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Law & Regulation
Civil Code of the People's Republic of China (Part VII Tort Liability)
发布日期:2020-12-28 15:37:07
 

第七编 侵 权 责 任
PART VII INFRINGEMENT LIABILITY


第一章 一 般 规 定
CHAPTER 1 GENERAL PROVISIONS
第一千一百六十四条 本编调整因侵害民事权益产生的民事关系。
Article 1164 This Part deals with civil relationships arising from infringements of civil rights
and interests.
第一千一百六十五条 行为人因过错侵害他人民事权益造成损害的,应当承担侵权责任。
Article 165 Whoever is at fault in infringing upon another party's civil rights and interests and
causing damage thereto shall bear tort liability.
依照法律规定推定行为人有过错,其不能证明自己没有过错的,应当承担侵权责任。
Persons who are presumed to be at fault pursuant to the provisions of the laws and are
unable to prove that they are not at fault shall bear tort liability.
第一千一百六十六条
行为人造成他人民事权益损害,不论行为人有无过错,法律规定应当承担侵权责任的,依照
其规定。
Article 166 Where a doer has caused others to suffer damages to civil rights and interests,
regardless if the doer has committed negligence, and the law stipulates that the doer shall bear tort
liability, such provisions shall prevail.
第一千一百六十七条
侵权行为危及他人人身、财产安全的,被侵权人有权请求侵权人承担停止侵害、排除妨碍、
消除危险等侵权责任。
Article 167 Where a tortious act endangers the personal or property safety of another person,
the party whose rights are infringed upon shall have the right to request that the infringing party
assume tort liability such as ceasing infringement, removing obstruction, eliminating danger, etc.
第一千一百六十八条 二人以上共同实施侵权行为,造成他人损害的,应当承担连带责任。
Article 168 Where two or more persons have committed a tortious act jointly and caused others
to suffer damages, they shall bear connected liability.
第一千一百六十九条 教唆、帮助他人实施侵权行为的,应当与行为人承担连带责任。
Article 169 Persons who instigate or assist others in committing a tortious act shall bear joint
and several liability with the doer.
教唆、帮助无民事行为能力人、限制民事行为能力人实施侵权行为的,应当承担侵权责任;该无民事行为能力人、限制民事行为能力人的监护人未尽到监护职责的,应当
承担相应的责任。
Persons who instigate or assist persons with no capacity for civil conduct or persons with
restricted capacity for civil conduct in committing a tortious act shall bear tort liability; where
the guardian of a person with no capacity for civil conduct or a person with restricted capacity
for civil conduct has not performed guardianship duties, he/she shall bear the corresponding
liability.
第一千一百七十条
二人以上实施危及他人人身、财产安全的行为,其中一人或者数人的行为造成他人损害,能
够确定具体侵权人的,由侵权人承担责任;不能确定具体侵权人的,行为人承担连带责任。
Article 170 In the case of two or more persons who have committed an act which
compromises the personal safety or property safety of others and the action of one or several of
them has caused others to suffer damages, where the specific tortfeasor (s) can be determined, the
tortfeasor (s) shall be held liable; where the specific tortfeasor (s) cannot be determined, the doers
shall bear connected liability.
第一千一百七十一条
二人以上分别实施侵权行为造成同一损害,每个人的侵权行为都足以造成全部损害的,行为
人承担连带责任。
Article 171 Where the tortious acts committed by two or more persons have caused the same
damages, and the tortious acts of each person are able to cause all the damages, the doers shall bear
connected liability.
第一千一百七十二条
二人以上分别实施侵权行为造成同一损害,能够确定责任大小的,各自承担相应的责任;难
以确定责任大小的,平均承担责任。
Article 172 Where the tortious acts committed by two or more persons have caused the same
damages, and the extents of responsibilities can be determined, such persons shall bear the
corresponding liability respectively; where it is difficult to determine the extents of responsibilities,
such persons shall bear liability equally.
