provided does not
conform to the terms of the contract, the buyer is not subject to the time limits for notification
prescribed in the preceding two paragraphs.
第六百二十二条
当事人约定的检验期限过短,根据标的物的性质和交易习惯,买受人在检验期限内难以完成
全面检验的,该期限仅视为买受人对标的物的外观瑕疵提出异议的期限。
Article 622 Where the inspection period agreed upon by the parties is too short, and it is
difficult for the buyer to complete the inspection within the inspection period due to the nature of the
subject matter and transaction practice, the period shall be deemed only as the period for the buyer to
raise objection to the appearance defects of the subject matter.
约定的检验期限或者质量保证期短于法律、行政法规规定期限的,应当以法律、行政法规规定的期限为准。
Where the agreed inspection period or quality guarantee period is shorter than the period
stipulated in the laws and administrative regulations, the period stipulated in the laws and
administrative regulations shall prevail.
第六百二十三条
当事人对检验期限未作约定,买受人签收的送货单、确认单等载明标的物数量、型号、规格的,推定买受人已经对数量和外观瑕疵进行检验,但是有相关证据足以推翻的除外。
Article 623 Where the parties do not agree on the inspection period, and the delivery note,
confirmation slip, etc. signed by a buyer states the quantity, model number, specifications of the
subject matter, the buyer shall be deemed to have inspected the quantity and checked whether there
is any visible defect, unless there is adequate evidence to subvert.
第六百二十四条
出卖人依照买受人的指示向第三人交付标的物,出卖人和买受人约定的检验标准与买受人和
第三人约定的检验标准不一致的,以出卖人和买受人约定的检验标准为准。
Article 624 Where the seller delivers the subject matter to a third party in accordance
with the instruction of the buyer, and the inspection standards agreed by the seller and the
buyer are inconsistent with those agreed by the buyer and the third party, the inspection
standards agreed by the seller and the buyer shall prevail.
第六百二十五条
依照法律、行政法规的规定或者按照当事人的约定,标的物在有效使用年限届满后应予回收
的,出卖人负有自行或者委托第三人对标的物予以回收的义务。
Article 625 Where, in accordance with the provisions of laws and administrative regulations or
the agreement between the parties, the subject matter shall be recovered after the expiration of its
valid service life, the seller shall be obligated to recover the subject matter by itself or by entrusting a
third party.
第六百二十六条
买受人应当按照约定的数额和支付方式支付价款。对价款的数额和支付方式没有约定或者约定不明确的,适用本法第五百一十条、第五百一十一条第二项和第五项的规定。
Article 626 The buyer shall pay the price in the agreed amount and according to the agreed
method of payment. Where there has been no agreement, or no clear agreement, on the amount of the price and the method of payment, the provisions of Article 510 and Items 2 and 5 of Article 511 of this Law shall apply.
第六百二十七条
买受人应当按照约定的地点支付价款。对支付地点没有约定或者约定不明确,依据本法第五百一十条的规定仍不能确定的,买受人应当在出卖人的营业地支付;但是,约定支付价款以
交付标的物或者交付提取标的物单证为条件的,在交付标的物或者交付提取标的物单证的所
在地支付。
Article 627. The purchaser shall pay the purchase price at the agreed place. If there is no
agreement in the contract on the place of payment or such agreement is unclear, nor can it be
determined in accordance with the provisions of Article 510 of the Law, the buyer shall make
payment at the seller's business place. However, if it is agreed that the delivery of the subject matter
or the document for taking delivery thereof is conditional upon the payment of the price, the payment
shall be made at the place where the subject matter or the document for taking delivery thereof is
delivered.
第六百二十八条 买受人应当按照约定的时间支付价款。对支付时间没有约定或者约
定不明确,依据本法第五百一十条的规定仍不能确定的,买受人应当在收到标的物或者
提取标的物单证的同时支付。
Article 628. The purchaser shall pay the purchase price at the agreed time. Where the time of
payment is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, nor can it be determined in accordance with
Article 510 of this Law, the buyer shall make payment at the same time it receives the subject matter
or the document for taking delivery thereof.
第六百二十九条 出卖人多交标的物的,买受人可以接收或者拒绝接收多交的部分。
买受人接收多交部分的,按照约定的价格支付价款;买受人拒绝接收多交部分的,应当
及时通知出卖人。
Article 629 Where the seller delivers the subject matter in a quantity greater than that agreed in the contract, the buyer may accept or refuse to accept the excess quantity. Where the buyer accepts
the excess quantity, it shall pay for the excess quantity at the agreed price; where the buyer refuses to accept the excess quantity, it shall promptly notify the seller.
第六百三十条 标的物在交付之前产生的孳息,归出卖人所有;交付之后产生的孳息,
归买受人所有。但是,当事人另有约定的除外。
Article 630 The fruits of the subject matter belong to the Seller if accrued before delivery, and
to the Buyer if accrued after delivery. However, if the parties have agreed otherwise, such agreement
shall prevail.
第六百三十一条
因标的物的主物不符合约定而解除合同的,解除合同的效力及于从物。因标的物的从物不符
合约定被解除的,解除的效力不及于主物。
Article 631 Where the contract is rescinded due to non-compliance of any main component of
the subject matter, the effect of rescission extends to the ancillary components. Where the contract is
terminated due to non-compliance of any ancillary component of the subject matter, the effect of
termination does not extend to the principal component.
第六百三十二条 标的物为数物,其中一物不符合约定的,买受人可以就该物解除。
但是,该物与他物分离使标的物的价值显受损害的,买受人可以就数物解除合同。
Article 632. Where the subject matter of the contract is made up of a number of items, and one
of the said items does not conform to the parties' agreement, the purchaser may dissolve the said item.
However, if the separation of the subject matter from other objects significantly impairs the value of
the subject matter, the buyer may rescind the contract in respect of several objects.
第六百三十三条
出卖人分批交付标的物的,出卖人对其中一批标的物不交付或者交付不符合约定,致使该批
标的物不能实现合同目的的,买受人可以就该批标的物解除。
Article 633 Where the seller delivers the subject matter in installments, if the seller fails to
deliver one installment of the subject matter or the delivery fails to satisfy the terms of the
contract so that the said installment cannot realize the contract purpose, the buyer may terminate the portion of the contract in respect thereof.
出卖人不交付其中一批标的物或者交付不符合约定,致使之后其他各批标的物的交付不能实现合同目的的,买受人可以就该批以及之后其他各批标的物解除。
If the seller fails to deliver one installment of the subject matter or the delivery fails to
satisfy the terms of the contract so that the delivery of subsequent installments of the subject
matter cannot realize the contract purpose, the buyer may terminate the portion of the contract in
respect of such installment as well as any subsequent installment.
买受人如果就其中一批标的物解除,该批标的物与其他各批标的物相互依存的,可以就已经交付和未交付的各批标的物解除。
If the buyer dissolves the contract with respect to one batch of the subject matter and the
said batch of the subject matter and the other batches of the subject matter are interdependent,
the buyer may dissolve the contract with respect to batches of the subject matter delivered and
undelivered.
第六百三十四条
分期付款的买受人未支付到期价款的数额达到全部价款的五分之一,经催告后在合理期限内
仍未支付到期价款的,出卖人可以请求买受人支付全部价款或者解除合同。
Article 634 Where the buyer making payment by installments fails to pay the price due and
the amount unpaid accounts for one fifth of the total price, and still fails to pay the price due within a
reasonable time limit after being urged, the seller may request the buyer to pay the total price or
rescind the contract.
出卖人解除合同的,可以向买受人请求支付该标的物的使用费。
Where the seller rescinds the contract, it may require the buyer to pay a fee for the use of
such subject matter.
第六百三十五条 凭样品买卖的当事人应当封存样品,并可以对样品质量予以说明。
出卖人交付的标的物应当与样品及其说明的质量相同。
Article 635 In a sale by sample, the parties shall place the sample under seal, and may specify
the quality of the sample. The subject matter delivered by the seller shall comply with the samples as
well as the quality specifications.
第六百三十六条
凭样品买卖的买受人不知道样品有隐蔽瑕疵的,即使交付的标的物与样品相同,出卖人交付
的标的物的质量仍然应当符合同种物的通常标准。
Article 636 In a sale by sample, if the buyer is not aware of a latent defect in the sample, the
subject matter delivered by the seller shall nevertheless comply with the normal quality standard for
a like item, even though the subject matter delivered complies with the sample.
第六百三十七条 试用买卖的当事人可以约定标的物的试用期限。对试用期限没有约定或者约定不明确,依据本法第五百一十条的规定仍不能确定的,由出卖人确定。
Article 637 The parties to a sales transaction by trial use may agree on a trial period for the use
of the subject matter. Where such period is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, nor can it be
determined in accordance with Article 510 of this Law, it shall be determined by the seller.
第六百三十八条 试用买卖的买受人在试用期内可以购买标的物,也可以拒绝购买。
试用期限届满,买受人对是否购买标的物未作表示的,视为购买。
Article 638. A purchaser who purchases items on a trial basis may either purchase the subject
matter or refuse to purchase the subject matter during the trial period, as appropriate. Upon
expiration of the trial period, if the buyer fails to express whether or not to purchase the subject
matter, it shall be deemed to have purchased the subject matter.
试用买卖的买受人在试用期内已经支付部分价款或者对标的物实施出卖、出租、设
立担保物权等行为的,视为同意购买。
Where the buyer to a sales transaction by trial has already made partial payment or has sold,
leased, or created a Security Right over the subject matter during the trial period, it shall be
deemed that the buyer has agreed to buy.
第六百三十九条
试用买卖的当事人对标的物使用费没有约定或者约定不明确的,出卖人无权请求买受人支付。
Article 639 In a sale by trial, if the parties have not agreed, or have not come to a clear
agreement, on a fee for the use of the subject matter, the seller shall have no right to demand
payment by the buyer.
第六百四十条 标的物在试用期内毁损、灭失的风险由出卖人承担。
Article 640 The risk of damage to or loss of the subject matter during the probationary period
shall be borne by the seller.
第六百四十一条
当事人可以在买卖合同中约定买受人未履行支付价款或者其他义务的,标的物的所有权属于
出卖人。
Article 641 The parties may agree in a sales contract that the ownership of the subject matter
shall belong to the seller if the buyer fails to pay the price or perform other obligations.
出卖人对标的物保留的所有权,未经登记,不得对抗善意第三人。
. Where the seller retains ownership of the subject matter of the contract without
registration, the seller may not contest a bona fide third party.
第六百四十二条
当事人约定出卖人保留合同标的物的所有权,在标的物所有权转移前,买受人有下列情形之
一,造成出卖人损害的,除当事人另有约定外,出卖人有权取回标的物:
Article 642 Where the parties agree that the seller shall retain the ownership of the subject
matter of the contract, if the buyer is under any of the following circumstances before the ownership
of the subject matter is transferred, causing damage to the seller, the seller shall have the right to take
back the subject matter, unless otherwise agreed by the parties:
(一)未按照约定支付价款,经催告后在合理期限内仍未支付;
1. fails to make payment as agreed and still fails to make payment within a reasonable
period after being urged to do so;
(二)未按照约定完成特定条件;
(II) The specified conditions are not fulfilled as agreed;
(三)将标的物出卖、出质或者作出其他不当处分。
(III) selling, pledging or otherwise disposing of the subject matter improperly.
出卖人可以与买受人协商取回标的物;协商不成的,可以参照适用担保物权的实现
程序。
The seller may negotiate with the buyer to recover the subject matter; where negotiation is
unsuccessful, reference may be made to the procedures for realization of Security Right.
第六百四十三条
出卖人依据前条第一款的规定取回标的物后,买受人在双方约定或者出卖人指定的合理回赎
期限内,消除出卖人取回标的物的事由的,可以请求回赎标的物。
Article 643 After the seller takes back the subject matter in accordance with the provisions of
Paragraph 1 of the preceding Article, the buyer may request to redeem the subject matter if the
reasons for the seller's taking back the subject matter are eliminated within the reasonable redeeming
period agreed by both parties or specified by the seller.
买受人在回赎期限内没有回赎标的物,出卖人可以以合理价格将标的物出卖给第三
人,出卖所得价款扣除买受人未支付的价款以及必要费用后仍有剩余的,应当返还买受
人;不足部分由买受人清偿。
Where the buyer does not redeem the subject matter within the redeem period, the seller
may sell the subject matter to a third party at a reasonable price; where there is a balance after
deducting the amount unpaid by the buyer and the requisite expenses from the sale proceeds, the
balance shall be refunded to the buyer; the buyer shall pay any shortfall.
第六百四十四条
招标投标买卖的当事人的权利和义务以及招标投标程序等,依照有关法律、行政法规的规定。
Article 644 In a sale by tender, matters such as the rights and obligations of the parties and the
tendering procedure, etc. are governed by the relevant laws and administrative regulations.
第六百四十五条
拍卖的当事人的权利和义务以及拍卖程序等,依照有关法律、行政法规的规定。
Article 645 The rights and obligations of the parties to an auction and the procedures therefor
shall be governed by the provisions of the relevant laws and administrative regulations.
第六百四十六条
法律对其他有偿合同有规定的,依照其规定;没有规定的,参照适用买卖合同的有关规定。
Article 646 If there are provisions in the law for other non-gratuitous contracts, such provisions
shall apply; in the absence of such provisions, the relevant provisions on sales contracts shall apply
mutatis mutandis.
第六百四十七条
当事人约定易货交易,转移标的物的所有权的,参照适用买卖合同的有关规定。
Article 647 Where the parties agree on a barter transaction involving transfer of title to the
subject matter, the relevant provisions on sales contracts shall apply as reference.
第十章 供用电、水、气、热力合同
Chapter 10 Contracts for Supply of Power, Water, Gas, Or Heat
第六百四十八条 供用电合同是供电人向用电人供电,用电人支付电费的合同。
Article 648 A power supply contract is a contract whereby the power supplier supplies power
to the power customer, and the power consumer pay an electricity fee.
向社会公众供电的供电人,不得拒绝用电人合理的订立合同要求。
The power supplier supplying power to the general public may not refuse the reasonable
request of the power customer to conclude a contract.
第六百四十九条
供用电合同的内容一般包括供电的方式、质量、时间,用电容量、地址、性质,计量方式,
电价、电费的结算方式,供用电设施的维护责任等条款。
Article 649 The contents of a power supply contract generally include terms such as the
method, quality, and time of power supply, and the capacity, location and nature of power use, and
the metering method, electricity rate, the method of settlement of electricity fees, and the
responsibility for maintenance of the power supply and use facilities, etc.
第六百五十条
供用电合同的履行地点,按照当事人约定;当事人没有约定或者约定不明确的,供电设施的
产权分界处为履行地点。
Article 650. The place at which a contract for the supply and consumption of electricity is to be
performed shall be agreed on by the parties; where the parties have not agreed, or have not come to a clear agreement, on the place of performance, the place of performance shall be at the boundary where ownership of the electricity supply facilities is divided.
第六百五十一条 供电人应当按照国家规定的供电质量标准和约定安全供电。供电人
未按照国家规定的供电质量标准和约定安全供电,造成用电人损失的,应当承担赔偿责任。
Article 651 The power supplier shall safely supply power in accordance with the standards for
power supply stipulated by the State and with the terms of the contract. Where the power supplier
fails to supply power in a safe manner in accordance with the standards for power supply stipulated
by the State and with the terms of the contract, thereby causing losses to the power customer, it shall
be liable for compensation.
第六百五十二条
供电人因供电设施计划检修、临时检修、依法限电或者用电人违法用电等原因,需要中断供
电时,应当按照国家有关规定事先通知用电人;未事先通知用电人中断供电,造成用电人损
失的,应当承担赔偿责任。
Article 652 Where the power supplier needs to suspend the power supply due to reasons such
as planned maintenance or provisional inspection and repair of the facilities for power supply,
restriction on power supply in accordance with the law or illegal use of power by the power customer,
the power supplier shall notify the power customer in advance in accordance with the relevant
provisions of the State; if it fails to notify the power customer in advance to suspend the power
supply, thereby causing losses to the power customer, it shall be liable for compensation.
第六百五十三条
因自然灾害等原因断电,供电人应当按照国家有关规定及时抢修;未及时抢修,造成用电人
损失的,应当承担赔偿责任。
Article 653 Where the power supply is suspended due to a natural disaster or other reasons, the
power supplier shall make prompt repairs in accordance with the relevant provisions of the State; if
the power supplier fails to make prompt repairs, thereby causing losses to the power customer, it
shall be liable for compensation.
第六百五十四条
用电人应当按照国家有关规定和当事人的约定及时支付电费。用电人逾期不支付电费的,应
当按照约定支付违约金。经催告用电人在合理期限内仍不支付电费和违约金的,供电人可以
按照国家规定的程序中止供电。
Article 654 The power customer shall timely pay the electricity fees in accordance with the
relevant provisions of the State and with the terms of the contract. Where the consumer fails to pay
the electricity charge within the time limit, the consumer shall pay liquidated damages in accordance
with the terms of the contract. Where the power customer fails to pay the electricity fees and
liquidated damages within a reasonable time limit after receiving demand for payment, the power
supplier may suspend the power supply in accordance with the procedures prescribed by the State.
供电人依据前款规定中止供电的,应当事先通知用电人。
Where the power supplier suspends the supply in accordance with the provisions of the
preceding paragraph, it shall notify the power customer in advance.
第六百五十五条 用电人应当按照国家有关规定和当事人的约定安全、节约和计划用
电。用电人未按照国家有关规定和当事人的约定用电,造成供电人损失的,应当承担赔偿责任。
Article 655 The consumer of electricity shall consume electricity in a safe, economical and
planned manner in accordance with the relevant provisions of the State and with the terms of the
contract. Where the power customer fails to use power in accordance with the relevant provisions of
the State and with the terms of the contract, thereby causing losses to the power supplier, it shall be
liable for compensation.
第六百五十六条 供用水、供用气、供用热力合同,参照适用供用电合同的有关规定。
Article 656 Contracts for the supply of water, gas and heat shall be governed by reference to
the relevant provisions applicable to power supply contracts.
第十一章 赠 与 合 同
Chapter 11 Gift Contract
第六百五十七条
赠与合同是赠与人将自己的财产无偿给予受赠人,受赠人表示接受赠与的合同。
Article 657 A donation contract is a contract whereby the donor conveys his property to the donee gratuitously and the donee expresses his acceptance of the donation.
第六百五十八条 赠与人在赠与财产的权利转移之前可以撤销赠与。
Article 658. The donor may revoke the gift prior to the transfer of its proprietary rights to the
granted property.
经过公证的赠与合同或者依法不得撤销的具有救灾、扶贫、助残等公益、道德义务
性质的赠与合同,不适用前款规定。
The provisions of the preceding paragraph shall not apply to any notarized donation
contract or any donation contract of such public welfare or moral obligation nature as disaster
relief, poverty alleviation or disability assistance that may not be revoked in accordance with the
law.
第六百五十九条 赠与的财产依法需要办理登记或者其他手续的,应当办理有关手续。
Article 659 Where conveyance of the gifted property is subject to registration or other
procedures in accordance with the law, the relevant procedures shall be carried out.
第六百六十条
经过公证的赠与合同或者依法不得撤销的具有救灾、扶贫、助残等公益、道德义务性质的赠
与合同,赠与人不交付赠与财产的,受赠人可以请求交付。
Article 660 Where the donor fails to deliver the donated property under a notarized donation
contract or a donation contract of such public welfare or moral obligation nature as disaster relief,
poverty alleviation or disability alleviation, etc. that cannot be revoked in accordance with the law,
the donee may require delivery.
依据前款规定应当交付的赠与财产因赠与人故意或者重大过失致使毁损、灭失的,
赠与人应当承担赔偿责任。
Where the gift property to be delivered in accordance with the preceding paragraph is
damaged or lost due to any intentional misconduct or gross negligence of the donor, he shall be
liable for compensation.
第六百六十一条 赠与可以附义务。
Article 661 The donation may be subject to obligations.
赠与附义务的,受赠人应当按照约定履行义务。
Where obligations are attached to the making of a gift, the donee shall perform those
obligations as agreed.
第六百六十二条
赠与的财产有瑕疵的,赠与人不承担责任。附义务的赠与,赠与的财产有瑕疵的,赠与人在
附义务的限度内承担与出卖人相同的责任。
Article 662. Where the granted property contains a defect, the donor shall not bear any liability
in relation to the defect. In the case of a donation subject to obligations, if the donated property is
defective, the donator shall bear the same liability as a seller to the extent of the obligations.
赠与人故意不告知瑕疵或者保证无瑕疵,造成受赠人损失的,应当承担赔偿责任。
Where the donor intentionally fails to inform the donee of the defects or warrants that there
are no defects, thereby causing losses to the donee, he shall be liable for compensation.
第六百六十三条 受赠人有下列情形之一的,赠与人可以撤销赠与:
Article 663 Where the donee is in any of the following circumstances, the donator may rescind
the donation:
(一)严重侵害赠与人或者赠与人近亲属的合法权益;
1. seriously infringing the lawful rights and interests of the donator or close relatives
thereof;
(二)对赠与人有扶养义务而不履行;
(II) Where he fails to perform his maintenance obligation to the donator;
(三)不履行赠与合同约定的义务。
(III) failing to perform the obligations under the donation contract.
赠与人的撤销权,自知道或者应当知道撤销事由之日起一年内行使。
The donor shall exercise its right of revocation within one year from the date on which it
knew or ought to have known of the cause for revocation.
第六百六十四条
因受赠人的违法行为致使赠与人死亡或者丧失民事行为能力的,赠与人的继承人或者法定代
理人可以撤销赠与。
Article 664 If, as a result of the donee's illegal acts, the donor dies or loses his capacity for civil
conduct, his heir or legal agent may rescind the gift.
赠与人的继承人或者法定代理人的撤销权,自知道或者应当知道撤销事由之日起六
个月内行使。
The heir or legal agent of the donor shall exercise the right of revocation within six months
after he knows, or ought to know, the cause for revocation.
第六百六十五条 撤销权人撤销赠与的,可以向受赠人请求返还赠与的财产。
Article 665. Where the party with the right of revocation revokes the gift, it may request that
the donee return the granted property.
第六百六十六条
赠与人的经济状况显著恶化,严重影响其生产经营或者家庭生活的,可以不再履行赠与义务。
Article 666. Where there is a marked deterioration in the economic situation of the donor,
seriously affecting the donor's production and business operations or family life, the donor may cease
to perform the gift obligations.
第十二章 借 款 合 同
Chapter 12 Loan Contract
第六百六十七条 借款合同是借款人向贷款人借款,到期返还借款并支付利息的合同。
Article 667 A contract for loan of money is a contract whereby the borrower borrows a sum of
money from the lender, and repays the borrowed money with interest thereon when it becomes due.
第六百六十八条 借款合同应当采用书面形式,但是自然人之间借款另有约定的除外。
Article 668 A contract for loan of money shall be in writing, except where the loan is between
natural persons who have agreed otherwise.
借款合同的内容一般包括借款种类、币种、用途、数额、利率、期限和还款方式等条款。
The contents of a contract for loan of money generally include terms such as the type of
loan, currency, purpose, amount, interest rate, term and method of repayment, etc.