第一千一百七十三条
被侵权人对同一损害的发生或者扩大有过错的,可以减轻侵权人的责任。
Article 173 Where the infringed party is at fault for occurrence or amplification of the same
damages, the liability of the tortfeasor (s) may be mitigated.
第一千一百七十四条 损害是因受害人故意造成的,行为人不承担责任。
Article 174 Where the damages are intentionally caused by the victim, the doer shall not be
held liable. "
第一千一百七十五条 损害是因第三人造成的,第三人应当承担侵权责任。
Article 1175 Where the damages are caused by a third party, the third party shall bear tort
liability.
第一千一百七十六条
自愿参加具有一定风险的文体活动,因其他参加者的行为受到损害的,受害人不得请求其他
参加者承担侵权责任;但是,其他参加者对损害的发生有故意或者重大过失的除外。
Article 176 In the event that the participant is willing to participate in recreational and
sports activities with certain risks, the injured party shall not request other participants to bear
tort liability if the damages are caused by the conduct of other participants, unless other participants
have intentional or gross negligence on the occurrence of the damages.
活动组织者的责任适用本法第一千一百九十八条至第一千二百零一条的规定。
The responsibility of the organizer of an activity shall be governed by Articles 1198
through 201 of this Law.
第一千一百七十七条
合法权益受到侵害,情况紧迫且不能及时获得国家机关保护,不立即采取措施将使其合法权益受到难以弥补的损害的,受害人可以在保护自己合法权益的必要范围内采取扣留侵权人的财物等合理措施;但是,应当立即请求有关国家机关处理。
Article 177 Where the lawful rights and interests are infringed upon, the situation is urgent,
such rights and interests cannot be protected by the state organ in a timely manner, and failure to take
immediate measures will cause irreparable damage to the lawful rights and interests of the infringed,
the victim may, within the necessary scope for protecting his/her lawful rights and interests, take
reasonable measures such as detaining the properties of the infringer; however, the victim shall
immediately request the relevant state organ to handle the matter.
受害人采取的措施不当造成他人损害的,应当承担侵权责任。
Where a victim has adopted improper measures and caused others to suffer damages, the
victim shall bear tort liability.
第一千一百七十八条
本法和其他法律对不承担责任或者减轻责任的情形另有规定的,依照其规定。
Article 178 Where this Law and other laws provide otherwise in respect of circumstances under which liability may be exempted or mitigated, such provisions shall prevail.
第二章 损 害 赔 偿
Chapter 2 Compensation for Damage
第一千一百七十九条
侵害他人造成人身损害的,应当赔偿医疗费、护理费、交通费、营养费、住院伙食补助费等
为治疗和康复支出的合理费用,以及因误工减少的收入。造成残疾的,还应当赔偿辅助器具
费和残疾赔偿金;造成死亡的,还应当赔偿丧葬费和死亡赔偿金。
Article 179 A person whose tortious act has caused others to suffer a personal injury shall
make compensation for reasonable expenses incurred for treatment and rehabilitation such as
medical fees, nursing fees, transportation fees, nutrition fees, hospitalization meal subsidies, etc., and
decreased income due to loss of working time. Where disability is caused, the expenses for assistive
devices and disability compensation shall be compensated for; where death is caused, the funeral
expenses and death compensation shall be compensated for.
第一千一百八十条 因同一侵权行为造成多人死亡的,可以以相同数额确定死亡赔偿金。
Article 1180 Where the same tortious act causes more than one person to die, the amount of
death compensation payable may be the same.
第一千一百八十一条 被侵权人死亡的,其近亲属有权请求侵权人承担侵权责任。被侵
权人为组织,该组织分立、合并的,承继权利的组织有权请求侵权人承担侵权责任。
Article 1181 In the event of death of an infringed party, his/her immediate relatives shall have
the right to request that the tortfeasor (s) bear tort liability. Where the infringed party is an
organization and the organization is divided or merged, the organization which succeeds its rights
shall have the right to request that the tortfeasor (s) bear tort liability.