第六百六十九条
订立借款合同,借款人应当按照贷款人的要求提供与借款有关的业务活动和财务状况的真实
情况。
Article 669 In entering into a contract for loan of money, the borrower shall provide true
information concerning its business operation and financial condition in connection with the loan as required by the lender.
第六百七十条
借款的利息不得预先在本金中扣除。利息预先在本金中扣除的,应当按照实际借款数额返还
借款并计算利息。
Article 670. Interest on the loan shall not be deducted from the loan principal in advance. If
interest is deducted from the principal in advance, the loan shall be repaid and interest shall be
calculated on the basis of the actual amount borrowed.
第六百七十一条
贷款人未按照约定的日期、数额提供借款,造成借款人损失的,应当赔偿损失。
Article 671 Where the lender fails to make the loan amount available on the agreed date and in
the agreed amount, thereby causing losses to the borrower, it shall pay damages.
借款人未按照约定的日期、数额收取借款的,应当按照约定的日期、数额支付利息。
Where the borrower fails to accept the loan on the agreed date and in the agreed amount, it
shall pay the interest on the agreed date and in the agreed amount.
第六百七十二条
贷款人按照约定可以检查、监督借款的使用情况。借款人应当按照约定向贷款人定期提供有
关财务会计报表或者其他资料。
Article 672 The lender may inspect and supervise the use of the loan in accordance with the
terms of the contract. The borrower shall, as agreed, regularly provide the lender with relevant financial and accounting statements or other information.
第六百七十三条
借款人未按照约定的借款用途使用借款的,贷款人可以停止发放借款、提前收回借款或者解
除合同。
Article 673. Where the borrower fails to use the loan in accordance with the purpose of the
loan as agreed, the lender may withhold funding, call the loan, or terminate the contract.
第六百七十四条
借款人应当按照约定的期限支付利息。对支付利息的期限没有约定或者约定不明确,依据本
法第五百一十条的规定仍不能确定,借款期间不满一年的,应当在返还借款时一并支付;借
款期间一年以上的,应当在每届满一年时支付,剩余期间不满一年的,应当在返还借款时一
并支付。
Article 674 The borrower shall pay the interest within the agreed time limit and in accordance
with the contract. Where there has been no agreement or no clear agreement as to the time limit for
the payment of interest, and the said time limit cannot be determined by reference to the provisions
of Article 510 of this Law, then where the loan period is less than one (1) year, interest shall be paid
at the same time that the principal is repaid in full; where the loan period is one (1) year or longer,
then interest shall be paid at the completion of each annual period, and where that part of the loan
period which remains is less than one (1) year, then interest shall be paid at the same time that the
principal is repaid in full.
第六百七十五条
借款人应当按照约定的期限返还借款。对借款期限没有约定或者约定不明确,依据本法第五百一十条的规定仍不能确定的,借款人可以随时返还;贷款人可以催告借款人在合理期限内
返还。
Article 675. The borrower shall repay the loan principal within the agreed time period. Where
there has been no agreement or no clear agreement as to the loan term, and the said loan term cannot
be determined by reference to the provisions of Article 510 of this Law, the borrower may repay the
loan at any time; the lender may call on the borrower to repay the loan within a reasonable period of
time.
第六百七十六条
借款人未按照约定的期限返还借款的,应当按照约定或者国家有关规定支付逾期利息。
Article 676 Where the borrower fails to repay the loan within the agreed time limit, it shall pay
overdue interest in accordance with the terms of the contract or the relevant provisions of the State.
第六百七十七条
借款人提前返还借款的,除当事人另有约定外,应当按照实际借款的期间计算利息。
Article 677 Where the borrower repays the loan ahead of schedule, unless otherwise agreed by
the parties, the interest shall be calculated based on the actual period of loan.
第六百七十八条
借款人可以在还款期限届满前向贷款人申请展期;贷款人同意的,可以展期。
Article 678 The borrower may apply to the lender for an extension of the loan term before its maturity; such term may be extended if the lender so agrees.
第六百七十九条 自然人之间的借款合同,自贷款人提供借款时成立。
Article 679 A contract for loan of money between natural persons shall be established at the
time the lender makes the loan amount available.
第六百八十条 禁止高利放贷,借款的利率不得违反国家有关规定。
Article 680 It is forbidden to lend money at a high interest rate, and the interest rates on loans
must not violate relevant State regulations.
借款合同对支付利息没有约定的,视为没有利息。
Where the loan contract does not stipulate the payment of interest, the loan shall be deemed
interest free.
借款合同对支付利息约定不明确,当事人不能达成补充协议的,按照当地或者当事
人的交易方式、交易习惯、市场利率等因素确定利息;自然人之间借款的,视为没有利
息。
Where the agreement on payment of interest in a loan contract is unclear, and the parties concerned are unable to reach a supplementary agreement, interest shall be determined in accordance with the transaction method, transaction practice, market interest rate etc. of the locality or the parties concerned; where a loan is between natural persons, no interest shall be deemed.
第十三章 保 证 合 同
Chapter 13 Guarantee Contract
第一节 一 般 规 定
SECTION 1 GENERAL PROVISIONS
第六百八十一条
保证合同是为保障债权的实现,保证人和债权人约定,当债务人不履行到期债务或者发生当
事人约定的情形时,保证人履行债务或者承担责任的合同。
Article 681. A guarantee contract is a contract whereby the guarantor and the creditor agree
that the guarantor will perform the obligation or assume liability when the debtor fails to perform the obligation on time or when circumstances agreed upon by the parties occur to ensure the realization of the obligation.
第六百八十二条 保证合同是主债权债务合同的从合同。主债权债务合同无效的,保证合同无效,但是法律另有规定的除外。
Article 682 A guarantee contract shall be a subordinate one to the principal contract. Unless it
is otherwise prescribed by any law, the guaranty contract shall be invalid if the principal contract is
invalid.
保证合同被确认无效后,债务人、保证人、债权人有过错的,应当根据其过错各自
承担相应的民事责任。
. If a guarantee contract is confirmed to be void and the debtor, guarantor and creditor are at
fault, they shall bear the corresponding civil liability according to their respective fault.
第六百八十三条
机关法人不得为保证人,但是经国务院批准为使用外国政府或者国际经济组织贷款进行转贷的除外。
Article 683 Government departments with legal person status must not act as guarantors,
except where loans from foreign governments or international economic organizations are used in the form of a sub-loan with the approval of the State Council.
以公益为目的的非营利法人、非法人组织不得为保证人。
A non-profit legal person or unincorporated organization for the purpose of public welfare
shall not be a guarantor.
第六百八十四条
保证合同的内容一般包括被保证的主债权的种类、数额,债务人履行债务的期限,保证的方
式、范围和期间等条款。
Article 684. The content of a guarantee contract generally includes clauses dealing with the
type and amount of the principal obligation guaranteed, the time limit for the debtor to discharge the
obligation, the method, scope and term of the guarantee, etc.
第六百八十五条
保证合同可以是单独订立的书面合同,也可以是主债权债务合同中的保证条款。
Article 685 A guarantee contract may be a written contract entered into separately or a
guarantee clause in the principal contract.
第三人单方以书面形式向债权人作出保证,债权人接收且未提出异议的,保证合同
成立。
. If a third party unilaterally gives the creditor a written guarantee and the creditor receives
such guarantee without objection, a guarantee contract is formed.
第六百八十六条 保证的方式包括一般保证和连带责任保证。
Article 686 The forms of guarantee include general guarantee and joint and several liability
guarantee.
当事人在保证合同中对保证方式没有约定或者约定不明确的,按照一般保证承担保
证责任。
If no agreement or the agreement is not clear on the guaranty mode in the guaranty contract,
the parties shall bear the guaranty liability according to the general guaranty.
第六百八十七条
当事人在保证合同中约定,债务人不能履行债务时,由保证人承担保证责任的,为一般保证。
Article 687 A general guarantee is a guarantee whereby the parties agree in a guarantee
contract that the guarantor shall bear guarantee liability when the debtor fails to perform his
obligation.
一般保证的保证人在主合同纠纷未经审判或者仲裁,并就债务人财产依法强制执行
仍不能履行债务前,有权拒绝向债权人承担保证责任,但是有下列情形之一的除外:
The guarantor under a general guarantee shall have the right to refuse to assume guarantee
liability to the creditor before a dispute concerning the principal contract has been adjudicated or
arbitrated and when such debtor has failed to perform his obligation despite enforcement against
his property in accordance with the law, except under any of the following circumstances:
(一)债务人下落不明,且无财产可供执行;
1. The whereabouts of the debtor is unknown and there is no property available for
enforcement;
(二)人民法院已经受理债务人破产案件;
(II) the people's court has accepted the debtor's bankruptcy case;
(三)债权人有证据证明债务人的财产不足以履行全部债务或者丧失履行债务能力;
(III) the creditor has evidence to prove that the debtor's property is insufficient to perform
all the debts or the debtor has lost the capacity to perform the debts;
(四)保证人书面表示放弃本款规定的权利。
(IV) The guarantor expresses in writing to waive his right as stipulated in this paragraph.
第六百八十八条
当事人在保证合同中约定保证人和债务人对债务承担连带责任的,为连带责任保证。
Article 688 A guarantee with joint and several liability is a guarantee whereby the parties agree
in a guarantee contract that the guarantor and the debtor are jointly and severally liable for the
obligation.
连带责任保证的债务人不履行到期债务或者发生当事人约定的情形时,债权人可以
请求债务人履行债务,也可以请求保证人在其保证范围内承担保证责任。
When the debtor in a guarantee with joint and several liability fails to perform his obligation on time or any circumstance agreed by the parties arises, the creditor may require the debtor to perform his obligation or the guarantor to assume guarantee liability within the scope of his guarantee.
第六百八十九条 保证人可以要求债务人提供反担保。
Article 689 A guarantor may require the debtor to provide a counter-guarantee.
第六百九十条
保证人与债权人可以协商订立最高额保证的合同,约定在最高债权额限度内就一定期间连续
发生的债权提供保证。
Article 690. The guarantor and the creditor may conclude a contract for a guarantee up to the
maximum amount, agreeing to provide a guarantee for successive obligations over a certain period
up to a maximum obligation amount.
最高额保证除适用本章规定外,参照适用本法第二编最高额抵押权的有关规定。
In addition to the provisions of this Chapter, the relevant provisions on maximum amount
mortgage rights in Part 2 of this Law shall apply as reference to maximum amount guarantee.
第二节 保 证 责 任
Section 2 Warranty Responsibility
第六百九十一条 保证的范围包括主债权及其利息、违约金、损害赔偿金和实现债权
的费用。当事人另有约定的,按照其约定。
Article 691. The scope of the guarantee shall include the principal claim and its interest, fines
for default, compensation for loss and expenses incurred in the satisfaction of the claim. Where the
parties agree otherwise, their agreement shall prevail.
第六百九十二条 保证期间是确定保证人承担保证责任的期间,不发生中止、中断和延长。
Article 692. The guarantee term is the period during which the guarantor's responsibility under
the guarantee is determined and is not subject to suspension, interruption or extension.
债权人与保证人可以约定保证期间,但是约定的保证期间早于主债务履行期限或者与主债务履行期限同时届满的,视为没有约定;没有约定或者约定不明确的,保证期间为主债务履行期限届满之日起六个月。
The creditor and the guarantee provider may agree on the guarantee term, however, if the
stipulated term of guarantee expires earlier than the term for performing the principal obligation
or at the same time as the term for performing the principal obligation, such term shall be
deemed to have not been agreed; if there is no agreement or such agreement is unclear, the
guarantee term shall be six months from the date of expiration of the term for performing the
principal obligation.
债权人与债务人对主债务履行期限没有约定或者约定不明确的,保证期间自债权人
请求债务人履行债务的宽限期届满之日起计算。
Where there is no agreement in the contract between the creditor and the debtor on the term
for performance of the principal obligation or such agreement is unclear, the term of the
guarantee shall commence on the expiry date of the grace period for the debtor to perform his
obligation.
第六百九十三条
一般保证的债权人未在保证期间对债务人提起诉讼或者申请仲裁的,保证人不再承担保证责
任。
Article 693. If the creditor secured by an ordinary guarantee fails to institute proceedings or
apply for arbitration against the debtor during the guarantee period, the guarantor no longer bears
guarantee liability.
连带责任保证的债权人未在保证期间请求保证人承担保证责任的,保证人不再承担
保证责任。
If a creditor secured by a joint and several guarantee fails to request that the guarantor
assume his guarantee liability during the term of the guarantee, the guarantor shall no longer bear
guarantee liability.
第六百九十四条
一般保证的债权人在保证期间届满前对债务人提起诉讼或者申请仲裁的,从保证人拒绝承担
保证责任的权利消灭之日起,开始计算保证债务的诉讼时效。
Article 694 Where the creditor in a general guarantee lodges a suit against the debtor or applies for arbitration before the expiration of the guarantee term, the limitation of action for the guarantee
obligation shall be calculated from the date on which the right of the guarantor to refuse to assume
guarantee liability ceases to exist.
连带责任保证的债权人在保证期间届满前请求保证人承担保证责任的,从债权人请
求保证人承担保证责任之日起,开始计算保证债务的诉讼时效。
Where a creditor secured by a joint and several guarantee requests that the guarantor
assume his guarantee liability before the expiration of the guarantee term, the limitation period
for action to be taken in relation to the guarantee shall be calculated from the date on which the
creditor requests that the guarantor assume his guarantee liability.
第六百九十五条
债权人和债务人未经保证人书面同意,协商变更主债权债务合同内容,减轻债务的,保证人
仍对变更后的债务承担保证责任;加重债务的,保证人对加重的部分不承担保证责任。
Article 695 Where the creditor and debtor, without the written consent of the guarantor, alter
the contents of the principal contract through consultation to reduce the debt, the guarantor shall
continue to bear guarantee liability for the altered debt. If the debt is increased, the guarantor shall
bear no guarantee liability for the increased part.
债权人和债务人变更主债权债务合同的履行期限,未经保证人书面同意的,保证期
间不受影响。
Where the creditor and debtor amend the term for performance of the principal contract for
creditors' rights and debts without the written consent of the guarantor, the guarantee term shall
not be affected.
第六百九十六条
债权人转让全部或者部分债权,未通知保证人的,该转让对保证人不发生效力。
Article 696 Where the creditor transfers all or part of the creditor's right without notifying the
guarantor, the transfer shall be of no effect on the guarantor.
保证人与债权人约定禁止债权转让,债权人未经保证人书面同意转让债权的,保证
人对受让人不再承担保证责任。
. If the guarantor and the creditor agree to prohibit the assignment of the claim, and the
creditor assigns the claim without the written consent of the guarantor, the guarantor no longer bears guarantee liability towards the assignee.
第六百九十七条
债权人未经保证人书面同意,允许债务人转移全部或者部分债务,保证人对未经其同意转移
的债务不再承担保证责任,但是债权人和保证人另有约定的除外。
Article 697 Where a creditor, without the written consent of the guarantor, allows the debtor to
transfer all or part of his obligation, the guarantor no longer bears guarantee liability on the
obligation transferred without his consent, unless otherwise agreed upon by the creditor and the
guarantor.
第三人加入债务的,保证人的保证责任不受影响。
Where a third party becomes a debtor, the guarantee liability of the guarantor shall not be
affected.
第六百九十八条
一般保证的保证人在主债务履行期限届满后,向债权人提供债务人可供执行财产的真实情况
,债权人放弃或者怠于行使权利致使该财产不能被执行的,保证人在其提供可供执行财产的
价值范围内不再承担保证责任。
Article 698. After the term for the performance of the principal obligation has expired, the
guarantor under an ordinary guarantee shall provide to the creditor true information concerning the
debtor's property available for enforcement. Where the creditor waives or neglects to exercise his
right and the property cannot be enforced, the guarantor no longer bears guarantee liability to the
extent of the value of the property available for enforcement that he provided.
第六百九十九条
同一债务有两个以上保证人的,保证人应当按照保证合同约定的保证份额,承担保证责任;
没有约定保证份额的,债权人可以请求任何一个保证人在其保证范围内承担保证责任。
Article 699 Where there are two or more guarantors for the same obligation, the guarantors
shall bear guarantee liability in accordance with their respective shares of guarantee as stipulated in
the guarantee contract. Where no shares of guarantee are stipulated in the guarantee contract, the
creditor may require any of the guarantors to bear guarantee liability within the scope of its guarantee.
第七百条
保证人承担保证责任后,除当事人另有约定外,有权在其承担保证责任的范围内向债务人追
偿,享有债权人对债务人的权利,但是不得损害债权人的利益。
Article 700. After a guarantor has borne his guarantee liability, unless the parties agree
otherwise, he has the right to seek compensation from the debtor within the scope of his guarantee
liability, and he enjoys the rights of the creditor against the debtor, without prejudice to the interests
of the creditor.
第七百零一条
保证人可以主张债务人对债权人的抗辩。债务人放弃抗辩的,保证人仍有权向债权人主张抗
辩。
Article 701 The guarantor may claim any defenses which the debtor has against the creditor.
The guarantor shall still have the right to claim against the creditor such defense waived by the
debtor.
第七百零二条
债务人对债权人享有抵销权或者撤销权的,保证人可以在相应范围内拒绝承担保证责任。
Article 702 Where the debtor has the right to offset or rescind against the creditor, the
guarantor may refuse to bear guarantee liability within the corresponding scope.
第十四章 租 赁 合 同
Chapter 14 Lease Contract
第七百零三条
租赁合同是出租人将租赁物交付承租人使用、收益,承租人支付租金的合同。
Article 703 A leasing contract is a contract whereby the lessor delivers to the lessee the lease
item for it to use or accrue benefit from, and the lessee pays the rent.
第七百零四条
租赁合同的内容一般包括租赁物的名称、数量、用途、租赁期限、租金及其支付期限和方式、租赁物维修等条款。
Article 704 The contents of a lease contract generally include terms such as the name, quantity
and purpose of the leased property, lease term, rent as well as time limit and method for its payment,
and maintenance of the leased property.
第七百零五条 租赁期限不得超过二十年。超过二十年的,超过部分无效。
Article 705 The term of the lease shall not exceed twenty years. Where the lease exceeds
twenty (20) years, that part of the lease beyond the said limit shall be invalid.
租赁期限届满,当事人可以续订租赁合同;但是,约定的租赁期限自续订之日起不
得超过二十年。
At the expiration of the term of the lease, the parties may renew the lease contract; however,
the renewed term may not exceed 20 years commencing on the date of renewal.
第七百零六条
当事人未依照法律、行政法规规定办理租赁合同登记备案手续的,不影响合同的效力。
Article 706 If the parties concerned fail to go through the formalities of registration of the lease
contract in accordance with the provisions of laws and administrative regulations, the validity of the
contract shall not be affected.
第七百零七条
租赁期限六个月以上的,应当采用书面形式。当事人未采用书面形式,无法确定租赁期限的
,视为不定期租赁。
Article 707 Where the lease term is six (6) months or longer, the lease shall be in writing. If the
parties fail to adopt a written form, and it is impossible to determine the term of lease, the lease shall
be deemed as a non-term lease.
第七百零八条
出租人应当按照约定将租赁物交付承租人,并在租赁期限内保持租赁物符合约定的用途。
Article 708 The lessor shall deliver the lease item to the lessee in accordance with the contract
and shall, within the lease term, keep the lease item fit for the agreed purpose.
第七百零九条
承租人应当按照约定的方法使用租赁物。对租赁物的使用方法没有约定或者约定不明确,依
据本法第五百一十条的规定仍不能确定的,应当根据租赁物的性质使用。
Article 709. The lessee shall use the leased goods in accordance with agreed methods. Where
there is no agreement in the contract on the method of use of the leased property or such agreement
is unclear, nor can it be determined in accordance with the provisions of Article 510 of the Law, the
leased property shall be used in light of its nature.
第七百一十条
承租人按照约定的方法或者根据租赁物的性质使用租赁物,致使租赁物受到损耗的,不承担
赔偿责任。
Article 710. If the lessee uses the leased goods in accordance with the agreed usages or in a
manner consistent with their nature, and there is wear and tear to the leased goods as a result, the
lessee shall not be liable for compensation.
第七百一十一条
承租人未按照约定的方法或者未根据租赁物的性质使用租赁物,致使租赁物受到损失的,出
租人可以解除合同并请求赔偿损失。
Article 711 Where the lessee fails to use the lease item in the agreed manner or in a manner
consistent with its nature, thereby causing damage to it, the lessor may rescind the contract and claim
compensation for losses.
第七百一十二条 出租人应当履行租赁物的维修义务,但是当事人另有约定的除外。
Article 712. The lessor shall perform its obligation to make repairs to the leased goods, except
where the parties agree otherwise.
第七百一十三条 承租人在租赁物需要维修时可以请求出租人在合理期限内维修。出
租人未履行维修义务的,承租人可以自行维修,维修费用由出租人负担。因维修租赁物
影响承租人使用的,应当相应减少租金或者延长租期。
Article 713. When the leased goods need to be repaired, the lessee may request that the lessor
make repairs within a reasonable period of time. If the lessor fails to perform its obligations of maintenance or repair, the lessee may maintain or repair the lease item on its own at the lessor's
expense. Where the lessee's use of the lease item is impaired due to maintenance or repair thereof,
the rent shall be reduced or the lease term shall be extended accordingly.
因承租人的过错致使租赁物需要维修的,出租人不承担前款规定的维修义务。
Where the lease item needs maintenance and repair due to the fault of the lessee, the lessor
does not assume the maintenance and repair obligations as provided in the preceding paragraph.
第七百一十四条
承租人应当妥善保管租赁物,因保管不善造成租赁物毁损、灭失的,应当承担赔偿责任。
Article 714 The lessee shall keep the lease item with due care and shall be liable for
compensation in case of damage or loss to the lease item due to improper care.
第七百一十五条 承租人经出租人同意,可以对租赁物进行改善或者增设他物。
Article 715. With the consent of the lessor, the lessee may make improvements to, or affix
attachments to the leased goods.
承租人未经出租人同意,对租赁物进行改善或者增设他物的,出租人可以请求承租
人恢复原状或者赔偿损失。
Where the lessee makes improvement on or addition to the lease item without consent of
the lessor, the lessor may require the lessee to restore the lease item to its original condition or
compensate for the losses.
第七百一十六条 承租人经出租人同意,可以将租赁物转租给第三人。承租人转租的,
承租人与出租人之间的租赁合同继续有效;第三人造成租赁物损失的,承租人应当赔偿
损失。
Article 716 Subject to consent of the lessor, the lessee may sublease the lease item to a third
party. Where the lessee subleases the leased property, the lease contract between the lessee and the
lessor shall remain effective; where a third party causes losses to the leased property, the lessee shall
compensate for such losses.
承租人未经出租人同意转租的,出租人可以解除合同。
Where the lessee subleases the leased goods without the consent of the lessor, the lessor
may rescind the contract.
第七百一十七条
承租人经出租人同意将租赁物转租给第三人,转租期限超过承租人剩余租赁期限的,超过部
分的约定对出租人不具有法律约束力,但是出租人与承租人另有约定的除外。
Article 717 Where the lessee subleases the leased property to a third party with the consent of
the lessor, and the sublease term exceeds the remaining lease term of the lessee, the agreement on the
part in excess shall not be legally binding upon the lessor, unless otherwise agreed upon by the lessor
and the lessee.
第七百一十八条
出租人知道或者应当知道承租人转租,但是在六个月内未提出异议的,视为出租人同意转租。
Article 718 Where the lessor knows or should know about the sublease of the lessee but fails to
raise any objection within six months, it shall be deemed that the lessor agrees to the sublease.
第七百一十九条
承租人拖欠租金的,次承租人可以代承租人支付其欠付的租金和违约金,但是转租合同对出
租人不具有法律约束力的除外。
Article 719 If the lessee defaults on the payment of the rent, the sub- lessee may pay the
outstanding rent and liquidated damages on behalf of the lessee, except that the sublease contract has
no legally binding force upon the lessor.
次承租人代为支付的租金和违约金,可以充抵次承租人应当向承租人支付的租金;
超出其应付的租金数额的,可以向承租人追偿。
The rent and liquidated damages paid by the sub- lessee on behalf of the lessee may be used
to offset the rent payable by the sub- lessee to the lessee; if the amount of the rent exceeds the
payable rent, the sub-lessee may have recourse against the lessee.
第七百二十条
在租赁期限内因占有、使用租赁物获得的收益,归承租人所有,但是当事人另有约定的除外。
Article 720 During the lease term, any benefit accrued from the possession or use of the leased
property shall belong to the lessee, except as otherwise agreed by the parties.
第七百二十一条
承租人应当按照约定的期限支付租金。对支付租金的期限没有约定或者约定不明确,依据本
法第五百一十条的规定仍不能确定,租赁期限不满一年的,应当在租赁期限届满时支付;租
赁期限一年以上的,应当在每届满一年时支付,剩余期限不满一年的,应当在租赁期限届满
时支付。
Article 721 The charterer shall pay the hire within the time limit agreed upon. Where there has
been no agreement or no clear agreement as to the deadlines for the payment of rent, and it is not
possible to determine the issue in accordance with the provisions of Article 510 of this Law, then
where the lease period is less than one (1) year, rent shall be paid at the expiry of the lease period;
where the lease period is one (1) year or longer, rent shall be paid at the expiry of each year of the
lease period, and where that part of the lease period which remains is less than one (1) year, rent
shall be paid at the expiry of the lease period.
第七百二十二条
承租人无正当理由未支付或者迟延支付租金的,出租人可以请求承租人在合理期限内支付;
承租人逾期不支付的,出租人可以解除合同。
Article 722 In the event that the lessee fails to pay or delays in paying the rent without justified
reasons, the lessor may request the lessee to pay the rent within a reasonable time limit. If the lessee
fails to pay the rent within the time limit, the lessor may rescind the contract.
第七百二十三条
因第三人主张权利,致使承租人不能对租赁物使用、收益的,承租人可以请求减少租金或者
不支付租金。
Article 723 If due to any claim by a third party, the lessee is unable to use or accrue benefit
from the lease item, the lessee may request a reduction in rent or refuse to pay rent.
第三人主张权利的,承租人应当及时通知出租人。
Where rights are claimed by a third party, the lessee shall notify the lessor in time.
第七百二十四条
有下列情形之一,非因承租人原因致使租赁物无法使用的,承租人可以解除合同:
Article 724 The lessee may rescind the contract under any of the following circumstances where the lease item cannot be used due to reasons not attributable to the lessee:
(一)租赁物被司法机关或者行政机关依法查封、扣押;
1. Where the leased item is legally sealed up or seized by the judicial authority or
administrative authority;
(二)租赁物权属有争议;
(II) There is dispute over the ownership of the leasehold property right;
(三)租赁物具有违反法律、行政法规关于使用条件的强制性规定情形。
(III) Where the leased item violates the mandatory provisions of laws and administrative
regulations in respect of use conditions.
第七百二十五条
租赁物在承租人按照租赁合同占有期限内发生所有权变动的,不影响租赁合同的效力。
Article 725 Where there is a change of ownership of the leased property during the period of
the lessee's possession in accordance with the terms of the lease contract, this shall not affect the
validity of the lease contract.
第七百二十六条
出租人出卖租赁房屋的,应当在出卖之前的合理期限内通知承租人,承租人享有以同等条件
优先购买的权利;但是,房屋按份共有人行使优先购买权或者出租人将房屋出卖给近亲属的
除外。
Article 726 Where the lessor is to sell a dwelling unit under a lease, it shall give the lessee a
notice within a reasonable time limit before the sale, and the lessee has the right of first refusal under
the same conditions, except where the co-owners by shares exercise their right of first refusal or the
lessor is to sell the dwelling unit to their close relatives.
出租人履行通知义务后,承租人在十五日内未明确表示购买的,视为承租人放弃优
先购买权。
Where the lessee does not clearly express to purchase the house within 15 days after the
lessor performs the obligation of notice, the lessee shall be deemed to waive its pre-emptive right.
第七百二十七条 出租人委托拍卖人拍卖租赁房屋的,应当在拍卖五日前通知承租人。
承租人未参加拍卖的,视为放弃优先购买权。
Article 727 Where the lessor entrusts an auctioneer with auction of a leased house, it shall
notify the lessee five days prior to the auction. Where the lessee does not participate in the auction, it shall be deemed to have waived the pre-emptive right.
第七百二十八条 出租人未通知承租人或者有其他妨害承租人行使优先购买权情形的,
承租人可以请求出租人承担赔偿责任。但是,出租人与第三人订立的房屋买卖合同的效
力不受影响。
Article 728 Where the lessor fails to notify the lessee or hinders the lessee from exercising the
pre-emptive right, the lessee may request the lessor to bear compensation liability. However, the
validity of the house transaction contract concluded by and between the lessor and the third party
shall not be affected.
第七百二十九条
因不可归责于承租人的事由,致使租赁物部分或者全部毁损、灭失的,承租人可以请求减少
租金或者不支付租金;因租赁物部分或者全部毁损、灭失,致使不能实现合同目的的,承租
人可以解除合同。
Article 729 Where the lease item is damaged or lost in part or in whole due to any reason not
attributable to the lessee, the lessee may request a reduction of the rent or not to pay the rent; where
the purpose of the contract cannot be achieved due to damage to or loss of the lease item in part or in
whole, the lessee may rescind the contract.
第七百三十条
当事人对租赁期限没有约定或者约定不明确,依据本法第五百一十条的规定仍不能确定的,
视为不定期租赁;当事人可以随时解除合同,但是应当在合理期限之前通知对方。
Article 730 Where the term of a lease is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, nor can it be
determined in accordance with Article 510 of this Law, such lease is deemed a non-term lease. The
parties may terminate the contract at any time, provided that they notify the other party a reasonable
time in advance.
第七百三十一条
租赁物危及承租人的安全或者健康的,即使承租人订立合同时明知该租赁物质量不合格,承租人仍然可以随时解除合同。
Article 731 Where the lease item endangers the safety or health of the lessee, the lessee may
terminate the contract at any time even if the lessee knows the lease item does not meet the quality
requirements when concluding the contract.
第七百三十二条
承租人在房屋租赁期限内死亡的,与其生前共同居住的人或者共同经营人可以按照原租赁合
同租赁该房屋。
Article 732 Where the lessee is deceased during the term of a house lease, the persons who live
together with the deceased or the joint operators may lease the house in accordance with the original
lease contract.
第七百三十三条 租赁期限届满,承租人应当返还租赁物。返还的租赁物应当符合按
照约定或者根据租赁物的性质使用后的状态。
Article 733. Upon the expiry of the lease period, the lessee shall return the leased goods. The
property returned shall be in conformity with the conditions after use in accordance with the contract
or in light of its nature.
第七百三十四条
租赁期限届满,承租人继续使用租赁物,出租人没有提出异议的,原租赁合同继续有效,但
是租赁期限为不定期。
Article 734. Where the lessee continues to use the leased goods after the expiry of the lease
period, and the lessor does not raise any objections, the original lease contract shall continue to be
valid, but the lease will become a non-fixed term lease.
租赁期限届满,房屋承租人享有以同等条件优先承租的权利。
When the term of the lease expires, the lessee of the house shall have the priority to lease
the house on the same conditions.
第十五章 融资租赁合同
Chapter 15 Financial Leasing Contracts
第七百三十五条
融资租赁合同是出租人根据承租人对出卖人、租赁物的选择,向出卖人购买租赁物,提供给
承租人使用,承租人支付租金的合同。
Article 735 A financial leasing contract is a contract whereby the lessor, upon purchase of the
lessee -selected lease item from a lessee -selected seller, provides the lease item to the lessee for its
use, and the lessee pays the rent.
第七百三十六条
融资租赁合同的内容一般包括租赁物的名称、数量、规格、技术性能、检验方法,租赁期限
,租金构成及其支付期限和方式、币种,租赁期限届满租赁物的归属等条款。
Article 736 The contents of a financial leasing contract generally include clauses dealing with
the name, quantity, specifications and technical performance of the lease item, the method of
inspection, the lease term, the rental components and the time, method and currency of payment, the
ownership of the lease item upon the expiry of the lease term, etc.
融资租赁合同应当采用书面形式。
A financial leasing contract shall be in writing.
第七百三十七条 当事人以虚构租赁物方式订立的融资租赁合同无效。
Article 737 Financial leasing contracts concluded by the parties concerned in the form of
fictitious leased items shall be invalid.
第七百三十八条
依照法律、行政法规的规定,对于租赁物的经营使用应当取得行政许可的,出租人未取得行
政许可不影响融资租赁合同的效力。
Article 738 Where the operation or use of the lease item requires administrative license in
accordance with laws and administrative regulations, failure on the part of the lessor to obtain such
administrative license shall not affect the validity of the finance lease contract.
第七百三十九条
出租人根据承租人对出卖人、租赁物的选择订立的买卖合同,出卖人应当按照约定向承租人
交付标的物,承租人享有与受领标的物有关的买受人的权利。
Article 739 Under the sales contract concluded by the lessor according to the lessee's selection
of the seller and the lease item, the seller shall deliver the subject matter to the lessee in accordance
with the contract, and the lessee enjoys the rights of the buyer in respect of taking delivery of the
subject matter.
第七百四十条
出卖人违反向承租人交付标的物的义务,有下列情形之一的,承租人可以拒绝受领出卖人向
其交付的标的物:
Article 740 Where a seller fails to perform its obligation of delivery of the subject matter to
the lessee, the lessee may refuse to accept the subject matter delivered by the seller to it under any of the following circumstances:
(一)标的物严重不符合约定;
1. the subject matter is materially inconsistent with the agreement;
(二)未按照约定交付标的物,经承租人或者出租人催告后在合理期限内仍未交付。
(II) Failing to deliver the subject matter as agreed and still failing to do so within a
reasonable time limit after being urged by the lessee or the lessor.
承租人拒绝受领标的物的,应当及时通知出租人。
Where the lessee refuses to take delivery of the subject matter, it shall timely notify the
lessor.
第七百四十一条 出租人、出卖人、承租人可以约定,出卖人不履行买卖合同义务的,
由承租人行使索赔的权利。承租人行使索赔权利的,出租人应当协助。
Article 741 The lessor, the seller and the lessee may agree that any claim arising from the
seller's failure in the performance of its obligations under the sales contract will be made by the
lessee. Where the lessee exercises the right to claim compensation, the lessor shall provide assistance.
第七百四十二条 承租人对出卖人行使索赔权利,不影响其履行支付租金的义务。但
是,承租人依赖出租人的技能确定租赁物或者出租人干预选择租赁物的,承租人可以请
求减免相应租金。
Article 742 The lessee's exercise of the right to claim against the seller shall not affect the
performance of its obligation of rental payment. However, if the lessee relies on the skills of the lessor in selecting the lease item or the lessor interferes in the selection of lease item, the lessee may
request reduction or exemption of the corresponding rent.
第七百四十三条
出租人有下列情形之一,致使承租人对出卖人行使索赔权利失败的,承租人有权请求出租人
承担相应的责任:
Article 743 In case of any of the following circumstances on the part of the lessor, which
causes the lessee's failure in exercising the right to claim against the seller, the lessee has the right to request the lessor to bear corresponding liability:
(一)明知租赁物有质量瑕疵而不告知承租人;
1. Not informing the lessee of any quality defect of the leased item knowingly;
(二)承租人行使索赔权利时,未及时提供必要协助。
(II) The lessee fails to timely provide necessary assistance when exercising the right to
claims.
出租人怠于行使只能由其对出卖人行使的索赔权利,造成承租人损失的,承租人有
权请求出租人承担赔偿责任。
Where the lessor is remiss in exercising the right to claim compensation which may only be
exercised by it against the seller, thus causing losses to the lessee, the lessee has the right to
claim compensation from the lessor.
第七百四十四条
出租人根据承租人对出卖人、租赁物的选择订立的买卖合同,未经承租人同意,出租人不得
变更与承租人有关的合同内容。
Article 744 Without the consent of the lessee, the lessor may not amend any lessee -related
term in the sales contract concluded by it according to the lessee's selection of the seller and the
leasehold property.
第七百四十五条 出租人对租赁物享有的所有权,未经登记,不得对抗善意第三人。
Article 745. If the ownership of the leased goods by the lessor is not registered, the lessor may
not contest a bona fide third party.
第七百四十六条
融资租赁合同的租金,除当事人另有约定外,应当根据购买租赁物的大部分或者全部成本以
及出租人的合理利润确定。
Article 746 Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, the rent under a financial leasing contract
shall be determined based on the major portion of or full costs of purchasing the lease item and the
lessor's reasonable profit.
第七百四十七条 租赁物不符合约定或者不符合使用目的的,出租人不承担责任。但
是,承租人依赖出租人的技能确定租赁物或者出租人干预选择租赁物的除外。
Article 747 Where the lease item does not comply with the contract or is not fit for the intended
purpose, the lessor is not liable. However, there shall be an exception where the lessee relies on the
skills of the lessor in selecting the leased goods or the lessor interferes in the selection of leased
goods.
第七百四十八条 出租人应当保证承租人对租赁物的占有和使用。
Article 748. The lessor shall provide guarantees as to the lessee's possession and use of the
leased goods.
出租人有下列情形之一的,承租人有权请求其赔偿损失:
The lessee shall be entitled to claim compensation for losses if the lessor is under any of
the following circumstances:
(一)无正当理由收回租赁物;
1. Taking back the leased item without justifiable reason;
(二)无正当理由妨碍、干扰承租人对租赁物的占有和使用;
(II) Impeding or interfering with the lessee's occupation or use of the leased item without
justifiable reasons;
(三)因出租人的原因致使第三人对租赁物主张权利;
(III) Causing a third party to claim rights on the leased item due to the reasons of the lessor;
or
(四)不当影响承租人对租赁物占有和使用的其他情形。
(IV) Other circumstances improperly affecting the lessee's occupation and use of the leased
item.
第七百四十九条
承租人占有租赁物期间,租赁物造成第三人人身损害或者财产损失的,出租人不承担责任。
Article 749 Where the leased property causes personal injury or property loss to a third party
during the period when the lessee possesses the leased property, the lessor shall not bear any liability.
第七百五十条 承租人应当妥善保管、使用租赁物。
Article 750 The lessee shall keep and use the lease item with due care.
承租人应当履行占有租赁物期间的维修义务。
The lessee shall perform the obligations of maintenance and repair of the leased property
during the period when the lessee possesses the leased property.
第七百五十一条
承租人占有租赁物期间,租赁物毁损、灭失的,出租人有权请求承租人继续支付租金,但是
法律另有规定或者当事人另有约定的除外。
Article 751 Where the leased property is damaged or lost during the period when the lessee
possesses the leased property, the lessor shall have the right to request the lessee to continue to pay
the rent, unless otherwise provided by law or agreed by the parties.
第七百五十二条 承租人应当按照约定支付租金。承租人经催告后在合理期限内仍不
支付租金的,出租人可以请求支付全部租金;也可以解除合同,收回租赁物。
Article 752 The charterer shall pay the hire as agreed upon. Where the lessee still fails to pay
the rent within a reasonable time limit after being urged, the lessor may either request it to pay all the
rent, or rescind the contract and take back the leased property.
第七百五十三条
承租人未经出租人同意,将租赁物转让、抵押、质押、投资入股或者以其他方式处分的,出
租人可以解除融资租赁合同。
Article 753 Where the lessee transfers, mortgages, pledges, invests or otherwise disposes of the
lease item without the consent of the lessor, the lessor may rescind the finance lease contract.
第七百五十四条 有下列情形之一的,出租人或者承租人可以解除融资租赁合同:
Article 754 The lessor or the lessee may rescind the finance lease contract in any of the
following circumstances:
(一)出租人与出卖人订立的买卖合同解除、被确认无效或者被撤销,且未能重新
订立买卖合同;
1. Where the purchase and sale contract concluded by the seller and the lessor is
terminated, confirmed to be invalid or rescinded, and the lessor and the lessor fail to reconclude
the purchase and sale contract;
(二)租赁物因不可归责于当事人的原因毁损、灭失,且不能修复或者确定替代物;
(II) The lease item is damaged or lost for reasons not attributable to either party and it is
impossible to repair it or determine a substitute for it;
(三)因出卖人的原因致使融资租赁合同的目的不能实现。
(III) The purpose of the finance lease contract is frustrated due to reasons attributable to
the seller.
第七百五十五条
融资租赁合同因买卖合同解除、被确认无效或者被撤销而解除,出卖人、租赁物系由承租人
选择的,出租人有权请求承租人赔偿相应损失;但是,因出租人原因致使买卖合同解除、被
确认无效或者被撤销的除外。
Article 755 Where a finance lease contract is terminated due to the rescission, confirmation of
invalidity or rescission of the contract of sale and purchase, and the seller and the lease item are
selected by the lessee, the lessor shall have the right to request that the lessee makes compensation
for the corresponding losses, except where the rescission, confirmation of invalidity or rescission of
the contract of sale and purchase is attributable to the lessor.
出租人的损失已经在买卖合同解除、被确认无效或者被撤销时获得赔偿的,承租人
不再承担相应的赔偿责任。
Where the loss of the lessor has been compensated when the contract of sale is dissolved,
deemed invalid or rescinded, the lessee shall not be liable for corresponding compensation.
第七百五十六条
融资租赁合同因租赁物交付承租人后意外毁损、灭失等不可归责于当事人的原因解除的,出租人可以请求承租人按照租赁物折旧情况给予补偿。
Article 756 In the event that a finance lease contract is dissolved for reasons not attributable to
either party such as accidental damage or loss of the lease item after delivery to the lessee, the lessor
may request the lessee to make compensation in light of the depreciation status of the lease item.
第七百五十七条
出租人和承租人可以约定租赁期限届满租赁物的归属;对租赁物的归属没有约定或者约定不
明确,依据本法第五百一十条的规定仍不能确定的,租赁物的所有权归出租人。
Article 757. The lessor and the lessee may agree on ownership of the leased goods upon the
expiry of the lease period. Where there has been no agreement or no clear agreement as to ownership
of the leased goods, and the issue cannot be determined by reference to the provisions of Article 510
of this Law, the lessor shall own the leased goods.
第七百五十八条
当事人约定租赁期限届满租赁物归承租人所有,承租人已经支付大部分租金,但是无力支付
剩余租金,出租人因此解除合同收回租赁物,收回的租赁物的价值超过承租人欠付的租金以
及其他费用的,承租人可以请求相应返还。
Article 758 Where the parties agree that the lease item shall belong to the lessee at the
expiry of the lease term, the lessee has paid the majority of the rent but is unable to pay the
remaining rent, and the lessor terminates the contract for this reason and takes back the lease item, if
the value of the lease item taken back exceeds the rent and other expenses which the lessee owes to
the lessor, the lessee may request the lessor to return the same.
当事人约定租赁期限届满租赁物归出租人所有,因租赁物毁损、灭失或者附合、混
合于他物致使承租人不能返还的,出租人有权请求承租人给予合理补偿。
Where the parties agree that the lease item shall belong to the lessor at the expiry of the
lease term, if the lessee is unable to return the lease item due to damage, loss, addition to or
mixing with other property of the lease item, the lessor has the right to request the lessee to make
reasonable compensation.
第七百五十九条
当事人约定租赁期限届满,承租人仅需向出租人支付象征性价款的,视为约定的租金义务履行完毕后租赁物的所有权归承租人。
Article 759 Where the parties agree that at the expiration of the lease term the lessee only
needs to pay a symbolic price to the lessor, the ownership of the lease item shall belong to the lessee
after the agreed rent obligation has been performed.
第七百六十条
融资租赁合同无效,当事人就该情形下租赁物的归属有约定的,按照其约定;没有约定或者
约定不明确的,租赁物应当返还出租人。但是,因承租人原因致使合同无效,出租人不请求
返还或者返还后会显著降低租赁物效用的,租赁物的所有权归承租人,由承租人给予出租人
合理补偿。
Article 760 In the event that a finance lease contract is null and void and the parties have
agreed on the ownership of the lease item under such circumstance, such agreement shall apply;
where there is no agreement or such agreement is unclear, the lease item shall be returned to the
lessor. However, if the contract is invalid for reasons attributable to the lessee, and the lessor does
not request for return of the leased property or the return of the leased property will significantly
reduce the utility thereof, the ownership of the leased property shall belong to the lessee, and the
lessee shall make reasonable compensation to the lessor.
第十六章 保 理 合 同
Chapter 16 FACTORING CONTRACT
第七百六十一条
保理合同是应收账款债权人将现有的或者将有的应收账款转让给保理人,保理人提供资金融
通、应收账款管理或者催收、应收账款债务人付款担保等服务的合同。
Article 761 A factoring contract shall mean a contract whereby a creditor of accounts
receivable transfers its existing accounts receivable or existing accounts receivable to the factor, and
the factor provides services such as financing, accounts receivable management or collection,
payment guarantee by debtors of accounts receivable, etc.
第七百六十二条
保理合同的内容一般包括业务类型、服务范围、服务期限、基础交易合同情况、应收账款信息、保理融资款或者服务报酬及其支付方式等条款。
Article 762 The contents of a factoring contract shall generally include clauses such as type of
business, scope of services, term of services, information on basic transaction contract, accounts
receivable information, factoring financing funds or service remuneration, and payment method
thereof.
保理合同应当采用书面形式。
Factoring contracts shall be in writing.
第七百六十三条
应收账款债权人与债务人虚构应收账款作为转让标的,与保理人订立保理合同的,应收账款
债务人不得以应收账款不存在为由对抗保理人,但是保理人明知虚构的除外。
Article 763 Where a creditor and a debtor of accounts receivable have fabricated
accounts receivable as the subject matter of transfer and entered into a factoring contract with
a factor, the debtor of accounts receivable shall not cite non-existence of accounts receivable as a
reason to counter the factor, except where the factor is aware of the fabrications.
第七百六十四条
保理人向应收账款债务人发出应收账款转让通知的,应当表明保理人身份并附有必要凭证。
Article 764 Where a factor notifies a debtor of accounts receivable of an assignment of
accounts receivable, he/she shall state his/her identity and attach the requisite proof.