被侵权人死亡的,支付被侵权人医疗费、丧葬费等合理费用的人有权请求侵权人赔偿费用,但是侵权人已经支付该费用的除外。
Where the party whose rights are infringed upon dies, the party who has paid reasonable
expenses such as medical expenses and funeral expenses shall be entitled to request the infringing party to make compensation, unless the infringing party has already paid such
expenses.
第一千一百八十二条
侵害他人人身权益造成财产损失的,按照被侵权人因此受到的损失或者侵权人因此获得的利
益赔偿;被侵权人因此受到的损失以及侵权人因此获得的利益难以确定,被侵权人和侵权人
就赔偿数额协商不一致,向人民法院提起诉讼的,由人民法院根据实际情况确定赔偿数额。
Article 182 Where the infringement upon personal rights and interests of others causes
property losses, the compensation shall be made according to the losses suffered by the
infringed upon party or the benefits obtained by the infringer thereby; where it is difficult to
determine the losses suffered by the infringed upon party or the benefits obtained by the infringer
thereby, and the infringed upon party and the infringer cannot reach an agreement on the amount of
compensation but bring a lawsuit to a people's court, the people's court shall determine the amount of
compensation according to the actual situation.
第一千一百八十三条
侵害自然人人身权益造成严重精神损害的,被侵权人有权请求精神损害赔偿。
Article 183 Where the infringement upon a natural person's personal rights and interests causes
serious mental suffering, the infringed party shall have the right to claim compensation for mental
suffering.
因故意或者重大过失侵害自然人具有人身意义的特定物造成严重精神损害的,被侵
权人有权请求精神损害赔偿。
Where a natural person has suffered serious mental suffering as a result of intentional or
gross negligence infringement of property with personal significance, the infringed party shall
have the right to claim compensation for mental suffering.
第一千一百八十四条
侵害他人财产的,财产损失按照损失发生时的市场价格或者其他合理方式计算。
Article 1184 As regards infringements on another person's property, the property loss shall be
calculated according to the market price when the loss is incurred or by other reasonable means.
第一千一百八十五条
故意侵害他人知识产权,情节严重的,被侵权人有权请求相应的惩罚性赔偿。
Article 1185 Where an offender intentionally infringes upon the intellectual property of others
and the case is serious, the infringed party shall have the right to request for the corresponding
punitive compensation.
第一千一百八十六条
受害人和行为人对损害的发生都没有过错的,依照法律的规定由双方分担损失。
Article 1186 Where neither the victim nor the perpetrator is at fault in the occurrence of
damage, both parties shall share the loss in accordance with the law.
第一千一百八十七条 损害发生后,当事人可以协商赔偿费用的支付方式。协商不一致
的,赔偿费用应当一次性支付;一次性支付确有困难的,可以分期支付,但是被侵权人
有权请求提供相应的担保。
Article 1187 Upon occurrence of damages, the parties concerned may negotiate the payment
method for compensation expenses. Where the negotiation is unsuccessful, one-off payment of
compensation expenses shall be made; where there is genuine difficulty in making a one-off payment,
instalments may be made, provided that the infringed party shall have the right to request for the
corresponding guarantee.
第三章 责任主体的特殊规定
Chapter 3 Special Provisions on Liability Subjects
第一千一百八十八条 无民事行为能力人、限制民事行为能力人造成他人损害的,由监
护人承担侵权责任。监护人尽到监护职责的,可以减轻其侵权责任。
Article 1188 Where a person without or with limited capacity for civil conduct causes damage
to others, his/her guardian shall bear tort liability. Where the guardian has performed guardianship
duties, his/her tort liability may be mitigated.
有财产的无民事行为能力人、限制民事行为能力人造成他人损害的,从本人财产中
支付赔偿费用;不足部分,由监护人赔偿。
If a person who has property but is without or with limited capacity for civil conduct causes
damage to others, the expenses of compensation shall be paid from his property; if the property
is insufficient, the guardian shall compensate the shortfall.