第七百六十五条
应收账款债务人接到应收账款转让通知后,应收账款债权人与债务人无正当理由协商变更或
者终止基础交易合同,对保理人产生不利影响的,对保理人不发生效力。
Article 765 Upon receipt of a notice of transfer of accounts receivable by the debtor, where the
creditor of the accounts receivable and the debtor negotiate on amendment to or termination of the
underlying transaction contract without a proper reason, which has an adverse impact on the factor,
such amendment or termination shall not be binding on the factor.
第七百六十六条
当事人约定有追索权保理的,保理人可以向应收账款债权人主张返还保理融资款本息或者回
购应收账款债权,也可以向应收账款债务人主张应收账款债权。保理人向应收账款债务人主
张应收账款债权,在扣除保理融资款本息和相关费用后有剩余的,剩余部分应当返还给应收
账款债权人。
Article 766 Where the parties concerned agree on factoring with recourse, the factor may assert
against the creditor of accounts receivable on refund of principal and interest of the factoring
financing monies or redemption of creditor's rights on accounts receivable, or assert against the
debtor of accounts receivable on creditor's rights on accounts receivable. Where a factor asserts
creditor's rights over accounts receivable against a debtor of accounts receivable, and there is a
balance after deduction of the principal and interest of the factoring financing monies and the
relevant expenses, the balance shall be refunded to the creditor of accounts receivable.
第七百六十七条
当事人约定无追索权保理的,保理人应当向应收账款债务人主张应收账款债权,保理人取得
超过保理融资款本息和相关费用的部分,无需向应收账款债权人返还。
Article 767 Where the parties concerned have agreed on factoring without recourse, the factor
shall assert creditor's rights on accounts receivable against the accounts receivable debtor, and the
factor is not required to return the excess amount over the principal and interest of the factoring
financing monies and the relevant fees obtained to the creditors of accounts receivable.
第七百六十八条
应收账款债权人就同一应收账款订立多个保理合同,致使多个保理人主张权利的,已经登记
的先于未登记的取得应收账款;均已经登记的,按照登记时间的先后顺序取得应收账款;均
未登记的,由最先到达应收账款债务人的转让通知中载明的保理人取得应收账款;既未登记
也未通知的,按照保理融资款或者服务报酬的比例取得应收账款。
Article 768 Where a creditor of accounts receivable concludes several factoring contracts for
the same accounts receivable, causing multiple factors to assert their rights, registered accounts
receivable shall be obtained prior to unregistered accounts receivable; registered accounts receivable
shall be obtained in chronological order of registration date; unregistered accounts receivable shall
be obtained by the factor stated in the notice of assignment from the debtor of the accounts
receivable who first reaches the debtor of the accounts receivable; where registered accounts receivable are neither registered nor notified, the accounts receivable shall be obtained in accordance with the ratio of factoring financing funds or service remuneration.
第七百六十九条 本章没有规定的,适用本编第六章债权转让的有关规定。
Article 769 Matters not addressed in this Chapter shall be governed by the relevant provisions
of Chapter VI Assignment of Claims.
第十七章 承 揽 合 同
Chapter 17 Contracts for Work
第七百七十条
承揽合同是承揽人按照定作人的要求完成工作,交付工作成果,定作人支付报酬的合同。
Article 770 A contract for work is a contract whereby the contractor shall, in light of the
requirements of the ordering party, complete certain work and deliver the results therefrom, and the
ordering party pays the remuneration therefor.
承揽包括加工、定作、修理、复制、测试、检验等工作。
Work includes processing, custom-made work, repair, reproduction, testing, inspection, and
other work.
第七百七十一条
承揽合同的内容一般包括承揽的标的、数量、质量、报酬、承揽方式,材料的提供,履行期
限,验收标准和方法等条款。
Article 771 The contents of a contract for work shall, in general, contain such clauses as the
subject matter, quantity, quality, remuneration and method of the work, supply of materials, term of
performance, and standards and method of inspection.
第七百七十二条
承揽人应当以自己的设备、技术和劳力,完成主要工作,但是当事人另有约定的除外。
Article 772 The contractor shall use its own equipment, technology and labor force to complete
the main part of the work, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties.
承揽人将其承揽的主要工作交由第三人完成的,应当就该第三人完成的工作成果向
定作人负责;未经定作人同意的,定作人也可以解除合同。
Where the hiree assigns the main work contracted to a third party for completion, the hiree
shall be liable to the hirer for the work results completed by the third party; where the
assignment is not approved by the hirer, the hirer may rescind the contract.
第七百七十三条
承揽人可以将其承揽的辅助工作交由第三人完成。承揽人将其承揽的辅助工作交由第三人完
成的,应当就该第三人完成的工作成果向定作人负责。
Article 773. The contractor may assign an ancillary work task under the contract to a third
party for completion. Where the hiree assigns an auxiliary work task under the contract to a third
party for completion, the hiree shall be liable to the hirer for the work results completed by the third
party.
第七百七十四条 承揽人提供材料的,应当按照约定选用材料,并接受定作人检验。
Article 774 Where the contractor is to supply the materials, the contractor shall select the
materials in accordance with the contract and shall make such materials available for inspection by
the ordering party.
第七百七十五条
定作人提供材料的,应当按照约定提供材料。承揽人对定作人提供的材料应当及时检验,发
现不符合约定时,应当及时通知定作人更换、补齐或者采取其他补救措施。
Article 775 Where the ordering party is to supply the materials, it shall supply the materials in
accordance with the contract. The hiree shall inspect the materials supplied by the hirer in time and
shall, if discovering that they do not conform to the terms of the contract, instruct in time the hirer to
replace or supplement the materials or take other remedial measures.
承揽人不得擅自更换定作人提供的材料,不得更换不需要修理的零部件。
The hiree may neither, without authorization, replace materials supplied by the hirer nor
replace components which do not need to be repaired.
第七百七十六条 承揽人发现定作人提供的图纸或者技术要求不合理的,应当及时通知定作人。因定作人怠于答复等原因造成承揽人损失的,应当赔偿损失。
Article 776 Where the hiree discovers that the drawings or technical requirements provided by
the hirer are unreasonable, it shall notify the hirer in a timely manner. Where the contractor sustains
losses because the party which has placed the order is negligent in making a reply or for other
reasons, the said party shall provide compensation for the contractor's losses.
第七百七十七条 定作人中途变更承揽工作的要求,造成承揽人损失的,应当赔偿损失。
Article 777 Where the ordering party changes its requirements for the contracted work while
the work is under way, thereby causing losses to the contractor, the ordering party shall be liable for
making compensation.
第七百七十八条 承揽工作需要定作人协助的,定作人有协助的义务。定作人不履行
协助义务致使承揽工作不能完成的,承揽人可以催告定作人在合理期限内履行义务,并
可以顺延履行期限;定作人逾期不履行的,承揽人可以解除合同。
Article 778 Where the performance of the contracted work requires assistance of the ordering
party, the ordering party shall have the obligation to provide assistance. Where the contracted work
is unable to be completed due to the ordering party's failure in fulfilling its obligation of assistance,
the contractor may urge the ordering party to perform its obligation within a reasonable time limit
and may extend the term of its performance; where the ordering party fails to perform such
obligation within the time limit, the contractor may terminate the contract.
第七百七十九条 承揽人在工作期间,应当接受定作人必要的监督检验。定作人不得
因监督检验妨碍承揽人的正常工作。
Article 779 In the period of working, the hiree shall accept the necessary supervision over and
inspection of the work by the hirer. The supervision and inspection by the hirer may not obstruct the
hiree's normal work.
第七百八十条 承揽人完成工作的,应当向定作人交付工作成果,并提交必要的技术
资料和有关质量证明。定作人应当验收该工作成果。
Article 780 Upon the completion of the contracted work, the hiree shall deliver the work results
to the hirer, and shall submit necessary technical materials and the relevant quality certificate. The ordering party shall conduct acceptance inspection of the work results.
第七百八十一条
承揽人交付的工作成果不符合质量要求的,定作人可以合理选择请求承揽人承担修理、重作
、减少报酬、赔偿损失等违约责任。
Article 781 Where the work results delivered by the hiree fail to meet the quality requirements,
the hirer may reasonably choose to request the hiree to assume such liability for breach of contract as maintenance and repair, reprocessing, and reduction in remuneration and compensation.
第七百八十二条 定作人应当按照约定的期限支付报酬。对支付报酬的期限没有约定或者约定不明确,依据本法第五百一十条的规定仍不能确定的,定作人应当在承揽人交付工作成果时支付;工作成果部分交付的,定作人应当相应支付。
Article 782. The party which has placed the order shall pay remuneration within the agreed
time limits. Where there has been no agreement, or no clear agreement, on the deadlines for the
payment of remuneration, and the said deadlines cannot be determined by reference to the provisions
of Article 510 of this Law, the said party shall pay remuneration at the same time that the contractor
delivers the work product; where the work product is only delivered in part, the said party shall pay a
corresponding amount.
第七百八十三条
定作人未向承揽人支付报酬或者材料费等价款的,承揽人对完成的工作成果享有留置权或者
有权拒绝交付,但是当事人另有约定的除外。
Article 783. Where the party which has placed the order has not made remuneration payments
or payments of materials expenses, etc., to the contractor, the contractor shall enjoy a lien over the
completed work product or shall have the right to refuse delivery, except where the parties agree
otherwise.
第七百八十四条
承揽人应当妥善保管定作人提供的材料以及完成的工作成果,因保管不善造成毁损、灭失的
,应当承担赔偿责任。
Article 784 The hiree shall keep the materials supplied by the hirer and the work results completed with due care, and shall be liable for compensation in case of any damage or loss due to improper care.
第七百八十五条
承揽人应当按照定作人的要求保守秘密,未经定作人许可,不得留存复制品或者技术资料。
Article 785. The contractor shall maintain confidentiality in accordance with the requirements
of the party which has placed the order, and may not retain replicas or technical information without
the consent of the party which has placed the order.
第七百八十六条 共同承揽人对定作人承担连带责任,但是当事人另有约定的除外。
Article 786. Joint contractors shall bear joint and several liability to the party which has placed
the order, except where the parties agree otherwise.
第七百八十七条
定作人在承揽人完成工作前可以随时解除合同,造成承揽人损失的,应当赔偿损失。
Article 787. The party which has placed the order may dissolve the contract at any time prior to
the contractor completing work, but the said party shall provide compensation for any losses
sustained by the contractor as a result.
第十八章 建设工程合同
Chapter 18 Contracts for Construction Projects
第七百八十八条 建设工程合同是承包人进行工程建设,发包人支付价款的合同。
Article 788 A contract for construction project is a contract whereby the contractor performs
project construction, and the developer pays the price.
建设工程合同包括工程勘察、设计、施工合同。
Contracts for construction projects include contracts for survey, design, and construction.
第七百八十九条 建设工程合同应当采用书面形式。
Article 789 A contract for construction project shall be in written form.
第七百九十条
建设工程的招标投标活动,应当依照有关法律的规定公开、公平、公正进行。
Article 790 Tendering for a construction project shall be conducted in an open, fair and
impartial manner in accordance with the relevant laws.
第七百九十一条 发包人可以与总承包人订立建设工程合同,也可以分别与勘察人、
设计人、施工人订立勘察、设计、施工承包合同。发包人不得将应当由一个承包人完成
的建设工程支解成若干部分发包给数个承包人。
Article 791. The contract issuer may conclude a contract for a construction project with a head
contractor, and may also conclude separate surveying, design and building work contracts with
surveyors, designers and builders. The developer may not divide a construction project which should
be completed by one contractor into several parts and contract them out to several contractors.
总承包人或者勘察、设计、施工承包人经发包人同意,可以将自己承包的部分工作
交由第三人完成。第三人就其完成的工作成果与总承包人或者勘察、设计、施工承包人
向发包人承担连带责任。承包人不得将其承包的全部建设工程转包给第三人或者将其承
包的全部建设工程支解以后以分包的名义分别转包给第三人。
Subject to consent by the developer, the prime contractor or the contractor for survey,
design, or construction may assign part of the work contracted thereby to a third party for
completion. The third party and the prime contractor or the contractor for survey, design, or
construction shall be jointly and severally liable to the developer in respect of the work product
completed by such third party. A contractor may not assign the entire contracted construction
project to a third party, nor may it divide up the entire contracted construction project into
several parts and separately assign each part to a third party in the name of subcontracting.
禁止承包人将工程分包给不具备相应资质条件的单位。禁止分包单位将其承包的工程再分包。建设工程主体结构的施工必须由承包人自行完成。
A contractor is prohibited from subcontracting a project to an entity without the appropriate
qualifications. Subcontractors are prohibited from further subcontracting their subcontracted
work. The main structure of the construction project must be constructed by the contractor itself.
第七百九十二条
国家重大建设工程合同,应当按照国家规定的程序和国家批准的投资计划、可行性研究报告
等文件订立。
Article 792 Contracts for major construction projects of the State shall be concluded in
accordance with the procedures provided by the State and the investment plans, feasibility study
reports and other documents approved by the State.
第七百九十三条
建设工程施工合同无效,但是建设工程经验收合格的,可以参照合同关于工程价款的约定折
价补偿承包人。
Article 793 If the construction project contract is invalid, but the construction project passes
the acceptance inspection, the contractor may be compensated with reference to the agreement on the
construction price in the contract.
建设工程施工合同无效,且建设工程经验收不合格的,按照以下情形处理:
Where a construction project contract is invalid, and the construction project fails to pass
the acceptance check, the following provisions shall apply:
(一)修复后的建设工程经验收合格的,发包人可以请求承包人承担修复费用;
1. If the restored construction project passes the acceptance check, the developer may
request the contractor to bear the costs of the restoration; and
(二)修复后的建设工程经验收不合格的,承包人无权请求参照合同关于工程价款
的约定折价补偿。
(II) If the repaired construction project fails to pass the acceptance inspection, the
contractor has no right to claim compensation at the agreed price of the project in the contract.
发包人对因建设工程不合格造成的损失有过错的,应当承担相应的责任。
Where the contract letting party has any fault for the loss caused by the substandard
construction project, it shall bear the corresponding liability.
第七百九十四条
勘察、设计合同的内容一般包括提交有关基础资料和概预算等文件的期限、质量要求、费用
以及其他协作条件等条款。
Article 794. The contents of survey and design contracts generally include terms such as the
time limit for the submission of documents such as basic information and estimated budget, quality requirements, fees and other conditions of cooperation, etc.
第七百九十五条
施工合同的内容一般包括工程范围、建设工期、中间交工工程的开工和竣工时间、工程质量
、工程造价、技术资料交付时间、材料和设备供应责任、拨款和结算、竣工验收、质量保修
范围和质量保证期、相互协作等条款。
Article 795 The contents of construction contracts generally include terms such as scope of
works, construction period, the commencement and completion time of works to be handed over in
the interim, project quality, project costs, the time of delivery of technical materials, responsibility
for the supply of materials and equipment, appropriation and settlement, completion acceptance,
scope and period of quality warranty, mutual assistance, etc.
第七百九十六条 建设工程实行监理的,发包人应当与监理人采用书面形式订立委托
监理合同。发包人与监理人的权利和义务以及法律责任,应当依照本编委托合同以及其
他有关法律、行政法规的规定。
Article 796 Where the construction project is subject to supervision, the developer shall enter
into an agency appointment contract for project supervision with a supervisor in writing. The rights,
obligations and legal liabilities of the employer and the supervisor shall comply with the provisions
of the commission contract of this compilation and other relevant laws and administrative regulations.
第七百九十七条
发包人在不妨碍承包人正常作业的情况下,可以随时对作业进度、质量进行检查。
Article 797 The Owner may inspect the progress and quality of the work at any time provided
that it does not interfere with the Contractor’s normal operation.
第七百九十八条 隐蔽工程在隐蔽以前,承包人应当通知发包人检查。发包人没有及
时检查的,承包人可以顺延工程日期,并有权请求赔偿停工、窝工等损失。
Article 798 In the case of concealed work, the contractor shall give the developer notice for
inspection prior to concealment. Where the developer fails to timely conduct inspection, the
contractor may extend the relevant project milestones, and is entitled to claim damages for work
stoppage or work slowdown, etc.
第七百九十九条
建设工程竣工后,发包人应当根据施工图纸及说明书、国家颁发的施工验收规范和质量检验
标准及时进行验收。验收合格的,发包人应当按照约定支付价款,并接收该建设工程。
Article 799 The employer should, upon completion of construction, pursuant to the drawings
and specifications, norms of execution/acceptance and standards for quality inspection issued by the
State, process the acceptance in time. Once the construction project has passed the acceptance
inspection, the developer shall pay the prescribed price and accept the construction project.
建设工程竣工经验收合格后,方可交付使用;未经验收或者验收不合格的,不得交
付使用。
A construction project may be delivered for use only after it has passed the acceptance
inspection; no construction project may be delivered for use without being inspected or passing
the acceptance inspection.
第八百条
勘察、设计的质量不符合要求或者未按照期限提交勘察、设计文件拖延工期,造成发包人损
失的,勘察人、设计人应当继续完善勘察、设计,减收或者免收勘察、设计费并赔偿损失。
Article 800 Where the developer sustains any loss from construction delay due to noncompliance of the survey or design or due to delayed delivery of the survey or design documents, the
surveyor or the designer shall continue to improve the survey or design, reduce or forgo the survey
fee or design fee, and pay damages.
第八百零一条 因施工人的原因致使建设工程质量不符合约定的,发包人有权请求施
工人在合理期限内无偿修理或者返工、改建。经过修理或者返工、改建后,造成逾期交
付的,施工人应当承担违约责任。
Article 801 Where the construction project fails to meet the prescribed quality requirements due
to any reason attributable to the constructor, the developer is entitled to require the constructor to
repair, re-construct or make alteration free of charge within a reasonable time. Where delivery of the
project is delayed due to such repair, re-construction or alteration, the constructor shall be liable for
breach of contract.
第八百零二条
因承包人的原因致使建设工程在合理使用期限内造成人身损害和财产损失的,承包人应当承
担赔偿责任。
Article 802 Where the construction project caused personal injury and property losses during
its reasonable usage period due to any reason attributable to the contractor, the contractor shall be
liable for compensation.
第八百零三条
发包人未按照约定的时间和要求提供原材料、设备、场地、资金、技术资料的,承包人可以
顺延工程日期,并有权请求赔偿停工、窝工等损失。
Article 803 If the developer fails to provide raw materials, equipment, site, funds, or technical
information at the prescribed time and in accordance with the contractual requirements, the
contractor may extend the relevant project milestones, and is entitled to claim damages for work
stoppage or work slowdown, etc.
第八百零四条
因发包人的原因致使工程中途停建、缓建的,发包人应当采取措施弥补或者减少损失,赔偿
承包人因此造成的停工、窝工、倒运、机械设备调迁、材料和构件积压等损失和实际费用。
Article 804 If an ongoing project is stopped or delayed due to any reason attributable to the
developer, the developer shall take the appropriate measures to make up or mitigate the loss, and
shall indemnify the contractor for its loss and out-of-pocket expenses arising from resulting work
stoppage, slowdown, reshipment, re-dispatch of mechanical equipment, and excess inventory of
materials and components.
第八百零五条
因发包人变更计划,提供的资料不准确,或者未按照期限提供必需的勘察、设计工作条件而
造成勘察、设计的返工、停工或者修改设计,发包人应当按照勘察人、设计人实际消耗的工作量增付费用。
Article 805 Where in the course of survey or design, any repeating work, work stoppage or
change of design occurs due to the developer's change of plan, the incorrect information provided by it, or its failure to provide the working conditions necessary for the survey or design at the prescribed time, the developer shall increase the fees in light of the actual amount of work done by the surveyor or designer.
第八百零六条 承包人将建设工程转包、违法分包的,发包人可以解除合同。
Article 806 If a contractor transfers the contract for or illegally subcontracts a construction
project, the contract issuer may dissolve the contract.
发包人提供的主要建筑材料、建筑构配件和设备不符合强制性标准或者不履行协助
义务,致使承包人无法施工,经催告后在合理期限内仍未履行相应义务的,承包人可以
解除合同。
Where the main building materials, building structural pieces and parts and equipment
provided by the employer fail to conform to the compulsory standards or fail to perform
assistance obligations, which resulting in the contractor’s failure of construction and the failure
of performance of corresponding obligations within a reasonable period after reminder, the
contractor may cancel the contract.
合同解除后,已经完成的建设工程质量合格的,发包人应当按照约定支付相应的工
程价款;已经完成的建设工程质量不合格的,参照本法第七百九十三条的规定处理。
If, after the contract is rescinded, the quality of the completed construction project is found
to be up to standard, the developer shall pay the agreed price for the project. If the quality of the
completed construction project is found to be substandard, the matter shall be handled with
reference to the provisions of Article 793 of this Law.
第八百零七条 发包人未按照约定支付价款的,承包人可以催告发包人在合理期限内
支付价款。发包人逾期不支付的,除根据建设工程的性质不宜折价、拍卖外,承包人可
以与发包人协议将该工程折价,也可以请求人民法院将该工程依法拍卖。建设工程的价
款就该工程折价或者拍卖的价款优先受偿。
Article 807 If the employer fails to pay the price in accordance with the contract, the contractor
may urge the employer to pay the price within a reasonable period. Where the contract issuer has not
made the said payments within the said period of time, then except where it is not appropriate to
conduct a sale at a depreciated price or an auction, due to the nature of the construction project, the
contractor may conclude an agreement with the contract issuer that the said project be sold off, or
may request that the people's court auction the said project in accordance with the law. The construction project price shall be paid in priority out of proceeds from the liquidation or auction of
the project.
第八百零八条 本章没有规定的,适用承揽合同的有关规定。
Article 808 A matter not provided for in this Chapter shall be governed by the relevant
provision governing contracts of hired works.
第十九章 运 输 合 同
CHAPTER 19 SHIPPING CONTRACT
第一节 一 般 规 定
SECTION 1 GENERAL PROVISIONS
第八百零九条
运输合同是承运人将旅客或者货物从起运地点运输到约定地点,旅客、托运人或者收货人支
付票款或者运输费用的合同。
Article 809 A transportation contract is a contract whereby the carrier carries passengers or
cargoes from the starting place of carriage to the agreed destination, and the passenger, consignor or
consignee pays for the ticket-fare or freight.
第八百一十条 从事公共运输的承运人不得拒绝旅客、托运人通常、合理的运输要求。
Article 810 A carrier engaged in public transportation may not refuse the normal and
reasonable carriage request of a passenger or consignor.
第八百一十一条
承运人应当在约定期限或者合理期限内将旅客、货物安全运输到约定地点。
Article 811 The carrier shall safely carry the passengers or cargoes to the agreed destination
within the agreed time limit or within a reasonable time.
第八百一十二条
承运人应当按照约定的或者通常的运输路线将旅客、货物运输到约定地点。
Article 812 The carrier shall carry the passengers or cargoes to the agreed destination via the
agreed route or the customary carriage route.