第一千一百八十九条
无民事行为能力人、限制民事行为能力人造成他人损害,监护人将监护职责委托给他人的,
监护人应当承担侵权责任;受托人有过错的,承担相应的责任。
Article 1189 Where a person without or with limited capacity for civil conduct causes damage
to others, if the guardian entrusts the guardianship to others, the guardian shall bear tort liability; if
the entrusted person is at fault, he/she shall bear the corresponding liability.
第一千一百九十条
完全民事行为能力人对自己的行为暂时没有意识或者失去控制造成他人损害有过错的,应当
承担侵权责任;没有过错的,根据行为人的经济状况对受害人适当补偿。
Article 1190 Where a person with full capacity for civil conduct has committed negligence in
respect of others' damages due to temporary loss of awareness or loss of control in his/her action,
he/she shall bear tort liability; where the doer has not committed negligence, he/she shall make
appropriate compensation to the victim in accordance with his/her financial status.
完全民事行为能力人因醉酒、滥用麻醉药品或者精神药品对自己的行为暂时没有意识或者失去控制造成他人损害的,应当承担侵权责任。
Where a person with full capacity for civil conduct has a temporary loss of consciousness
or has lost control over his/her action as a result of drunken state or abuse of narcotics or
psychotropic substances and has caused others to suffer damages, he/she shall bear tort liability.
第一千一百九十一条
用人单位的工作人员因执行工作任务造成他人损害的,由用人单位承担侵权责任。用人单位
承担侵权责任后,可以向有故意或者重大过失的工作人员追偿。
Article 1191 Where an employee of an employer has caused others to suffer damages as a
result of performance of work assignment, the employer shall bear tort liability. Upon bearing tort
liability, the employer may seek recourse from the staff member who has committed intentional act
or gross negligence.
劳务派遣期间,被派遣的工作人员因执行工作任务造成他人损害的,由接受劳务派
遣的用工单位承担侵权责任;劳务派遣单位有过错的,承担相应的责任。
Where a seconded worker causes others to suffer damages as a result of performance of
work assignment during the secondment period, the secondment employer shall bear tort liability;
where the secondment employer has committed negligence, it shall bear the corresponding
liability.
第一千一百九十二条
个人之间形成劳务关系,提供劳务一方因劳务造成他人损害的,由接受劳务一方承担侵权责
任。接受劳务一方承担侵权责任后,可以向有故意或者重大过失的提供劳务一方追偿。提供
劳务一方因劳务受到损害的,根据双方各自的过错承担相应的责任。
Article 1192 In the event of labor relations formed between individuals where the party
providing labor services has caused others to suffer damages as a result of the labor services, the
party accepting labor services shall bear tort liability. After assuming the liabilities for infringement,
the party receiving the labor services may claim compensation from the party providing the labor
services with intent or gross negligence. If the party providing labor suffers any damage due to such
labor services, both parties shall bear corresponding liability based on their respective fault.
提供劳务期间,因第三人的行为造成提供劳务一方损害的,提供劳务一方有权请求
第三人承担侵权责任,也有权请求接受劳务一方给予补偿。接受劳务一方补偿后,可以
向第三人追偿。
Where the party providing labor services has caused an injury or damage during the
provision of labor services as a result of the action of a third party, the party providing labor
services shall have the right to request that the third party bears tort liability and shall have the
right to request that the party accepting labor services make compensation. The party receiving
the services may, after making compensation, claim compensation from the third party.
第一千一百九十三条
承揽人在完成工作过程中造成第三人损害或者自己损害的,定作人不承担侵权责任。但是,
定作人对定作、指示或者选任有过错的,应当承担相应的责任。
Article 1193. Where the contractor causes damage to a third party or to itself in the course of
completing work, the party which has placed the order shall not bear tortious liability. However, if the hirer has any fault with respect to the order, instruction or selection, he shall bear the corresponding liability.
第一千一百九十四条 网络用户、网络服务提供者利用网络侵害他人民事权益的,应当
承担侵权责任。法律另有规定的,依照其规定。
Article 1194 Network users and network service providers that use the network to infringe upon
others' civil rights and interests shall bear tortious liability. Where the laws provide otherwise, such
provisions shall prevail.
第一千一百九十五条
网络用户利用网络服务实施侵权行为的,权利人有权通知网络服务提供者采取删除、屏蔽、
断开链接等必要措施。通知应当包括构成侵权的初步证据及权利人的真实身份信息。
Article 1195 Where a network user has used network services to commit a tortious act, the
rights holder shall have the right to notify the network service provider to adopt the requisite
measures such as deletion, shielding, breaking of hyperlinks, etc. The notice shall include the
preliminary evidence for the infringement and the true identity information of the right holder.
网络服务提供者接到通知后,应当及时将该通知转送相关网络用户,并根据构成侵权的初步证据和服务类型采取必要措施;未及时采取必要措施的,对损害的扩大部分与该网络用户承担连带责任。
Upon receipt of the notice, the network service provider shall promptly forward the notice
to the relevant network user, and adopt the requisite measures based on the preliminary evidence
of infringement and the type of service; where the network service provider failed to adopt the
requisite measures promptly, it shall bear joint and several liability with the network user in
respect of the escalated damages.
权利人因错误通知造成网络用户或者网络服务提供者损害的,应当承担侵权责任。
法律另有规定的,依照其规定。
If a right holder causes damage to a network user or provider of network services due to an
erroneous notice, it shall bear tort liability. Where the laws provide otherwise, such provisions
shall prevail.
第一千一百九十六条 网络用户接到转送的通知后,可以向网络服务提供者提交不存在侵权行为的声明。声明应当包括不存在侵权行为的初步证据及网络用户的真实身份信息。
Article 1196 Upon receipt of the forwarded notice, the network user may submit to the network
service provider a statement of non- infringement of rights. The statement shall include the
preliminary evidence of non- infringement act and the true identity information of network users.
网络服务提供者接到声明后,应当将该声明转送发出通知的权利人,并告知其可以
向有关部门投诉或者向人民法院提起诉讼。网络服务提供者在转送声明到达权利人后的
合理期限内,未收到权利人已经投诉或者提起诉讼通知的,应当及时终止所采取的措施。
After receiving the statement, the network service provider shall forward the statement to
the owner issuing the notice and inform such owner that it may complain to relevant departments
or file a lawsuit with the people's court. Where the network service provider does not receive the
notice of complaint or lawsuit from the right holder within a reasonable period after forwarding
the statement to the right holder, it shall promptly terminate the measures taken.
第一千一百九十七条
网络服务提供者知道或者应当知道网络用户利用其网络服务侵害他人民事权益,未采取必要
措施的,与该网络用户承担连带责任。
Article 1197 Where the network service provider is or should be aware that the network user
has used its network services to harm the civil rights and interests of others but failed to adopt the
requisite measures, it shall bear joint and several liability with the network user.
第一千一百九十八条
宾馆、商场、银行、车站、机场、体育场馆、娱乐场所等经营场所、公共场所的经营者、管
理者或者群众性活动的组织者,未尽到安全保障义务,造成他人损害的,应当承担侵权责任。
Article 1198 Operators, managers of business premises such as hotels, shopping malls,
banks, stations, airports, sports stadiums, entertainment premises, etc. and public premises or
organizers of mass activities who failed to perform safety assurance obligations and caused
others to suffer damages shall bear tort liability.
因第三人的行为造成他人损害的,由第三人承担侵权责任;经营者、管理者或者组织者未尽到安全保障义务的,承担相应的补充责任。经营者、管理者或者组织者承担补充责任后,可以向第三人追偿。
In the event of damages of others caused by an act of a third party, the third party shall bear tort liability; business operators, managers or organizers who have failed to perform safety
protection obligations shall bear the corresponding supplementary responsibilities. After bearing
the supplementary liability, the business operator, manager or organizer may claim compensation
from the third party.