第八百一十三条
旅客、托运人或者收货人应当支付票款或者运输费用。承运人未按照约定路线或者通常路线
运输增加票款或者运输费用的,旅客、托运人或者收货人可以拒绝支付增加部分的票款或者
运输费用。
Article 813 A passenger, a consignor or a consignee shall pay for the ticket-fare or the freight.
Where a carrier has not taken the agreed or customary carriage route, and consequently increases the
ticket-fare or the freight, the passenger, the consignor or the consignee may refuse to pay for the
increased part of the ticket-fare or the freight.
第二节 客 运 合 同
Section 2 PASSENGER AND FREIGHT CONTRACT
第八百一十四条
客运合同自承运人向旅客出具客票时成立,但是当事人另有约定或者另有交易习惯的除外。
Article 814 A passenger transportation contract is established at the time when the carrier
issues the ticket to the passenger except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties or there are other
transaction practices.
第八百一十五条 旅客应当按照有效客票记载的时间、班次和座位号乘坐。旅客无票
乘坐、超程乘坐、越级乘坐或者持不符合减价条件的优惠客票乘坐的,应当补交票款,
承运人可以按照规定加收票款;旅客不支付票款的,承运人可以拒绝运输。
Article 815 A passenger shall board the means of transportation pursuant to the time, flight
number and seat number recorded on the valid ticket. Where a passenger travels without a ticket,
travels a longer distance or exceeds the class or travels on a preferential ticket which does not
comply with the terms of price reduction, the passenger shall pay the ticket fare retrospectively and
the carrier may collect the additional ticket fare pursuant to the provisions; where the passenger fails to pay the ticket fare, the carrier may refuse to carry.
实名制客运合同的旅客丢失客票的,可以请求承运人挂失补办,承运人不得再次收
取票款和其他不合理费用。
Where a passenger under a real-name passenger transport contract loses his/her passenger
ticket, he/she may request that the carrier report the loss and reissue a ticket, and the carrier shall
not collect ticket fees or other unreasonable fees again.
第八百一十六条
旅客因自己的原因不能按照客票记载的时间乘坐的,应当在约定的期限内办理退票或者变更
手续;逾期办理的,承运人可以不退票款,并不再承担运输义务。
Article 816 Where the passenger is unable to board the means of transportation at the time
stated on the passenger ticket due to any reason attributable to himself, he shall go through the
formalities for ticket refund or change within the agreed time limit. Where the formalities are gone
through beyond the time limit, the carrier may refuse to refund the ticket-fare, and no longer bear the
obligation of carriage.
第八百一十七条
旅客随身携带行李应当符合约定的限量和品类要求;超过限量或者违反品类要求携带行李的
,应当办理托运手续。
Article 817 The carry-on baggage of a passenger shall be in conformity with the agreed limit of
quantity and the requirements for the category; if the baggage exceeds the limit of quantity or is
carried in violation of the requirements for the category, the passenger shall complete the formalities
for consignment.
第八百一十八条
旅客不得随身携带或者在行李中夹带易燃、易爆、有毒、有腐蚀性、有放射性以及可能危及
运输工具上人身和财产安全的危险物品或者违禁物品。
Article 818 The passenger may not bring with him or pack in the luggage such dangerous
articles as are flammable, explosive, toxic, corrosive, or radioactive as well as those that might
endanger the safety of life and property on board the means of transportation or contraband articles.
旅客违反前款规定的,承运人可以将危险物品或者违禁物品卸下、销毁或者送交有关部门。旅客坚持携带或者夹带危险物品或者违禁物品的,承运人应当拒绝运输。
If a passenger violates the provisions of the preceding paragraph, the carrier may discharge
the dangerous articles or contraband articles, destroy them or send them to the relevant
departments. Where the passenger insists on carrying in person or placing in his luggage
dangerous articles or contraband articles, the carrier shall refuse to carry him.
第八百一十九条
承运人应当严格履行安全运输义务,及时告知旅客安全运输应当注意的事项。旅客对承运人
为安全运输所作的合理安排应当积极协助和配合。
Article 819 The carrier shall strictly fulfill its obligation of safe carriage and timely inform the
passenger of the matters which need attention in connection with safe carriage. The passenger shall
give active assistance and be cooperative in the reasonable arrangements made by the carrier for safe
carriage.
第八百二十条 承运人应当按照有效客票记载的时间、班次和座位号运输旅客。承运
人迟延运输或者有其他不能正常运输情形的,应当及时告知和提醒旅客,采取必要的安
置措施,并根据旅客的要求安排改乘其他班次或者退票;由此造成旅客损失的,承运人
应当承担赔偿责任,但是不可归责于承运人的除外。
Article 820. A carrier shall transport passengers in accordance with the time, flight number and
seat number recorded on the valid ticket. Where the carrier delays in carriage or cannot normally
conduct the carriage, it shall inform and remind the passenger in a timely manner, take necessary
measures for arrangement, and, at the request of the passenger, arrange the passenger to change to
another flight, or refund the ticket; the carrier shall be liable for compensation for any losses thus
caused to the passenger, unless such losses are not attributable to the carrier.
第八百二十一条
承运人擅自降低服务标准的,应当根据旅客的请求退票或者减收票款;提高服务标准的,不
得加收票款。
Article 821 Where the carrier unilaterally lowers the standards of service, it shall, upon the
passenger's request, refund the ticket-fare or reduce the ticket-fare; where the standards of service are
raised, no additional ticket-fare may be charged.
第八百二十二条 承运人在运输过程中,应当尽力救助患有急病、分娩、遇险的旅客。
Article 822 In the course of carriage, the carrier shall give its best efforts to assist the passenger who is seriously ill, or who is giving birth to a child or whose life is at risk.
第八百二十三条
承运人应当对运输过程中旅客的伤亡承担赔偿责任;但是,伤亡是旅客自身健康原因造成的
或者承运人证明伤亡是旅客故意、重大过失造成的除外。
Article 823 The carrier shall be liable for compensation for the death of or personal injury to
the passenger in the course of carriage, except where such death or personal injury results from the
passenger's own health, or the carrier proves that such death or personal injury is caused by the
passenger's intentional misconduct or gross negligence.
前款规定适用于按照规定免票、持优待票或者经承运人许可搭乘的无票旅客。
The provisions of the preceding paragraph shall apply to a passenger who, in accordance
with the relevant provisions, is exempted from buying a ticket, holds a preferential ticket, or is
permitted by the carrier to be on board without a ticket.
第八百二十四条
在运输过程中旅客随身携带物品毁损、灭失,承运人有过错的,应当承担赔偿责任。
Article 824 Where an article that the passenger carries with him/her on board is damaged or
lost during the period of carriage, the carrier shall be liable for compensation if it has committed
faults.
旅客托运的行李毁损、灭失的,适用货物运输的有关规定。
Where the check-in luggage of a passenger is damaged or lost, the relevant provisions on
the carriage of goods shall apply.
第三节 货 运 合 同
Section 3 Freight Contract
第八百二五条
托运人办理货物运输,应当向承运人准确表明收货人的姓名、名称或者凭指示的收货人,货
物的名称、性质、重量、数量,收货地点等有关货物运输的必要情况。
Article 825 In undergoing the formalities for cargoes, the consignor shall precisely indicate to
carrier the name of the consignee or the consignee by order, the name, nature weight, quantity and
the place for taking delivery of the cargoes, and other information necessary for cargo carriage.
因托运人申报不实或者遗漏重要情况,造成承运人损失的,托运人应当承担赔偿责任。
Where a carrier suffers losses due to untrue declaration or omission of important information by the consignor, the consignor shall bear compensation liability.
第八百二十六条
货物运输需要办理审批、检验等手续的,托运人应当将办理完有关手续的文件提交承运人。
Article 826 Where carriage of the cargo is subject to such procedures as examination and
approval or inspection, the consignor shall submit to the carrier the documents of fulfillment of the
relevant procedure.
第八百二十七条
托运人应当按照约定的方式包装货物。对包装方式没有约定或者约定不明确的,适用本法第
六百一十九条的规定。
Article 827. A consignor shall package the goods in accordance with agreed packaging
methods. Where there has been no agreement or no clear agreement on packaging methods, the
provisions of Article 619 of this Law shall be applied.
托运人违反前款规定的,承运人可以拒绝运输。
Where the consignor violates the provisions of the preceding paragraph, the carrier may
refuse to carry.
第八百二十八条
托运人托运易燃、易爆、有毒、有腐蚀性、有放射性等危险物品的,应当按照国家有关危险
物品运输的规定对危险物品妥善包装,做出危险物品标志和标签,并将有关危险物品的名称
、性质和防范措施的书面材料提交承运人。
Article 828 In consigning any dangerous articles which are inflammable, explosive, toxic, corrosive, or radioactive, the consignor shall, in accordance with the provisions of the State on the
carriage of dangerous articles, properly pack the dangerous articles and affix thereon signs and labels for dangerous articles, and shall submit the written papers relating to the name and nature of the dangerous articles and the precautionary measures to the carrier.
托运人违反前款规定的,承运人可以拒绝运输,也可以采取相应措施以避免损失的
发生,因此产生的费用由托运人负担。
Where the consignor violates the provisions of the preceding paragraph, the carrier may
refuse to undertake the carriage, or take corresponding measures to avoid losses, and expenses
thus caused shall be borne by the consignor.
第八百二十九条
在承运人将货物交付收货人之前,托运人可以要求承运人中止运输、返还货物、变更到达地
或者将货物交给其他收货人,但是应当赔偿承运人因此受到的损失。
Article 829 Before the carrier delivers the cargoes to the consignee, the consignor may request
the carrier to suspend the carriage, return the cargoes, change the destination or deliver the cargoes to another consignee. The consignor shall compensate the carrier for losses thus caused.
第八百三十条
货物运输到达后,承运人知道收货人的,应当及时通知收货人,收货人应当及时提货。收货
人逾期提货的,应当向承运人支付保管费等费用。
Article 830 Upon arrival of the cargoes, if the carrier has the knowledge of the consignee, it
shall timely notify the consignee and the consignee shall timely take delivery. If the consignee fails
to take delivery of the goods within the prescribed time limit, the consignee shall pay the carrier
storage fees and other expenses.
第八百三十一条 收货人提货时应当按照约定的期限检验货物。对检验货物的期限没
有约定或者约定不明确,依据本法第五百一十条的规定仍不能确定的,应当在合理期限
内检验货物。收货人在约定的期限或者合理期限内对货物的数量、毁损等未提出异议的,
视为承运人已经按照运输单证的记载交付的初步证据。
Article 831 Upon taking delivery of the cargoes, the consignee shall inspect the cargoes at the
agreed time. Where there is no agreement in the contract on the time limit or such agreement is unclear, nor can it be determined in accordance with Article 510 of the Law, the consignee shall
inspect the goods within a reasonable time limit. The failure of the consignee to raise any objection
against the quantity or any damage of the goods within the agreed time limit or within a reasonable
time limit is deemed prima facie evidence that the carrier has delivered the goods in conformity with
the description in the transport documents.
第八百三十二条
承运人对运输过程中货物的毁损、灭失承担赔偿责任。但是,承运人证明货物的毁损、灭失
是因不可抗力、货物本身的自然性质或者合理损耗以及托运人、收货人的过错造成的,不承
担赔偿责任。
Article 832 The carrier shall be liable for the damage to or loss of the goods in the course of
carriage. However, the carrier shall not be liable if he proves that the damage to or loss of the
cargoes is caused by force majeure, the intrinsic characteristics of the cargoes, reasonable depletion,
or the fault of the consignor or consignee.
第八百三十三条 货物的毁损、灭失的赔偿额,当事人有约定的,按照其约定;没有
约定或者约定不明确,依据本法第五百一十条的规定仍不能确定的,按照交付或者应当
交付时货物到达地的市场价格计算。法律、行政法规对赔偿额的计算方法和赔偿限额另
有规定的,依照其规定。
Article 833 Where the parties agree on the amount of damages in case of damage to or loss of
the cargoes, the damages payable is the agreed amount; if the amount of damages is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, nor can it be determined in accordance with Article 510 of this Law, it shall be calculated on the basis of the prevailing market price at the destination when the cargoes are or ought to be delivered. Where laws or administrative rules and regulations provide otherwise with respect to the method of calculation of damages and the limit of the amount of damages, those
provisions shall apply.
第八百三十四条
两个以上承运人以同一运输方式联运的,与托运人订立合同的承运人应当对全程运输承担责
任;损失发生在某一运输区段的,与托运人订立合同的承运人和该区段的承运人承担连带责
任。
Article 834 Where two or more carriers jointly carry the cargoes using the same means of
transportation, the carrier contracting with the consignor shall bear the liability for the whole
course of carriage; if the losses occurred at a particular segment, the carrier contracting with the
consignor and the carrier operating on that segment shall be jointly and severally liable.
第八百三十五条 货物在运输过程中因不可抗力灭失,未收取运费的,承运人不得请
求支付运费;已经收取运费的,托运人可以请求返还。法律另有规定的,依照其规定。
Article 835 Where the cargoes are lost in the course of carriage due to force majeure, if the
freight has not been collected, the carrier may not request the payment thereof; if the freight has been
collected, the consignor may request the refund of the freight. Where the laws provide otherwise,
such provisions shall prevail.
第八百三十六条
托运人或者收货人不支付运费、保管费或者其他费用的,承运人对相应的运输货物享有留置
权,但是当事人另有约定的除外。
Article 836 Where the consignor or the consignee fails to pay the freight, storage fees or other
expenses, the carrier is entitled to have a lien on the relevant carried cargoes, except as otherwise
agreed upon by the parties.
第八百三十七条
收货人不明或者收货人无正当理由拒绝受领货物的,承运人依法可以提存货物。
Article 837 Where the consignee is not clear or refuses to take delivery of the goods without
justified reasons, the carrier may place the goods in escrow according to law.
第四节 多式联运合同
Section 4 Section Four Multi-modal Transportation contract
第八百三十八条
多式联运经营人负责履行或者组织履行多式联运合同,对全程运输享有承运人的权利,承担
承运人的义务。
Article 838. A multimodal transport operator is responsible for performing or organizing the
performance of a multimodal transport contract, and it enjoys the rights and bears the obligations of a carrier with respect to the entire journey.
第八百三十九条
多式联运经营人可以与参加多式联运的各区段承运人就多式联运合同的各区段运输约定相互 之间的责任;但是,该约定不影响多式联运经营人对全程运输承担的义务。
Article 839 The MTO may agree with the carriers participating in each stage of the
multimodal transport on their mutual responsibilities with respect to each stage of the
transport of the multimodal transport contract. However, such an agreement shall not affect
the obligations of the MTO with respect to the entire transport.
第八百四十条
多式联运经营人收到托运人交付的货物时,应当签发多式联运单据。按照托运人的要求,多
式联运单据可以是可转让单据,也可以是不可转让单据。
Article 840 Upon receipt of the cargo delivered by the consignor, the multimodal transport
operator shall issue thereto a multimodal transport document. The multimodal transport document
may, as required by the shipper, be either negotiable or non-negotiable.
第八百四十一条
因托运人托运货物时的过错造成多式联运经营人损失的,即使托运人已经转让多式联运单据
,托运人仍然应当承担赔偿责任。
Article 841 Where the multi-modal carriage operator sustains any loss due to the fault of the
consignor in the course of consigning the cargo, the consignor shall be liable for compensation
notwithstanding its subsequent assignment of the multi-modal carriage document.
第八百四十二条
货物的毁损、灭失发生于多式联运的某一运输区段的,多式联运经营人的赔偿责任和责任限
额,适用调整该区段运输方式的有关法律规定;货物毁损、灭失发生的运输区段不能确定的
,依照本章规定承担赔偿责任。
Article 842 If damage to or loss of the cargo occurred in a particular segment of the course of a multi-modal carriage, the multi-modal carriage operator's liability for damages and any limitation
thereon are governed by the applicable transportation law of the jurisdiction which such segment is
under; if the segment in which the damage to or loss of the cargo occurred cannot be determined, the operator shall be liable for damages in accordance with the provisions of this Chapter.
第二十章 技 术 合 同
CHAPTER 20 TECHNICAL CONTRACT
第一节 一 般 规 定
SECTION 1 GENERAL PROVISIONS
第八百四十三条
技术合同是当事人就技术开发、转让、许可、咨询或者服务订立的确立相互之间权利和义务
的合同。
Article 843 A technology contract is a contract the parties conclude for establishing their rights
and obligations in respect of the development or transfer of technology, or in respect of technical
licensing, consulting or service.
第八百四十四条
订立技术合同,应当有利于知识产权的保护和科学技术的进步,促进科学技术成果的研发、
转化、应用和推广。
Article 844 The conclusion of a technology contract shall be conducive to the protection of
intellectual property rights and scientific and technological progress, and promote the research and
development, transformation, application and dissemination of scientific and technological
achievements.
第八百四十五条
技术合同的内容一般包括项目的名称,标的的内容、范围和要求,履行的计划、地点和方式
,技术信息和资料的保密,技术成果的归属和收益的分配办法,验收标准和方法,名词和术
语的解释等条款。
Article 845. The content of a technology contract shall generally include clauses dealing
with the name of the project, the content, scope and requirements of the subject matter, the plan,
location and method of performance, the confidentiality of technical information and data, the
ownership of technical achievements and the method of profit distribution, standards and methods of
examination and acceptance, and explanation of terms and phrases.
与履行合同有关的技术背景资料、可行性论证和技术评价报告、项目任务书和计划
书、技术标准、技术规范、原始设计和工艺文件,以及其他技术文档,按照当事人的约
定可以作为合同的组成部分。
The parties may agree to include the following materials relating to the performance of the
contract as an integral part thereof: technical background information, feasibility studies and
technical evaluation report, project task matrix and project plan, technical standard, technical
specifications, original design and technique documents, as well as other technical
documentation.
技术合同涉及专利的,应当注明发明创造的名称、专利申请人和专利权人、申请日
期、申请号、专利号以及专利权的有效期限。
Where a technology contract involves a patent, the name of the invention or creation, the
patent applicant and the patentee, the date and number of application, the patent number as well
as the term of validity of the patent right shall be indicated.
第八百四十六条
技术合同价款、报酬或者使用费的支付方式由当事人约定,可以采取一次总算、一次总付或
者一次总算、分期支付,也可以采取提成支付或者提成支付附加预付入门费的方式。
Article 846 The method for payment of the price, remuneration or licensing fee under a
technology contract shall be agreed upon by the parties, who may agree upon lump-sum payment
based on one-time calculation or installment payment based on one-time calculation, and may also
agree upon royalty payment or royalty payment plus advance payment of initial fee.
约定提成支付的,可以按照产品价格、实施专利和使用技术秘密后新增的产值、利润或者产品销售额的一定比例提成,也可以按照约定的其他方式计算。提成支付的比例可以采取固定比例、逐年递增比例或者逐年递减比例。
Where it is agreed that one party will pay a royalty, the said amount may be calculated
according to a fixed percentage of the product's price, of any increase in output or profit following the exploitation of the patent or the use of the technical secret, or of the product's sales
volume, or according to another agreed method. The royalty payment may be made at a fixed
rate, or on the basis of an increasing or decreasing rate year by year.
约定提成支付的,当事人可以约定查阅有关会计账目的办法。
Where a royalty payment is agreed, the parties may agree on a method for inspection of the
relevant accounts.
第八百四十七条 职务技术成果的使用权、转让权属于法人或者非法人组织的,法人
或者非法人组织可以就该项职务技术成果订立技术合同。法人或者非法人组织订立技术
合同转让职务技术成果时,职务技术成果的完成人享有以同等条件优先受让的权利。
Article 847 Where the right to use and the right to transfer job-related technology belong to a
legal person or an organization without legal personality, such legal person or organization may enter
into a technology contract in respect of such job-related technology. If the legal person or nonincorporated organization concludes a technology contract to transfer the job-related technological
achievement, the individual who accomplished this achievement shall have the priority to be the
transferee under the same conditions.
职务技术成果是执行法人或者非法人组织的工作任务,或者主要是利用法人或者非
法人组织的物质技术条件所完成的技术成果。
A job-related technological achievement refers to a technological achievement
accomplished in the process of carrying out the task assigned by a legal person or an
organization without legal personality, or by mainly using the material and technological
resources thereof.
第八百四十八条
非职务技术成果的使用权、转让权属于完成技术成果的个人,完成技术成果的个人可以就该
项非职务技术成果订立技术合同。
Article 848 The right to use and transfer a non-job-related technological achievement shall
belong to the individual who accomplished it. The individual may conclude a technology contract in
respect of such a non-job-related technological achievement.
第八百四十九条
完成技术成果的个人享有在有关技术成果文件上写明自己是技术成果完成者的权利和取得荣誉证书、奖励的权利。
Article 849 An individual who has accomplished a technological achievement shall have the
right to be named as such in the documents concerning the technological achievement and the right
to receive certificates of honor and awards for the achievement.
第八百五十条 非法垄断技术或者侵害他人技术成果的技术合同无效。
Article 850 A technology contract which illegally monopolizes technology or infringes on the
technology of a third party is invalid.
第二节 技术开发合同
Section 2 technical development agreement
第八百五十一条
技术开发合同是当事人之间就新技术、新产品、新工艺、新品种或者新材料及其系统的研究
开发所订立的合同。
Article 851 A technology development contract is a contract concluded in respect of the
development of new technology, new products, new techniques, new varieties or new materials and
the associated system.
技术开发合同包括委托开发合同和合作开发合同。
Technology development contracts include commissioned development contracts and
cooperative development contracts.
技术开发合同应当采用书面形式。
A technology development contract shall be in written form.
当事人之间就具有实用价值的科技成果实施转化订立的合同,参照适用技术开发合
同的有关规定。
A contract on the conversion of a scientific achievement with practical value shall be
governed by reference to the relevant provisions on technology development contracts.
第八百五十二条
委托开发合同的委托人应当按照约定支付研究开发经费和报酬,提供技术资料,提出研究开
发要求,完成协作事项,接受研究开发成果。
Article 852 The commissioning party to a commissioned development contract shall, as agreed
in the contract, provide development funds and remuneration, supply technical materials, set
development requirements, complete its tasks of cooperation and accept the developed technology.
第八百五十三条
委托开发合同的研究开发人应当按照约定制定和实施研究开发计划,合理使用研究开发经费
,按期完成研究开发工作,交付研究开发成果,提供有关的技术资料和必要的技术指导,帮
助委托人掌握研究开发成果。
Article 853 The developer under a commissioned development contract shall, in accordance
with the contract, prepare and implement the development plan, use development funds in a
reasonable manner, timely complete the development and deliver the developed technology, as well
as provide the relevant technical materials and necessary technical guidance so as to help the
commissioning party master the technology developed.
第八百五十四条
委托开发合同的当事人违反约定造成研究开发工作停滞、延误或者失败的,应当承担违约责
任。
Article 854 Where a party to a commissioned development contract breaches the contract,
thereby causing stoppage, delay or failure of the development, it shall be liable for the breach of
contract.
第八百五十五条
合作开发合同的当事人应当按照约定进行投资,包括以技术进行投资,分工参与研究开发工
作,协作配合研究开发工作。
Article 855 Parties to a cooperative development contract shall, in accordance with the contract,
make their investment (including investment of technology), participate in the development by
performing their respective tasks and cooperate with each other in the development.