第一千一百九十九条 无民事行为能力人在幼儿园、学校或者其他教育机构学习、生活
期间受到人身损害的,幼儿园、学校或者其他教育机构应当承担侵权责任;但是,能够
证明尽到教育、管理职责的,不承担侵权责任。
Article 1199 Where a person with no capacity for civil conduct has suffered personal injury
during learning or living in a kindergarten, school or any other educational institution, the
kindergarten, school or educational institution shall bear tort liability; however, if it can be proven
that the kindergarten, school or educational institution has performed education and management
duties, it shall not bear tort liability.
第一千二百条
限制民事行为能力人在学校或者其他教育机构学习、生活期间受到人身损害,学校或者其他
教育机构未尽到教育、管理职责的,应当承担侵权责任。
Article 1200 Where a person with limited capacity for civil conduct has suffered personal
injury during learning or living in a school or any other educational institution, and the school or
educational institution has failed to perform education and management duties, the school or
educational institution shall bear tort liability.
第一千二百零一条
无民事行为能力人或者限制民事行为能力人在幼儿园、学校或者其他教育机构学习、生活期
间,受到幼儿园、学校或者其他教育机构以外的第三人人身损害的,由第三人承担侵权责任
;幼儿园、学校或者其他教育机构未尽到管理职责的,承担相应的补充责任。幼儿园、学校
或者其他教育机构承担补充责任后,可以向第三人追偿。
Article 121 Where a person with no capacity for civil conduct or a person with limited capacity
for civil conduct has suffered personal injury caused by a third party other than the kindergarten,
school or any other educational institution during learning or living in the kindergarten, school or
educational institution, the third party shall bear tort liability; where the kindergarten, school or educational institution has failed to perform management duties, it shall bear the corresponding
supplementary responsibilities. Upon bearing the supplementary liability, the kindergarten, school or any other educational institution may seek recourse against the third party.
第四章 产 品 责 任
Chapter 4 Product Liability
第一千二百零二条 因产品存在缺陷造成他人损害的,生产者应当承担侵权责任。
Article 202 In the event of product defects which have caused others to suffer damages, the
manufacturer shall bear tort liability.
第一千二百零三条
因产品存在缺陷造成他人损害的,被侵权人可以向产品的生产者请求赔偿,也可以向产品的
销售者请求赔偿。
Article 203 In the event of damages of others caused by product defects, the infringed party
may seek compensation from the manufacturer of the products or the seller of the products.
(Relevant articles: Articles 2 Legislation 2)
产品缺陷由生产者造成的,销售者赔偿后,有权向生产者追偿。因销售者的过错使
产品存在缺陷的,生产者赔偿后,有权向销售者追偿。
Where the product defect is caused by the producer, the seller may, after paying
compensation, claim the same from the producer. Where the product defect is caused by the
seller, the producer may, after paying compensation, claim the same from the seller.
第一千二百零四条
因运输者、仓储者等第三人的过错使产品存在缺陷,造成他人损害的,产品的生产者、销售
者赔偿后,有权向第三人追偿。
Article 124 Where the product defects caused by the negligence of a third party such as the
transporter, the warehouse, etc. have caused others to suffer damages, the manufacturer and the seller
of the products shall have the right to seek recourse against the third party after the manufacturer and the seller have made compensation.
第一千二百零五条
因产品缺陷危及他人人身、财产安全的,被侵权人有权请求生产者、销售者承担停止侵害、
排除妨碍、消除危险等侵权责任。
Article 205 In the event of product defects which compromise the personal safety and property
security of others, the infringed party shall have the right to request that the manufacturer and the
seller bear tort liability such as cessation of infringement, removal of obstruction, elimination of
danger, etc.
第一千二百零六条
产品投入流通后发现存在缺陷的,生产者、销售者应当及时采取停止销售、警示、召回等补
救措施;未及时采取补救措施或者补救措施不力造成损害扩大的,对扩大的损害也应当承担
侵权责任。
Article 206 Where a product is found to be defective after it is put into circulation, the
manufacturer and the seller shall promptly adopt remedy measures such as stopping sale,
issuing a warning, and recalling the product; where the damages are aggravated as a result of
failure to adopt remedy measures promptly or ineffective remedy measures, the manufacturer
and the seller shall also bear tort liability for the aggravated damages.