第八百五十六条
合作开发合同的当事人违反约定造成研究开发工作停滞、延误或者失败的,应当承担违约责
任。
Article 856 Where a party to a cooperative development contract breaches the contract, thereby
causing stoppage, delay or failure of the development, it shall be liable for the breach of contract.
第八百五十七条
作为技术开发合同标的的技术已经由他人公开,致使技术开发合同的履行没有意义的,当事
人可以解除合同。
Article 857 If the technology which is the subject matter of a technology development contract
is made public by a third party, thereby making the performance of the technology development
contract meaningless, the parties may rescind the contract.
第八百五十八条
技术开发合同履行过程中,因出现无法克服的技术困难,致使研究开发失败或者部分失败的
,该风险由当事人约定;没有约定或者约定不明确,依据本法第五百一十条的规定仍不能确
定的,风险由当事人合理分担。
Article 858 If, in the course of performing a technology development contract, the
development is failed in whole or in part due to any insurmountable technical difficulty, such risks
shall be agreed upon by the parties. If there is no such agreement in the contract or such agreement is
unclear, nor can they be determined in accordance with the provisions of Article 510 of the Law,
such risks shall be shared reasonably by the parties.
当事人一方发现前款规定的可能致使研究开发失败或者部分失败的情形时,应当及
时通知另一方并采取适当措施减少损失;没有及时通知并采取适当措施,致使损失扩大
的,应当就扩大的损失承担责任。
If a party discovers circumstances which are likely to result in a failure or partial failure in
research and development as stipulated in the preceding paragraph, it must promptly notify the
other party and adopt appropriate measures to reduce the loss. If the loss is increased as a result
of a failure to promptly notify and adopt appropriate measures, the party will bear liability for the
additional loss.
第八百五十九条
委托开发完成的发明创造,除法律另有规定或者当事人另有约定外,申请专利的权利属于研究开发人。研究开发人取得专利权的,委托人可以依法实施该专利。
Article 859 With respect to an invention or creation accomplished in the performance of a
commissioned development, the right to apply for a patent belongs to the party that undertakes the
research and development, except as otherwise provided for by law or agreed upon by the parties.
Where the developer is granted a patent, the commissioning party may exploit such patent in
accordance with the law.
研究开发人转让专利申请权的,委托人享有以同等条件优先受让的权利。
If the party which has undertaken the research and development assigns its right to apply
for a patent, the commissioning party shall enjoy the priority to acquire the assignment on equal
terms.
第八百六十条 合作开发完成的发明创造,申请专利的权利属于合作开发的当事人共
有;当事人一方转让其共有的专利申请权的,其他各方享有以同等条件优先受让的权利。
但是,当事人另有约定的除外。
Article 860 For an invention or creation accomplished in cooperative development, the right to
apply for a patent shall be jointly owned by the parties to the cooperative development. If one of the
parties transfers its jointly owned right to apply for a patent, the other parties shall have a priority
right to be assigned on equal terms. However, if the parties have agreed otherwise, such agreement
shall prevail.
合作开发的当事人一方声明放弃其共有的专利申请权的,除当事人另有约定外,可
以由另一方单独申请或者由其他各方共同申请。申请人取得专利权的,放弃专利申请权
的一方可以免费实施该专利。
If a party in the cooperative development declares that it waives its joint right to apply for a
patent, the patent may be applied for independently by the other party or jointly by the other
parties, unless otherwise agreed upon by the parties. If a patent is granted to the applicant, the
party that waived its right to apply for the patent may exploit the patent for free.
合作开发的当事人一方不同意申请专利的,另一方或者其他各方不得申请专利。
If one of the parties to the cooperative development does not agree to apply for a patent, the
other party or parties may not apply for it.
第八百六十一条 委托开发或者合作开发完成的技术秘密成果的使用权、转让权以及
收益的分配办法,由当事人约定;没有约定或者约定不明确,依据本法第五百一十条的
规定仍不能确定的,在没有相同技术方案被授予专利权前,当事人均有使用和转让的权
利。但是,委托开发的研究开发人不得在向委托人交付研究开发成果之前,将研究开发
成果转让给第三人。
Article 861 The right to use and transfer the technical secret resulting from a commissioned or
cooperative development, and the method for distribution of the benefits accrued therefrom shall be
agreed upon by the parties. Where there is no such agreement in the contract or such agreement is
unclear, nor can it be determined in accordance with the provisions of Article 510 of the Law, the
parties shall all have the right to use and transfer the technical secret prior to the grant of the patent
right for the same technical solution. However, the party responsible for research and development
may not transfer the results of the research and development to a third party before delivering them
to the commissioning party.
第三节 技术转让合同和技术许可合同
Section 3 Technology Transfer Contracts and Technology License Contracts
第八百六十二条
技术转让合同是合法拥有技术的权利人,将现有特定的专利、专利申请、技术秘密的相关权
利让与他人所订立的合同。
Article 862 A technology transfer contract is a contract concluded by and between an obligee
lawfully owning a technology and assigning to others the relevant rights and interests in respect of a
specific patent, patent application or technical secret.
技术许可合同是合法拥有技术的权利人,将现有特定的专利、技术秘密的相关权利
许可他人实施、使用所订立的合同。
Technology license contract is a contract made by the lawful owner of the technology,
under which the right holder authorizes others to implement and use the particular patent and
technical secret.
技术转让合同和技术许可合同中关于提供实施技术的专用设备、原材料或者提供有
关的技术咨询、技术服务的约定,属于合同的组成部分。
The agreements on provision of special equipment and raw materials for implementation of
technology or provision of relevant technical consultation and service in technology transfer
contract and technology license contract are integral parts of the contract.
第八百六十三条 技术转让合同包括专利权转让、专利申请权转让、技术秘密转让等合同。
Article 863 Technology transfer contracts include contracts for the assignment of patent,
assignment of patent application right, transfer of technical secrets, etc.
技术许可合同包括专利实施许可、技术秘密使用许可等合同。
Technology license contracts include contracts for the licensing of patent implementation,
licensing of technical secrets, etc.
技术转让合同和技术许可合同应当采用书面形式。
Technology transfer contracts and technology license contracts shall be in written form.
第八百六十四条
技术转让合同和技术许可合同可以约定实施专利或者使用技术秘密的范围,但是不得限制技术竞争和技术发展。
Article 864 Technology transfer contracts and technology licensing contracts may stipulate the
scope of exploitation of patents or use of technical secrets, provided that they do not restrict
technological competition and technological development.
第八百六十五条 专利实施许可合同仅在该专利权的存续期限内有效。专利权有效期
限届满或者专利权被宣告无效的,专利权人不得就该专利与他人订立专利实施许可合同。
Article 865 The patent licensing contract is only valid for the term of the patent. Where the
term of the patent expires or the patent is declared invalid, the patentee may not conclude a license
contract for exploitation of the patent with another person.
第八百六十六条
专利实施许可合同的许可人应当按照约定许可被许可人实施专利,交付实施专利有关的技术
资料,提供必要的技术指导。
Article 866 The licensor under a patent licensing contract shall, in accordance with the contract, license the patent to the licensee, deliver the technical materials related to the exploitation of the patent, and provide the necessary technical guidance.
第八百六十七条
专利实施许可合同的被许可人应当按照约定实施专利,不得许可约定以外的第三人实施该专
利,并按照约定支付使用费。
Article 867 The licensee under a patent licensing contract shall exploit the patent in accordance
with the contract and may not license the patent to any third party except as provided for in the
contract, and shall pay the licensing fee in accordance with the contract.
第八百六十八条
技术秘密转让合同的让与人和技术秘密使用许可合同的许可人应当按照约定提供技术资料,
进行技术指导,保证技术的实用性、可靠性,承担保密义务。
Article 868 The transferor under a contract for transfer of technical secret and the licensor
under a license contract for use of technical secret shall, in accordance with the contract, supply the
technical materials, provide technical guidance, guarantee the practical applicability and reliability of
the technology, and undertake the obligation of confidentiality.
前款规定的保密义务,不限制许可人申请专利,但是当事人另有约定的除外。
The confidentiality obligation stipulated in the preceding paragraph shall not restrict patent
application by the licensor, unless otherwise agreed between the parties concerned.
第八百六十九条
技术秘密转让合同的受让人和技术秘密使用许可合同的被许可人应当按照约定使用技术,支
付转让费、使用费,承担保密义务。
Article 869 The transferee under a contract for transfer of technical secret and the licensee
under a license contract for use of technical secret shall, in accordance with the contract, use the
technology, pay the transfer fee and licensing fee and abide by its confidentiality obligations.
第八百七十条
技术转让合同的让与人和技术许可合同的许可人应当保证自己是所提供的技术的合法拥有者,并保证所提供的技术完整、无误、有效,能够达到约定的目标。
Article 870 The transferor to a technology transfer contract or the licensor to a technology licensing contract shall warrant that it is the lawful owner of the technology provided, and shall warrant that the technology provided is complete, free from error, effective, and capable of achieving the prescribed goals.
第八百七十一条
技术转让合同的受让人和技术许可合同的被许可人应当按照约定的范围和期限,对让与人、
许可人提供的技术中尚未公开的秘密部分,承担保密义务。
Article 871 The transferee under a technology transfer contract and the licensee under a
technology licensing contract shall, in conformity with the scope and the time period as agreed upon
in the contract, abide by its confidentiality obligations in respect of the non-public and secret portion
of the technology provided by the transferor or the licensor.
第八百七十二条
许可人未按照约定许可技术的,应当返还部分或者全部使用费,并应当承担违约责任;实施
专利或者使用技术秘密超越约定的范围的,违反约定擅自许可第三人实施该项专利或者使用
该项技术秘密的,应当停止违约行为,承担违约责任;违反约定的保密义务的,应当承担违
约责任。
Article 872 Where the licensor fails to license technology in accordance with the contract, it
shall refund the licensing fee in part or in whole, and shall be liable for the breach of contract; where
the licensor exploits the patent or uses the technical secret beyond the agreed scope, or, without
authorization, licenses a third party to exploit the patent or use the technical secret in violation of the
contract, he shall cease the breach and be liable for the breach of contract; where the licensor
breaches any agreed obligation of confidentiality, he shall be liable for the breach of contract.
让与人承担违约责任,参照适用前款规定。
The provisions of the preceding paragraph shall apply as reference to the transferor's default
liability.
第八百七十三条
被许可人未按照约定支付使用费的,应当补交使用费并按照约定支付违约金;不补交使用费
或者支付违约金的,应当停止实施专利或者使用技术秘密,交还技术资料,承担违约责任;
实施专利或者使用技术秘密超越约定的范围的,未经许可人同意擅自许可第三人实施该专利
或者使用该技术秘密的,应当停止违约行为,承担违约责任;违反约定的保密义务的,应当承担违约责任。
Article 873 Where the licensee fails to pay the agreed licensing fee, it shall pay the
overdue licensing fee and pay breach of contract damages in accordance with the contract;
where it fails to pay the overdue licensing fee and breach of contract damages, it shall cease
exploitation of the patent or use of the technical secret, return the technical materials, and be liable
for the breach of contract; where the licensee exploits the patent or uses the technical secret beyond
the agreed scope, or unilaterally allows the patent to be exploited or the technical secret to be used by
a third party without consent of the licensor, it shall cease the breach and be liable for the breach of
contract; where the licensee breaches any agreed confidentiality obligation, it shall be liable for the
breach of contract.
受让人承担违约责任,参照适用前款规定。
The provisions of the preceding paragraph apply as a reference to the liability for breach of
contract borne by the transferee.
第八百七十四条
受让人或者被许可人按照约定实施专利、使用技术秘密侵害他人合法权益的,由让与人或者
许可人承担责任,但是当事人另有约定的除外。
Article 874 Where the exploitation of a patent or the use of technical secret by the transferee or
licensee in accordance with the contract infringes on the lawful rights and interests of another person,
the transferor or the licensor shall bear the liability, unless the parties have agreed otherwise.
第八百七十五条
当事人可以按照互利的原则,在合同中约定实施专利、使用技术秘密后续改进的技术成果的
分享办法;没有约定或者约定不明确,依据本法第五百一十条的规定仍不能确定的,一方后
续改进的技术成果,其他各方无权分享。
Article 875 The parties may, on the basis of mutual benefit, provide in the contract for the
method of sharing any subsequent improvement made in the exploitation of the patent or the use of
the technical secret. Where there is no such agreement or such agreement is unclear, nor can it be
determined in accordance with the provisions of Article 510 of the Law, the other parties shall have
no right to share any subsequent improvement made by one party.
第八百七十六条
集成电路布图设计专有权、植物新品种权、计算机软件著作权等其他知识产权的转让和许可,参照适用本节的有关规定。
Article 876 The relevant provisions of this Section shall apply mutatis mutandis to the transfer
and license of exclusive rights to integrated circuit layout designs, rights to new plant varieties,
computer software copyrights and other intellectual property.
第八百七十七条
法律、行政法规对技术进出口合同或者专利、专利申请合同另有规定的,依照其规定。
Article 877 Where the relevant laws or administrative regulations provide otherwise in respect
of technology import or export contracts or in respect of patent contracts or contracts for patent
application, such provisions shall prevail.
第四节 技术咨询合同和技术服务合同
Section 4 Technical service agreement and technical consultancy agreement
第八百七十八条
技术咨询合同是当事人一方以技术知识为对方就特定技术项目提供可行性论证、技术预测、
专题技术调查、分析评价报告等所订立的合同。
Article 878 A technical consultancy contract refers to a contract whereby one party provides
for the other party feasibility studies, technical forecasts, specialized technical investigations and
analytical evaluation reports, etc. in respect of a specific technical project by utilizing its technical
knowledge.
技术服务合同是当事人一方以技术知识为对方解决特定技术问题所订立的合同,不
包括承揽合同和建设工程合同。
A technical service contract is a contract whereby one party solves a particular technical
problem for the other party by utilizing its technical knowledge, excluding a contract of hired
work or a contract for construction project.
第八百七十九条
技术咨询合同的委托人应当按照约定阐明咨询的问题,提供技术背景材料及有关技术资料,
接受受托人的工作成果,支付报酬。
Article 879 The client under a technical consulting contract shall, in accordance with the
contract, describe the problem on which consultancy is sought, provide the technical background
information and the relevant technical materials, accept from the consultant the result of its work and pay the remuneration.
第八百八十条
技术咨询合同的受托人应当按照约定的期限完成咨询报告或者解答问题,提出的咨询报告应
当达到约定的要求。
Article 880 The consultant to a technical consultancy contract shall complete the consultancy
report or answer the questions raised by the client within the agreed period of time, and the
consultancy report thus submitted shall meet the requirements set forth in the contract.
第八百八十一条
技术咨询合同的委托人未按照约定提供必要的资料,影响工作进度和质量,不接受或者逾期
接受工作成果的,支付的报酬不得追回,未支付的报酬应当支付。
Article 881 Where the client under a technical consulting contract fails to provide the necessary
materials in accordance with the contract, thereby impairing the progress and quality of the work, or
fails to accept or delays in accepting the work result, it may not claim refund of the remuneration
paid, and shall pay any unpaid remuneration.
技术咨询合同的受托人未按期提出咨询报告或者提出的咨询报告不符合约定的,应
当承担减收或者免收报酬等违约责任。
If the consultant to a technical consultancy contract fails to submit the consultancy report
on schedule or the report thus submitted does not meet the requirements as agreed in the contract,
the consultant shall assume liability for breach of contract by way of reducing or foregoing the
remuneration thereof.
技术咨询合同的委托人按照受托人符合约定要求的咨询报告和意见作出决策所造成
的损失,由委托人承担,但是当事人另有约定的除外。
The client under a technical consulting contract shall bear any loss resulting from any decision made by it based on the consulting report and opinion provided by the consultant in conformity with the requirements of the contract, unless the parties have agreed otherwise.
第八百八十二条
技术服务合同的委托人应当按照约定提供工作条件,完成配合事项,接受工作成果并支付报
酬。
Article 882 The client under a technical service contract shall, in accordance with the contract,
provide the working conditions, complete its tasks of cooperation, accept the work results and pay
the remuneration.
第八百八十三条
技术服务合同的受托人应当按照约定完成服务项目,解决技术问题,保证工作质量,并传授
解决技术问题的知识。
Article 883 The service provider under a technical service contract shall, in accordance with
the contract, complete the services, solve the technical problem, warrant the quality of its work, and
communicate the knowledge for solving the technical problem.
第八百八十四条
技术服务合同的委托人不履行合同义务或者履行合同义务不符合约定,影响工作进度和质量
,不接受或者逾期接受工作成果的,支付的报酬不得追回,未支付的报酬应当支付。
Article 884 Where the client under a technical service contract fails to perform its contractual
obligations, or the performance is not in conformity with the contract, thereby impairing the progress
and quality of the work, or fails to accept or delays in accepting the work results, it may not claim
refund of the remuneration paid, and shall pay any unpaid remuneration.
技术服务合同的受托人未按照约定完成服务工作的,应当承担免收报酬等违约责任。
Where the service provider under a technical service contract fails to complete services in
accordance with the contract, it shall be liable for the breach of contract by way of forgoing the
remuneration, etc.
第八百八十五条 技术咨询合同、技术服务合同履行过程中,受托人利用委托人提供
的技术资料和工作条件完成的新的技术成果,属于受托人。委托人利用受托人的工作成
果完成的新的技术成果,属于委托人。当事人另有约定的,按照其约定。
Article 885 Any new technological achievement accomplished by the consultant or service
provider in the performance of a technical consultancy contract or a technical service contract by
using the technological materials and work facilities supplied by the client shall belong to the
consultant or service provider. Any new technical results achieved by the commissioning party
through the use of the work products of the commissioned party shall belong to the commissioning
party. Where the parties agree otherwise, their agreement shall prevail.
第八百八十六条
技术咨询合同和技术服务合同对受托人正常开展工作所需费用的负担没有约定或者约定不明确的,由受托人负担。
Article 886 Where there are no stipulations in the technical consulting contracts or the technical service contracts on bearing the expenses needed for the entrusted party to carry out the normal work, or such stipulations are not clear, the said expenses shall be borne by the entrusted
party.
第八百八十七条
法律、行政法规对技术中介合同、技术培训合同另有规定的,依照其规定。
Article 887. Where laws and administrative regulations provide otherwise with respect to
contracts for the provision of intermediary services in relation to technology and technical training
contracts, such provisions shall prevail.
第二十一章 保 管 合 同
CHAPTER 21 CUSTODIAN CONTRACT
第八百八十八条 保管合同是保管人保管寄存人交付的保管物,并返还该物的合同。
Article 888 A storage contract is a contract whereby the depositary keeps the deposit delivered
by the depositor, and eventually returns it thereto.
寄存人到保管人处从事购物、就餐、住宿等活动,将物品存放在指定场所的,视为
保管,但是当事人另有约定或者另有交易习惯的除外。
Where the depositor goes to the depository for shopping, dining, lodging or other activities,
and deposits the articles at a designated place, it is deemed as depository, except as otherwise
agreed by the parties or there are other transaction practices.
第八百八十九条 寄存人应当按照约定向保管人支付保管费。
Article 889. The depositor shall pay custody fees to the custodian in accordance with the
parties' agreement.
当事人对保管费没有约定或者约定不明确,依据本法第五百一十条的规定仍不能确
定的,视为无偿保管。
Where there is no agreement in the contract on the custody fee or such agreement is unclear,
nor can it be determined in accordance with the provisions of Article 510 of the Law, the custody
fee shall be deemed as free of charge.
第八百九十条 保管合同自保管物交付时成立,但是当事人另有约定的除外。
Article 890. A storage contract is concluded from the time the custodial goods are delivered,
except where the parties agree otherwise.
第八百九十一条
寄存人向保管人交付保管物的,保管人应当出具保管凭证,但是另有交易习惯的除外。
Article 891 Upon the depositor's delivery of the deposit to the depository, the depository shall
issue a deposit voucher, except as otherwise practiced in transaction.
第八百九十二条 保管人应当妥善保管保管物。
Article 892. The custodian shall take appropriate custody of the custodial goods.
当事人可以约定保管场所或者方法。除紧急情况或者为维护寄存人利益外,不得擅自改变保管场所或者方法。
The parties may agree on the place or method of custody. The place or method of custody
may not be changed without authorization, except in an emergency situation or in order to
protect the depositor's interests.
第八百九十三条
寄存人交付的保管物有瑕疵或者根据保管物的性质需要采取特殊保管措施的,寄存人应当将
有关情况告知保管人。寄存人未告知,致使保管物受损失的,保管人不承担赔偿责任;保管
人因此受损失的,除保管人知道或者应当知道且未采取补救措施外,寄存人应当承担赔偿责
任。
Article 893 Where an object delivered by the depositor for custody has defects, or special
measures need to be taken due to the nature of the object, the depositor shall inform the depositary of the relevant situation. Where the depositor fails to so inform the depositary and causes damage to the deposit, the depositary shall not be liable for compensation. Where the depositary sustains any loss as a result of such failure, the depositor shall be liable for compensation, except where the depositary is, or ought to be, aware of the situation and fails to take remedial measures.
第八百九十四条 保管人不得将保管物转交第三人保管,但是当事人另有约定的除外。
Article 894. The custodian shall not be permitted to pass on the custodial goods to a third party
for custody, except where the parties agree otherwise.
保管人违反前款规定,将保管物转交第三人保管,造成保管物损失的,应当承担赔偿责任。
Where the depository, in violation of the provisions of the preceding paragraph, transfers
the deposit to a third party for custody, thereby causing damage to the deposit, the depository
shall be liable for compensation.
第八百九十五条
保管人不得使用或者许可第三人使用保管物,但是当事人另有约定的除外。
Article 895. The custodian shall not use the custodial goods or permit a third party to use the
custodial goods, except where the parties agree otherwise.
第八百九十六条
第三人对保管物主张权利的,除依法对保管物采取保全或者执行措施外,保管人应当履行向
寄存人返还保管物的义务。
Article 896 Where a third party makes a claim on the deposit, the depository shall perform its
obligation of returning the deposit to the depositor, except where preservation or enforcement
measures are taken in relation to the deposit in accordance with the law.
第三人对保管人提起诉讼或者对保管物申请扣押的,保管人应当及时通知寄存人。
Where a third party brings a lawsuit against the depository or applies for attachment of the
deposit, the depository shall timely notify the depositor.
第八百九十七条 保管期内,因保管人保管不善造成保管物毁损、灭失的,保管人应
当承担赔偿责任。但是,无偿保管人证明自己没有故意或者重大过失的,不承担赔偿责
任。
Article 897 Where, during the period of custody, the object deposited is damaged or lost due to
lack of due care by the depository, the depository shall be liable for compensation. However, if the
depository proves that it has no intent or gross negligence, it shall not be liable for compensation.
第八百九十八条
寄存人寄存货币、有价证券或者其他贵重物品的,应当向保管人声明,由保管人验收或者封
存;寄存人未声明的,该物品毁损、灭失后,保管人可以按照一般物品予以赔偿。
Article 898 Where the depositor is to deposit money, negotiable securities or other valuables, it
shall declare the case to the depository, and the depository shall inspect them before acceptance or
seal them up; if the depositor fails to declare the case, after the said valuables are damaged or lost,
the depository may compensate for them as if they are ordinary goods.
第八百九十九条 寄存人可以随时领取保管物。
Article 899. The depositor may collect the custodial goods at any time.
当事人对保管期限没有约定或者约定不明确的,保管人可以随时请求寄存人领取保
管物;约定保管期限的,保管人无特别事由,不得请求寄存人提前领取保管物。
Where there is no agreement between the parties in the contract on the period of custody or
such agreement is unclear, the depository may, at any time, request the depositor to collect the
object deposited; where there is such an agreement on the period of custody, the depository may
not, without special reasons, request the depositor to collect the object deposited ahead of time.
第九百条
保管期限届满或者寄存人提前领取保管物的,保管人应当将原物及其孳息归还寄存人。
Article 900 At the expiry of the deposit period or if the depositor retrieves the deposit before the expiry of the deposit period, the depository shall return the original item together with any fruit
thereof to the depositor.
第九百零一条
保管人保管货币的,可以返还相同种类、数量的货币;保管其他可替代物的,可以按照约定
返还相同种类、品质、数量的物品。
Article 901 Where the depository keeps money deposit, it may return money of the same type
and quantity; where it keeps other fungible goods, it may return articles of the same type, quality and
quantity in accordance with the terms of the contract.
第九百零二条 有偿的保管合同,寄存人应当按照约定的期限向保管人支付保管费。
Article 902. With respect to custody contracts for value, the depositor shall pay custody fees to
the custodian in accordance with the agreed deadlines.
当事人对支付期限没有约定或者约定不明确,依据本法第五百一十条的规定仍不能
确定的,应当在领取保管物的同时支付。
Where the time of payment of the storage fee is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, nor
can it be determined in accordance with Article 510 of this Law, the storage fee shall be paid at
the same time the deposit is collected.
第九百零三条
寄存人未按照约定支付保管费或者其他费用的,保管人对保管物享有留置权,但是当事人另
有约定的除外。
Article 903. Where the depositor fails to pay custody fees or other fees as agreed by the parties,
the custodian shall enjoy a lien over the custodial goods, except where the parties agree otherwise.
第二十二章 仓 储 合 同
Chapter 22 STORAGE CONTRACT
第九百零四条 仓储合同是保管人储存存货人交付的仓储物,存货人支付仓储费的合同。
Article 904 A warehousing contract is a contract whereby the safekeeping party stores the goods delivered by the depositor, and the depositor pays the warehousing fee.
第九百零五条 仓储合同自保管人和存货人意思表示一致时成立。
Article 905 A warehousing contract is formed when there is a consensus between the
depositary and the depositor.
第九百零六条
储存易燃、易爆、有毒、有腐蚀性、有放射性等危险物品或者易变质物品的,存货人应当说
明该物品的性质,提供有关资料。
Article 906 Where the depositor intends to store any dangerous article which is inflammable,
explosive, toxic, corrosive, or radioactive, etc., or any material susceptible to deterioration, it shall
indicate the nature of the goods and provide the relevant information.
存货人违反前款规定的,保管人可以拒收仓储物,也可以采取相应措施以避免损失
的发生,因此产生的费用由存货人负担。
Where the depositor violates the provisions of the preceding paragraph, the depository may
reject the goods to be stored, or take corresponding measures to avoid losses, and expenses thus
incurred shall be borne by the depositor.
保管人储存易燃、易爆、有毒、有腐蚀性、有放射性等危险物品的,应当具备相应
的保管条件。
Where the safekeeping party is to store any dangerous article that is inflammable, explosive,
toxic, corrosive, or radioactive, etc., it shall have the appropriate safekeeping facilities.
第九百零七条
保管人应当按照约定对入库仓储物进行验收。保管人验收时发现入库仓储物与约定不符合的
,应当及时通知存货人。保管人验收后,发生仓储物的品种、数量、质量不符合约定的,保
管人应当承担赔偿责任。
Article 907. The custodian shall, as agreed, conduct examination and acceptance procedures
with respect to goods entering the warehouse for storage. Where the safekeeping party discovers in
the course of examination and acceptance that the goods entering the warehouse for storage do not
conform to the terms of the contract, it shall timely notify the depositor. After inspection and
acceptance by the depository, if it is discovered that the type, quantity or quality of the stored goods is not in conformity with the terms of the contract, the depository shall be liable for compensation.
第九百零八条 存货人交付仓储物的,保管人应当出具仓单、入库单等凭证。
Article 908 Upon the depositor's delivery of the goods, the safekeeping party shall issue the
warehouse receipt, warehousing entry order and other vouchers.
第九百零九条 保管人应当在仓单上签名或者盖章。仓单包括下列事项:
Article 909 The safekeeping party shall sign or affix its seal on the warehouse receipt. A
warehouse receipt shall contain the following items:
(一)存货人的姓名或者名称和住所;
1. the name or title and domicile of the depositor;
(二)仓储物的品种、数量、质量、包装及其件数和标记;
(II) type, quantity, quality and packaging of the warehoused goods and the number and
mark of pieces thereof;
(三)仓储物的损耗标准;
(III) standards for wear and tear of the stored goods;
(四)储存场所;
(IV) place of storage;
(五)储存期限;
(V) Storage period;
(六)仓储费;
(VI) warehousing fees;
(七)仓储物已经办理保险的,其保险金额、期间以及保险人的名称;
(VII) if the goods have been insured, the insured amount, term of insurance and name of
the insurer; and
(八)填发人、填发地和填发日期。
(VIII) The applicant, place and date of filling in and issuance.
第九百一十条 仓单是提取仓储物的凭证。存货人或者仓单持有人在仓单上背书并经
保管人签名或者盖章的,可以转让提取仓储物的权利。
Article 910 The warehouse receipt is the voucher for retrieving the goods. Where the storing party or the holder of the storage receipt endorses the storage receipt and the custodian signs or
affixes its seal to the receipt, the right to collect the storage goods may be assigned.
第九百一十一条
保管人根据存货人或者仓单持有人的要求,应当同意其检查仓储物或者提取样品。
Article 911 At the request of the depositor or the warehouse receipt holder, the safekeeping
party shall allow the person to inspect the goods or take samples therefrom.
第九百一十二条
保管人发现入库仓储物有变质或者其他损坏的,应当及时通知存货人或者仓单持有人。
Article 912 Where the safekeeping party discovers that the goods entering the warehouse for
storage have deteriorated or are otherwise damaged, it shall timely notify the depositor or holder of
the warehouse receipt.
第九百一十三条
保管人发现入库仓储物有变质或者其他损坏,危及其他仓储物的安全和正常保管的,应当催
告存货人或者仓单持有人作出必要的处置。因情况紧急,保管人可以作出必要的处置;但是
,事后应当将该情况及时通知存货人或者仓单持有人。
Article 913 Where the safekeeping party discovers that the warehoused goods are deteriorating
or are otherwise damaged, thereby endangering the safety and normal safekeeping of other
warehoused goods, it shall demand disposal of the goods by the depositor or the holder of the
warehouse receipt as necessary. In an emergency situation, the depository may dispose of the goods
as necessary. However, the depositor or holder of the warehouse receipt shall be notified of the
situation promptly afterwards.
第九百一十四条
当事人对储存期限没有约定或者约定不明确的,存货人或者仓单持有人可以随时提取仓储物
,保管人也可以随时请求存货人或者仓单持有人提取仓储物,但是应当给予必要的准备时间。
Article 914 Where there is no agreement in the contract between the parties on the period of
storage or such agreement is unclear, the depositor or holder of the warehouse receipt may collect the
stored goods at any time, and the depository may also at any time require the depositor to collect the stored goods, provided that the other party shall be given the time required for preparation.
第九百一十五条
储存期限届满,存货人或者仓单持有人应当凭仓单、入库单等提取仓储物。存货人或者仓单
持有人逾期提取的,应当加收仓储费;提前提取的,不减收仓储费。
Article 915 At the expiry of the warehousing period, the depositor or holder of the warehouse
receipt shall retrieve the goods by presenting the warehouse receipt, warehousing entry order, or
other documents. Where the depositor or holder of the warehouse receipt delays in collecting the
goods, additional warehousing fee shall be paid. If the goods are collected ahead of time, the
warehousing fee shall not be reduced.
第九百一十六条
储存期限届满,存货人或者仓单持有人不提取仓储物的,保管人可以催告其在合理期限内提
取;逾期不提取的,保管人可以提存仓储物。
Article 916 Where the depositor or holder of the warehouse receipt fails to retrieve the goods at
the expiry of the warehousing period, the safekeeping party may demand retrieval within a
reasonable period; where the goods are not retrieved at the expiry of the warehousing period, the
safekeeping party may place the goods in escrow.
第九百一十七条
储存期内,因保管不善造成仓储物毁损、灭失的,保管人应当承担赔偿责任。因仓储物本身
的自然性质、包装不符合约定或者超过有效储存期造成仓储物变质、损坏的,保管人不承担
赔偿责任。
Article 917 If, during the period of storage, the stored goods are damaged or lost due to lack of
due care, the depository shall be liable for compensation. If the stored goods are deteriorated or
damaged due to inconformity of the nature of the goods themselves or of the packaging with the
terms of the contract, or if the goods are stored beyond their valid period of storage, the depository
shall not be liable for compensation.
第九百一十八条 本章没有规定的,适用保管合同的有关规定。
Article 918 Matters not provided for in this Chapter shall be governed by the relevant provision on storage contracts.
第二十三章 委 托 合 同
Chapter 23 Entrustment Contract
第九百一十九条 委托合同是委托人和受托人约定,由受托人处理委托人事务的合同。
Article 919 A commission contract refers to a contract whereby the principal and the agent
agree that the agent will handle the principal's affairs.
第九百二十条
委托人可以特别委托受托人处理一项或者数项事务,也可以概括委托受托人处理一切事务。
Article 920 The principal may specifically appoint the agent to handle one or more of its affairs,
or generally appoint the agent to handle all of its affairs.
第九百二十一条
委托人应当预付处理委托事务的费用。受托人为处理委托事务垫付的必要费用,委托人应当
偿还该费用并支付利息。
Article 921 The principal shall prepay the expenses for the handling of the commissioned affair.
With respect to any necessary expenses incurred by the agent in the course of handling the
commissioned affair, the principal shall reimburse such expenses and pay interest.
第九百二十二条 受托人应当按照委托人的指示处理委托事务。需要变更委托人指示
的,应当经委托人同意;因情况紧急,难以和委托人取得联系的,受托人应当妥善处理
委托事务,但是事后应当将该情况及时报告委托人。
Article 922 The agent shall handle the entrusted affair (s) according to the instruction of the
principal. Where it is necessary to alter the principal's instructions, the principal's consent shall be
obtained; where an emergency arises and it is difficult to establish contact with the principal, the
agent shall properly handle the delegated affairs, but after the event the agent shall immediately
inform the principal of the situation.
第九百二十三条
受托人应当亲自处理委托事务。经委托人同意,受托人可以转委托。转委托经同意或者追认
的,委托人可以就委托事务直接指示转委托的第三人,受托人仅就第三人的选任及其对第三
人的指示承担责任。转委托未经同意或者追认的,受托人应当对转委托的第三人的行为承担
责任;但是,在紧急情况下受托人为了维护委托人的利益需要转委托第三人的除外。
Article 923 The agent shall handle the entrusted affair (s) personally. With the consent of the
principal, the agent may delegate the agency to a third party. With the consent or acknowledgment of
the sub-delegation, the principal may directly instruct the delegated third party to handle the
delegated affairs, and the agent shall only bear the liability for its selection of the third party and the
instructions it gives to the third party. Where the agency is delegated without consent or
acknowledgment, the agent shall be liable for any act of the delegated third party, except in an
emergency where the agent has to delegate the agency to a third party in order to safeguard the
interests of the principal.
第九百二十四条
受托人应当按照委托人的要求,报告委托事务的处理情况。委托合同终止时,受托人应当报告委托事务的结果。
Article 924 The agent shall report the handling of the entrusted affair (s) at the request of the
principal. The agent shall report the result of the entrusted affair (s) when the commission contract is terminated.
第九百二十五条
受托人以自己的名义,在委托人的授权范围内与第三人订立的合同,第三人在订立合同时知
道受托人与委托人之间的代理关系的,该合同直接约束委托人和第三人;但是,有确切证据
证明该合同只约束受托人和第三人的除外。
Article 925 Where the agent, acting within the scope of authority granted by the principal,
enter into a contract in its own name with a third party who is aware of the agency relationship
between the principal and agent, the contract is directly binding upon the principal and such third
party, except where there is conclusive evidence establishing that the contract is only binding upon
the agent and such third party.
第九百二十六条
受托人以自己的名义与第三人订立合同时,第三人不知道受托人与委托人之间的代理关系的
,受托人因第三人的原因对委托人不履行义务,受托人应当向委托人披露第三人,委托人因
此可以行使受托人对第三人的权利。但是,第三人与受托人订立合同时如果知道该委托人就
不会订立合同的除外。
Article 926 Where the agent concludes a contract in its own name with a third party and the
third party does not know of the agency relationship between the agent and the principal, if the agent
fails to perform its obligation to the principal due to any reason attributable to the third party, the
agent shall disclose the third party to the principal, and the principal may therefore exercise the
agent's rights against the third party. However, there is an exception where the third party would not
have entered into a contract with the bailee if he had known of the principal when concluding the
contract.
受托人因委托人的原因对第三人不履行义务,受托人应当向第三人披露委托人,第
三人因此可以选择受托人或者委托人作为相对人主张其权利,但是第三人不得变更选定
的相对人。
Where the agent fails to perform a duty owed to the third party due to a reason associated
with the principal, the agent shall immediately reveal to the third party the existence of the
principal, and the third party may then choose either the agent or the principal as the relevant
party against whom it asserts its rights. However, the third party may not at any time change its
choice of relevant party.
委托人行使受托人对第三人的权利的,第三人可以向委托人主张其对受托人的抗辩
。第三人选定委托人作为其相对人的,委托人可以向第三人主张其对受托人的抗辩以及
受托人对第三人的抗辩。
If the principal exercises the agent's rights against the third party, the third party may set up
against the principal the defenses which it has against the agent. If the third party opts to claim
against the principal, the principal may set up against the third party the defenses which it has
against the agent as well as the defenses which the agent has against the third party.
第九百二十七条 受托人处理委托事务取得的财产,应当转交给委托人。
Article 927. Any property obtained by the agent in the course of handling delegated affairs
shall be passed on to the principal.
第九百二十八条 受托人完成委托事务的,委托人应当按照约定向其支付报酬。
Article 928 Upon completion of the commissioned affair by the agent, the principal shall pay
remuneration to the agent in accordance with the contract.
因不可归责于受托人的事由,委托合同解除或者委托事务不能完成的,委托人应当
向受托人支付相应的报酬。当事人另有约定的,按照其约定。
Where, due to causes not attributable to the agent, the commission contract is rescinded or
the entrusted affair (s) cannot be completed, the principal shall pay the agent corresponding
remuneration. Where the parties agree otherwise, their agreement shall prevail.
第九百二十九条 有偿的委托合同,因受托人的过错造成委托人损失的,委托人可以
请求赔偿损失。无偿的委托合同,因受托人的故意或者重大过失造成委托人损失的,委
托人可以请求赔偿损失。
Article 929. With respect to mandate contracts for value, if the principal sustains losses due to
the fault of the agent, the principal may demand compensation for the losses sustained. Under a
gratuitous commission contract, if the principal sustains any loss due to the agent's intentional
misconduct or gross negligence, the principal may claim damages.
受托人超越权限造成委托人损失的,应当赔偿损失。
The agent shall provide compensation for losses sustained by the principal as a result of the
agent acting in excess of its authority.
第九百三十条
受托人处理委托事务时,因不可归责于自己的事由受到损失的,可以向委托人请求赔偿损失。
Article 930 In the course of handling the commissioned affair, if the agent sustains any loss
due to a reason not attributable to itself, the agent may seek compensation from the principal.
第九百三十一条
委托人经受托人同意,可以在受托人之外委托第三人处理委托事务。因此造成受托人损失的
,受托人可以向委托人请求赔偿损失。
Article 931 With the consent of the agent, the principal may entrust a third party other than the
agent to handle the entrusted affair (s). Where the agent sustains any loss as a result thereof, the agent may seek compensation from the principal.
第九百三十二条 两个以上的受托人共同处理委托事务的,对委托人承担连带责任。
Article 932 Where two or more agents jointly handle the entrusted affair (s), they shall be
jointly and severally liable to the principal.
第九百三十三条
委托人或者受托人可以随时解除委托合同。因解除合同造成对方损失的,除不可归责于该当
事人的事由外,无偿委托合同的解除方应当赔偿因解除时间不当造成的直接损失,有偿委托
合同的解除方应当赔偿对方的直接损失和合同履行后可以获得的利益。
Article 933 Either the principal or the agent may terminate the agency appointment contract at
any time. If the other party sustains any loss due to such termination, the discharging party under the
entrustment agreement shall indemnify the other party for direct loss due to the improper termination
time, except for causes not attributable to such party. The dissolving party under an entrustment
agreement with consideration shall compensate the other party for the direct loss and the benefit it
may gain after the performance of the contract.
第九百三十四条
委托人死亡、终止或者受托人死亡、丧失民事行为能力、终止的,委托合同终止;但是,当
事人另有约定或者根据委托事务的性质不宜终止的除外。
Article 934. Where the principal dies or terminates, or where the agent dies or loses its capacity
for civil acts or terminates, the mandate contract shall be terminated, unless the parties have agreed
otherwise, or termination is not appropriate due to the nature of the delegated affairs.
第九百三十五条
因委托人死亡或者被宣告破产、解散,致使委托合同终止将损害委托人利益的,在委托人的
继承人、遗产管理人或者清算人承受委托事务之前,受托人应当继续处理委托事务。
Article 935. Where the principal dies or is declared bankrupt or dissolved, and the resulting
termination of the mandate contract will be detrimental to the principal's interests, then prior to the
principal's heirs, estate manager or liquidator assuming responsibility for the delegated affairs, the
agent shall continue to handle the delegated affairs.
第九百三十六条 因受托人死亡、丧失民事行为能力或者被宣告破产、解散,致使委
托合同终止的,受托人的继承人、遗产管理人、法定代理人或者清算人应当及时通知委
托人。因委托合同终止将损害委托人利益的,在委托人作出善后处理之前,受托人的继
承人、遗产管理人、法定代理人或者清算人应当采取必要措施。
Article 936. Where the agent dies, loses its capacity for civil acts, or is declared bankrupt or
dissolved, resulting in the termination of the mandate contract, the agent's heirs, estate manager,
legal agent or liquidator shall promptly notify the principal. Where the termination of the mandate
contract will be detrimental to the principal's interests, then prior to the principal acting to rectify the situation, the agent's heirs, estate manager, legal agent or liquidator shall take necessary measures.
第二十四章 物业服务合同
Chapter 24 Property Service Contract
第九百三十七条
物业服务合同是物业服务人在物业服务区域内,为业主提供建筑物及其附属设施的维修养护
、环境卫生和相关秩序的管理维护等物业服务,业主支付物业费的合同。
Article 937 A property service contract refers to a contract whereby the property service
provider provides the owner with property services such as repair and maintenance of the building
and ancillary facilities thereof, management and maintenance of environmental health and relevant
order within the property service area and the owner pays property fees.
物业服务人包括物业服务企业和其他管理人。
Estate services providers shall include estate services enterprises and other managers.
第九百三十八条
物业服务合同的内容一般包括服务事项、服务质量、服务费用的标准和收取办法、维修资金
的使用、服务用房的管理和使用、服务期限、服务交接等条款。
Article 938 The contents of an estate service contract shall generally include clauses such as
service items, service quality, standard and collection method of service fees, use of maintenance and repair fund, management and use of service premises, service period, handover of services, etc.
物业服务人公开作出的有利于业主的服务承诺,为物业服务合同的组成部分。
A service commitment made publicly by the property service provider in favor of the
property owners is an integral part of the property service contract.
物业服务合同应当采用书面形式。
The property service contract shall be made in writing.
第九百三十九条
建设单位依法与物业服务人订立的前期物业服务合同,以及业主委员会与业主大会依法选聘
的物业服务人订立的物业服务合同,对业主具有法律约束力。
Article 939 The prophase realty service contract concluded by a construction entity and a realty
service provider pursuant to law and the realty service contract concluded by the owners' committee
and the realty service provider selected by the owners' congress pursuant to law shall be legally
binding on the owners.
第九百四十条
建设单位依法与物业服务人订立的前期物业服务合同约定的服务期限届满前,业主委员会或
者业主与新物业服务人订立的物业服务合同生效的,前期物业服务合同终止。
Article 940 The prophase realty service contract concluded by the owners' committee or by the
owners and the new realty service provider shall be terminated before the expiry of the service period
stipulated in the prophase realty service contract concluded by the construction entity and the realty
service provider pursuant to law.
第九百四十一条
物业服务人将物业服务区域内的部分专项服务事项委托给专业性服务组织或者其他第三人的,应当就该部分专项服务事项向业主负责。
Article 941 Where an estate services provider has entrusted part of the special services within
the estate services region to a professional services organization or a third party, it shall be
accountable to the owners for such part of the special services within the estate services region.
物业服务人不得将其应当提供的全部物业服务转委托给第三人,或者将全部物业服
务支解后分别转委托给第三人。
The estate services provider shall not sub-entrust a third party to provide all the estate services it is required to provide, or upon splitting up of the estate services, sub-entrust a third
party separately.
第九百四十二条
物业服务人应当按照约定和物业的使用性质,妥善维修、养护、清洁、绿化和经营管理物业
服务区域内的业主共有部分,维护物业服务区域内的基本秩序,采取合理措施保护业主的人
身、财产安全。
Article 942 A realty service provider shall, in accordance with the stipulations and the nature
of use of the realty, properly repair, maintain, clean, afforest, and manage the common parts of the
owners within the realty service area, maintain the basic order within the realty service area, and take
reasonable measures to protect the personal and property safety of the owners.
对物业服务区域内违反有关治安、环保、消防等法律法规的行为,物业服务人应当
及时采取合理措施制止、向有关行政主管部门报告并协助处理。
A realty service provider shall, in good time, take reasonable measures to stop the acts that
violate the relevant laws and regulations on public security, environmental protection, and fire
control, etc., within the realty service area, report such acts to the relevant administrative
department and assist in the handling thereof.
第九百四十三条
物业服务人应当定期将服务的事项、负责人员、质量要求、收费项目、收费标准、履行情况
,以及维修资金使用情况、业主共有部分的经营与收益情况等以合理方式向业主公开并向业
主大会、业主委员会报告。
Article 943 Estate services providers shall announce service items, accountable personnel,
quality requirements, fee items, fee rates, performance status, usage of maintenance and repair fund,
operation and earnings of common areas of the owners, etc. on a regular basis to owners in a
reasonable manner and report to the owners' group and the owners' committee.
第九百四十四条
业主应当按照约定向物业服务人支付物业费。物业服务人已经按照约定和有关规定提供服务
的,业主不得以未接受或者无需接受相关物业服务为由拒绝支付物业费。
Article 944 An owner shall pay realty fees to the realty service provider pursuant to the stipulations. Where the estate services provider has provided services pursuant to the agreement and
the relevant provisions, the owners shall not cite non-acceptance or non-acceptance of the relevant
estate services to refuse payment of estate fees.
业主违反约定逾期不支付物业费的,物业服务人可以催告其在合理期限内支付;合
理期限届满仍不支付的,物业服务人可以提起诉讼或者申请仲裁。
Where an owner violates the agreement in failing to pay estate fees within the stipulated
period, the estate services provider may remind the owner to make payment within a reasonable
period; where the owner fails to make payment within the reasonable period, the estate services
provider may file a lawsuit or apply for arbitration.
物业服务人不得采取停止供电、供水、供热、供燃气等方式催交物业费。
Property service providers shall not urge the payment of property management fees by
suspending the supply of electricity, water, heat, or gas, or by other means.
第九百四十五条
业主装饰装修房屋的,应当事先告知物业服务人,遵守物业服务人提示的合理注意事项,并
配合其进行必要的现场检查。
Article 945 An owner who decorates/renovates the premises shall notify the estate services
party beforehand, comply with the reasonable precautions highlighted by the estate services party,
and cooperate in the requisite onsite inspection.
业主转让、出租物业专有部分、设立居住权或者依法改变共有部分用途的,应当及
时将相关情况告知物业服务人。
Where an owner transfers or leases the exclusive parts of the property, establishes
residential rights or changes the purpose of use of the common parts pursuant to the law, the
owner shall promptly notify the estate services provider of the relevant information.
第九百四十六条
业主依照法定程序共同决定解聘物业服务人的,可以解除物业服务合同。决定解聘的,应当
提前六十日书面通知物业服务人,但是合同对通知期限另有约定的除外。
Article 946 Where an owner jointly decides to dismiss any realty service provider pursuant to
the statutory procedures, he/she may cancel the realty service contract. Where a decision on
termination is made, the estate services provider shall be notified in writing 60 days in advance, unless the contract stipulates otherwise on the notice period.
依据前款规定解除合同造成物业服务人损失的,除不可归责于业主的事由外,业主
应当赔偿损失。
Where the rescission of contract pursuant to the provisions of the preceding paragraph
causes the estate services party to suffer losses, the owners shall make compensation for the
losses, except where the rescission is not attributable to the owners.
第九百四十七条
物业服务期限届满前,业主依法共同决定续聘的,应当与原物业服务人在合同期限届满前续
订物业服务合同。
Article 947 Where the owners have jointly decided on renewal of appointment pursuant to the
law prior to expiry of the term of estate services, they shall renew the estate services contract with
the original estate services provider before expiry of the term of the contract.
物业服务期限届满前,物业服务人不同意续聘的,应当在合同期限届满前九十日书
面通知业主或者业主委员会,但是合同对通知期限另有约定的除外。
Where the realty service provider does not agree to renew the employment prior to the
expiration of the term of the realty service, he shall, 90 days prior to the expiration of the
contract term, notify the owner or the owners' committee in writing, unless the contract provides
otherwise for the period of notice.
第九百四十八条
物业服务期限届满后,业主没有依法作出续聘或者另聘物业服务人的决定,物业服务人继续
提供物业服务的,原物业服务合同继续有效,但是服务期限为不定期。
Article 948 Upon expiry of the term of estate services, where the owners have not decided on
renewal of appointment or engagement of a new estate service provider and the estate service
provider continues to provide estate services, the original estate service contract shall continue to be
valid but the term of service shall be ad hoc.
当事人可以随时解除不定期物业服务合同,但是应当提前六十日书面通知对方。
The party concerned may rescind a non-scheduled realty service contract at any time, but
shall notify the other party in writing 60 days in advance.
第九百四十九条
物业服务合同终止的,原物业服务人应当在约定期限或者合理期限内退出物业服务区域,将
物业服务用房、相关设施、物业服务所必需的相关资料等交还给业主委员会、决定自行管理
的业主或者其指定的人,配合新物业服务人做好交接工作,并如实告知物业的使用和管理状况。
Article 949 Upon termination of an estate services contract, the original estate services
provider shall exit from the estate services region within the agreed period or a reasonable period,
return the estate services premises, the relevant facilities and the relevant materials required for the
estate services to the owners' committee, the owners who have decided on self-management or their
designated person, cooperate with the new estate services provider in the handover work, and notify
the use and management of the estate truthfully.
原物业服务人违反前款规定的,不得请求业主支付物业服务合同终止后的物业费;
造成业主损失的,应当赔偿损失。
Where the original estate services provider has violated the provisions of the preceding
paragraph, it shall not request for payment of estate fees by the owners following termination of
the estate services contract; where the violation causes the owners to suffer losses, the original
estate services provider shall compensate for the losses.
第九百五十条
物业服务合同终止后,在业主或者业主大会选聘的新物业服务人或者决定自行管理的业主接
管之前,原物业服务人应当继续处理物业服务事项,并可以请求业主支付该期间的物业费。
Article 950 Upon termination of the estate services contract, the original estate services
provider shall continue to handle estate services matters and may request the owners to pay estate
fees for such period until the new estate services provider is appointed by the owners or the owners'
group or before the owners who decide to manage the estate themselves take over.
第二十五章 行 纪 合 同
Chapter 25 CONTRACT OF COMMISSION AGENCY
第九百五十一条
行纪合同是行纪人以自己的名义为委托人从事贸易活动,委托人支付报酬的合同。
Article 951 A commission contract refers to a contract whereby the commission agent conducts
trading activities in its own name for the principal, and the principal pays the remuneration.
第九百五十二条
行纪人处理委托事务支出的费用,由行纪人负担,但是当事人另有约定的除外。
Article 952. Expenses paid by the commission agent in the course of handling delegated affairs
shall be borne by the commission agent, except where the parties agree otherwise.
第九百五十三条 行纪人占有委托物的,应当妥善保管委托物。
Article 953 Where the commission agent is in possession of the entrusted item, it shall keep the
entrusted item with due care.
第九百五十四条
委托物交付给行纪人时有瑕疵或者容易腐烂、变质的,经委托人同意,行纪人可以处分该物
;不能与委托人及时取得联系的,行纪人可以合理处分。
Article 954 If an entrusted item is defective, perishable, or susceptible to deterioration at the
time it was delivered to the commission agent, the commission agent may dispose of it with the
consent of the principal. If the commission agent is unable to contact the principal in time, it may
dispose of the entrusted item in a reasonable manner.
第九百五十五条
行纪人低于委托人指定的价格卖出或者高于委托人指定的价格买入的,应当经委托人同意;
未经委托人同意,行纪人补偿其差额的,该买卖对委托人发生效力。
Article 955 Where the commission agent sells at a price lower than the price set by the
principal or buys at a price higher than the price set by the principal, it shall obtain consent from the
principal. Where the commission agent makes up for the difference in price without consent from the
principal, the transaction is binding on the principal.
行纪人高于委托人指定的价格卖出或者低于委托人指定的价格买入的,可以按照约定增加报酬;没有约定或者约定不明确,依据本法第五百一十条的规定仍不能确定的,该利益属于委托人。
Where the commission agent sells the entrusted item above, or buys the entrusted item
below, the price designated by the principal, the remuneration may be increased in accordance
with the contract; where there is no such agreement in the contract or such agreement is unclear,
nor can it be determined in accordance with the provisions of Article 510 of the Law, the benefit
shall belong to the principal.
委托人对价格有特别指示的,行纪人不得违背该指示卖出或者买入。
Where the principal gives special pricing instructions, the commission agent may not make
any sale or purchase in contravention thereof.
第九百五十六条
行纪人卖出或者买入具有市场定价的商品,除委托人有相反的意思表示外,行纪人自己可以
作为买受人或者出卖人。
Article 956 Where the commission agent is to sell or purchase a commodity the price of which
is determined by the market, it may act as the purchaser or seller itself, unless the principal has
expressed a contrary intention.
行纪人有前款规定情形的,仍然可以请求委托人支付报酬。
Under the circumstance specified in the preceding paragraph, the broker may still request
the principal to pay remuneration.
第九百五十七条
行纪人按照约定买入委托物,委托人应当及时受领。经行纪人催告,委托人无正当理由拒绝
受领的,行纪人依法可以提存委托物。
Article 957. Where the commission agent purchases entrusted goods as agreed, the principal
shall promptly collect the said goods. If, after the broker's urging with a notice, the principal refuses
to accept the articles without justified reasons, the broker may place the entrusted articles in escrow
in accordance with the law.
委托物不能卖出或者委托人撤回出卖,经行纪人催告,委托人不取回或者不处分该
物的,行纪人依法可以提存委托物。
Where the entrusted articles cannot be sold or the principal withdraws the sale, and the
principal fails to take back or dispose of the articles after the broker's urging with a notice, the
broker may place the entrusted articles in escrow in accordance with the law. 第九百五十八条 行纪人与第三人订立合同的,行纪人对该合同直接享有权利、承担义务。
Article 958. Where the commission agent concludes a contract with a third party, the
commission agent shall directly enjoy rights and assume obligations under the said contract.
第三人不履行义务致使委托人受到损害的,行纪人应当承担赔偿责任,但是行纪人
与委托人另有约定的除外。
Where the third party fails to perform its obligations, thereby causing damage to the
principal, the commission agent shall be liable for compensation, unless the commission agent
and the principal have agreed otherwise.
第九百五十九条 行纪人完成或者部分完成委托事务的,委托人应当向其支付相应的
报酬。委托人逾期不支付报酬的,行纪人对委托物享有留置权,但是当事人另有约定的
除外。
Article 959 Where the commission agent has completed all or part of the entrusted affair (s),
the principal shall pay the appropriate remuneration thereto. Where the principal fails to pay the
remuneration in due time, the broker shall be entitled to a lien on the entrusted articles, unless the
parties have agreed otherwise.
第九百六十条 本章没有规定的,参照适用委托合同的有关规定。
Article 960 Matters not covered in this Chapter shall be handled with reference to the relevant
provisions on mandate contracts.
第二十六章 中 介 合 同
Chapter 26 China Intermediary Contract
第九百六十一条
中介合同是中介人向委托人报告订立合同的机会或者提供订立合同的媒介服务,委托人支付
报酬的合同。
Article 961 An intermediary contract is a contract whereby the intermediary reports to the
entrusting party on an opportunity for concluding a contract or provides intermediary services in connection with the conclusion thereof, and the entrusting party pays the remuneration.
第九百六十二条 中介人应当就有关订立合同的事项向委托人如实报告。
Article 962 The intermediator shall faithfully report to the entrusting party the relevant matters
for concluding a contract.
中介人故意隐瞒与订立合同有关的重要事实或者提供虚假情况,损害委托人利益的
,不得请求支付报酬并应当承担赔偿责任。
Where the intermediary intentionally conceals important facts relating to conclusion of the
contract or provides false information, thus harming the interests of the entrusting party, the
intermediary shall not request for payment of remuneration and shall bear compensation liability.
第九百六十三条 中介人促成合同成立的,委托人应当按照约定支付报酬。对中介人的报酬没有约定或者约定不明确,依据本法第五百一十条的规定仍不能确定的,根据中介人的劳务合理确定。因中介人提供订立合同的媒介服务而促成合同成立的,由该合同的当事人平均负担中介人的报酬。
Article 963. Where the intermediary facilitates the establishment of a contract, the principal
shall pay remuneration in accordance with the parties' agreement. Where there has been no
agreement or no clear agreement on intermediary remuneration, and it is not possible to determine
remuneration in accordance with the provisions of Article 510 of this Law, remuneration shall be
determined reasonably on the basis of the intermediary's labor. Where the conclusion of a contract
has been facilitated by the provision of intermediary services, the remuneration to be paid to the
intermediary shall be borne equally by the parties to the contract.
中介人促成合同成立的,中介活动的费用,由中介人负担。
If the medium party facilitates the establishment of a contract, the expenses of intermediary
activities shall be borne by the medium party.
第九百六十四条
中介人未促成合同成立的,不得请求支付报酬;但是,可以按照约定请求委托人支付从事中介活动支出的必要费用。
Article 964 An intermediary which fails to facilitate the establishment of a contract shall not
request for payment of remuneration; however, the intermediary may, pursuant to the agreement,
request the entrusting party to pay the requisite expenses incurred for intermediary activities.
第九百六十五条
委托人在接受中介人的服务后,利用中介人提供的交易机会或者媒介服务,绕开中介人直接
订立合同的,应当向中介人支付报酬。
Article 965 The entrusting party shall pay remuneration to the medium party if it, after
accepting the medium party's service, takes advantage of the opportunity for transaction or medium
service provided by the medium party and bypasses the medium party to conclude a contract directly.
第九百六十六条 本章没有规定的,参照适用委托合同的有关规定。
Article 966 Matters not addressed in this chapter shall be handled with reference to the relevant
provisions applying to mandate contracts.
第二十七章 合 伙 合 同
CHAPTER 27 PARTNERSHIP CONTRACT
第九百六十七条
合伙合同是两个以上合伙人为了共同的事业目的,订立的共享利益、共担风险的协议。
Article 967. A partnership contract shall refer to an agreement concluded between two or more
partners for the purpose of achieving common business objectives, and the partners shall share
profits and risks.
第九百六十八条 合伙人应当按照约定的出资方式、数额和缴付期限,履行出资义务。
Article 968 A partner shall fulfil the obligation of capital contribution in accordance with the
mode, amount and time limit for contribution.
第九百六十九条 合伙人的出资、因合伙事务依法取得的收益和其他财产,属于合伙财产。
Article 969 The capital contributions of the partners, the profits lawfully obtained as a result of
the partnership affairs and other property shall belong to the property of the partnership.
合伙合同终止前,合伙人不得请求分割合伙财产。
Prior to the termination of a partnership contract, no partner may request for the division of
partnership property.
第九百七十条
合伙人就合伙事务作出决定的,除合伙合同另有约定外,应当经全体合伙人一致同意。
Article 970. Unless the partnership contract stipulates otherwise, a decision made by the
partners on partnership affairs shall require the unanimous consent of all the partners.
合伙事务由全体合伙人共同执行。按照合伙合同的约定或者全体合伙人的决定,可
以委托一个或者数个合伙人执行合伙事务;其他合伙人不再执行合伙事务,但是有权监督执行情况。
The partnership affairs shall be executed jointly by all the partners. One or more partners
may be entrusted to conduct partnership affairs in accordance with the provisions of the
partnership contract or a decision by all the partners. The other partners shall cease to conduct
partnership affairs but shall have the right to supervise the status of implementation.
合伙人分别执行合伙事务的,执行事务合伙人可以对其他合伙人执行的事务提出异
议;提出异议后,其他合伙人应当暂停该项事务的执行。
In case partners execute partnership affairs separately, an executive partner may object to
the affairs executed by other partners, in which case the other partners shall suspend the
execution of such affairs.
第九百七十一条
合伙人不得因执行合伙事务而请求支付报酬,但是合伙合同另有约定的除外。
Article 971. Unless the partnership contract stipulates otherwise, a partner shall not be
permitted to request the payment of remuneration for the performance of partnership affairs.
第九百七十二条
合伙的利润分配和亏损分担,按照合伙合同的约定办理;合伙合同没有约定或者约定不明确
的,由合伙人协商决定;协商不成的,由合伙人按照实缴出资比例分配、分担;无法确定出
资比例的,由合伙人平均分配、分担。
Article 972 The profits and losses of a partnership shall be distributed among the partners
according to the stipulations of the partnership contract; if there are no such stipulations in the partnership contract or the stipulations are not clear, the profits and losses shall be distributed among
the partners through consultation; if no agreement has been reached through consultation, the profits
and losses shall be distributed among the partners according to the proportion of their paid-in capital
contributions; if the proportion of capital contributions cannot be determined, the profits and losses
shall be equally distributed among the partners.
第九百七十三条
合伙人对合伙债务承担连带责任。清偿合伙债务超过自己应当承担份额的合伙人,有权向其
他合伙人追偿。
Article 973. Partners shall bear joint and several liability for partnership debts. The partner
whose payment for clearing off the debts of the partnership exceeds the proportion that this partner
should bear shall have the right to recover the difference from the other partners.
第九百七十四条
除合伙合同另有约定外,合伙人向合伙人以外的人转让其全部或者部分财产份额的,须经其
他合伙人一致同意。
Article 974 Unless the partnership contract stipulates otherwise, a partner proposing to transfer
all or part of his/her share to an external party shall obtain the unanimous consent of all other
partners.
第九百七十五条
合伙人的债权人不得代位行使合伙人依照本章规定和合伙合同享有的权利,但是合伙人享有
的利益分配请求权除外。
Article 975. A creditor of a partner shall not be permitted to subrogate the partner to exercise
the rights enjoyed by the partner pursuant to the provisions of this Chapter and the partnership
contract, except where the partner has the right to claim a distribution of profits.
第九百七十六条
合伙人对合伙期限没有约定或者约定不明确,依据本法第五百一十条的规定仍不能确定的,
视为不定期合伙。
Article 976 Where there is no agreement in the contract between the partners on the duration of the partnership or such agreement is unclear, nor can it be determined in accordance with the
provisions of Article 510 of this Law, the partnership shall be deemed as a non-term partnership.
合伙期限届满,合伙人继续执行合伙事务,其他合伙人没有提出异议的,原合伙合
同继续有效,但是合伙期限为不定期。
. Where the term of a partnership has expired and partners continue to conduct partnership
affairs, and no objections have been raised by the other partners, the original partnership contract
shall continue to be valid, but the term of the partnership shall be for an indefinite period.
合伙人可以随时解除不定期合伙合同,但是应当在合理期限之前通知其他合伙人。
A partner may cancel a partnership contract at any time, but shall notify the other partners a
reasonable time in advance.
第九百七十七条
合伙人死亡、丧失民事行为能力或者终止的,合伙合同终止;但是,合伙合同另有约定或者
根据合伙事务的性质不宜终止的除外。
Article 977. A partnership contract shall be terminated in the event of the death of a partner,
loss of capacity for civil conduct or termination of partnership contract, unless the partnership
contract stipulates otherwise or where termination is inappropriate due to the nature of the
partnership matter.
第九百七十八条
合伙合同终止后,合伙财产在支付因终止而产生的费用以及清偿合伙债务后有剩余的,依据
本法第九百七十二条的规定进行分配。
Article 978 After the termination of the partnership contract, any balance of the property of the
partnership after the payment of expenses incurred due to such termination and the repayment of
debts of the partnership shall be distributed in accordance with Article 972 hereof.
第三分编 准 合 同
The third subdivision of the standard contract
第二十八章 无 因 管 理
Chapter 28 Negotiorum gestio
第九百七十九条
管理人没有法定的或者约定的义务,为避免他人利益受损失而管理他人事务的,可以请求受
益人偿还因管理事务而支出的必要费用;管理人因管理事务受到损失的,可以请求受益人给
予适当补偿。
Article 979. Where an administrator does not have statutory or agreed obligations to manage
the affairs of another party in order to avoid any loss in the interests of such party, the administrator
may request that the beneficiary repay any necessary expenses incurred in the course of managing
the affairs of such party. Where the administrator suffers any loss in the course of managing affairs,
the administrator may request that the beneficiary give appropriate compensation.
管理事务不符合受益人真实意思的,管理人不享有前款规定的权利;但是,受益人
的真实意思违反法律或者违背公序良俗的除外。
Where the management matters do not comply with the true intent of the beneficiary, the
administrator shall not enjoy the rights stipulated in the preceding paragraph, except where the
true intent of the beneficiary violates the law or the public order and morals.
第九百八十条
管理人管理事务不属于前条规定的情形,但是受益人享有管理利益的,受益人应当在其获得
的利益范围内向管理人承担前条第一款规定的义务。
Article 980 Where the management affairs of the administrator do not fall under the
circumstances stipulated in the preceding Article, but the beneficiaries enjoy management interests,
the beneficiaries shall bear the obligations stipulated in the first paragraph of the preceding Article to
the extent of their gains.
第九百八十一条
管理人管理他人事务,应当采取有利于受益人的方法。中断管理对受益人不利的,无正当理
由不得中断。
Article 981. An administrator in charge of other party affairs shall adopt measures favorable
to the beneficiaries. Where the suspension of management is unfavorable to the beneficiary, it shall
not be suspended without a proper reason.
第九百八十二条
管理人管理他人事务,能够通知受益人的,应当及时通知受益人。管理的事务不需要紧急处
理的,应当等待受益人的指示。
Article 982. Where the administrator manages the affairs of another party and is able to notify
the beneficiaries, the beneficiaries shall be notified promptly. If there is no need to deal with the
matters under management urgently, it shall wait for the instruction of the beneficiary.
第九百八十三条 管理结束后,管理人应当向受益人报告管理事务的情况。管理人管
理事务取得的财产,应当及时转交给受益人。
Article 983 Upon completion of administration, the administrator shall report the status of
administration matters to the beneficiaries. The property acquired by the administrator in managing
affairs shall be promptly transferred to the beneficiaries. (Relevant articles:
第九百八十四条
管理人管理事务经受益人事后追认的,从管理事务开始时起,适用委托合同的有关规定,但
是管理人另有意思表示的除外。
Article 984 Where the management affairs of the administrator are subsequently ratified by the
beneficiary, the relevant provisions of the entrustment contract shall apply with effect from the
commencement of the management affairs, unless the administrator has indicated otherwise.
第二十九章 不 当 得 利
Chapter 29 Unjust Enrichment
第九百八十五条
得利人没有法律根据取得不当利益的,受损失的人可以请求得利人返还取得的利益,但是有
下列情形之一的除外:
Article 985 If a person who has obtained unjust enrichment without any legal basis, the person
who has suffered loss may request the person who has obtained the benefit to return the gained interest, except under any of the following circumstances:
(一)为履行道德义务进行的给付;
1. any payment made in order to fulfill a moral obligation;
(二)债务到期之前的清偿;
(II) repayment of debts prior to their maturity;
(三)明知无给付义务而进行的债务清偿。
(III) Repayment of debts in full awareness of no obligation to pay.
第九百八十六条
得利人不知道且不应当知道取得的利益没有法律根据,取得的利益已经不存在的,不承担返
还该利益的义务。
Article 986 If the beneficiary does not know and should not have known that the interest
obtained has no legal basis and the interest obtained has ceased to exist, the beneficiary is not obliged
to return the said interest.
第九百八十七条
得利人知道或者应当知道取得的利益没有法律根据的,受损失的人可以请求得利人返还其取
得的利益并依法赔偿损失。
Article 987 Where the beneficiary knows or should have known that the interest obtained has
no legal basis, the person suffering losses may request the beneficiary to return the interest obtained
and make compensation for the losses in accordance with the law.
第九百八十八条
得利人已经将取得的利益无偿转让给第三人的,受损失的人可以请求第三人在相应范围内承
担返还义务。
Article 988 Where the beneficiary has transferred the interest obtained without compensation
to a third party, the person suffering losses may request the third party to assume the obligation of
returning the interest within a corresponding scope.

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