依据前款规定采取召回措施的,生产者、销售者应当负担被侵权人因此支出的必要
费用。
Where recall measures are adopted pursuant to the provisions of the preceding paragraph,
the manufacturer and the seller shall bear the requisite expenses incurred by the infringed party.
第一千二百零七条
明知产品存在缺陷仍然生产、销售,或者没有依据前条规定采取有效补救措施,造成他人死亡或者健康严重损害的,被侵权人有权请求相应的惩罚性赔偿。
Article 207 Where any producer or seller knowingly produces or sells defective products or
fails to take effective remedial measures in accordance with the preceding article, thus causing death
or serious damage to the health of another person, the infringed shall be entitled to claim appropriate
punitive damages.
第五章 机动车交通事故责任
Chapter 5 Motor Vehicle Traffic Accident Liability
第一千二百零八条
机动车发生交通事故造成损害的,依照道路交通安全法律和本法的有关规定承担赔偿责任。
Article 128 Where any damage is caused by a traffic accident involving a motor vehicle, the
liability for compensation shall be borne in accordance with the relevant provisions of the road
traffic safety laws and the Law.
第一千二百零九条
因租赁、借用等情形机动车所有人、管理人与使用人不是同一人时,发生交通事故造成损害
,属于该机动车一方责任的,由机动车使用人承担赔偿责任;机动车所有人、管理人对损害
的发生有过错的,承担相应的赔偿责任。
Article 129 Where the owner or manager of a motor vehicle is not the user of the motor vehicle
under leasing or borrowing circumstances, if the damages are caused in a traffic accident, and the
user of the motor vehicle is liable for the damages, the user of the motor vehicle shall bear
compensation liability; where the owner or manager of the motor vehicle is at fault for the damages,
the owner or manager shall bear the corresponding compensation liability.
第一千二百一十条
当事人之间已经以买卖或者其他方式转让并交付机动车但是未办理登记,发生交通事故造成
损害,属于该机动车一方责任的,由受让人承担赔偿责任。
Article 210 Where a motor vehicle has been transferred and delivered to the transferee by way
of sale or purchase or by other means but registration has not been completed, and the damages are
caused by a traffic accident, which is attributable to the side of the motor vehicle, the transferee shall
bear the liability for compensation.
第一千二百一十一条
以挂靠形式从事道路运输经营活动的机动车,发生交通事故造成损害,属于该机动车一方责
任的,由挂靠人和被挂靠人承担连带责任。
Article 211 Where a motor vehicle that is affiliated to an organization for conducting road transport causes a traffic accident and the party owning the vehicle is liable for the accident, the
affiliating party and the affiliated party shall bear joint and several liability.
第一千二百一十二条
未经允许驾驶他人机动车,发生交通事故造成损害,属于该机动车一方责任的,由机动车使
用人承担赔偿责任;机动车所有人、管理人对损害的发生有过错的,承担相应的赔偿责任,
但是本章另有规定的除外。
Article 212 Where a person drives another person's motor vehicle without the person's
permission and causes damages in a traffic accident, which is attributable to the side of the motor
vehicle, the user of the motor vehicle shall bear the liability for compensation; if the owner or
manager of the motor vehicle is at fault for the damages, he shall bear the corresponding liability for compensation, except as otherwise provided in this Chapter.
第一千二百一十三条
机动车发生交通事故造成损害,属于该机动车一方责任的,先由承保机动车强制保险的保险人在强制保险责任限额范围内予以赔偿;不足部分,由承保机动车商业保险的保险人按照保险合同的约定予以赔偿;仍然不足或者没有投保机动车商业保险的,由侵权人赔偿。
Article 213 In the event of damages caused by a traffic accident involving a motor vehicle,
where the motor vehicle is liable, the insurer underwriting the motor vehicle compulsory insurance
shall make compensation within the scope of limits of mandatory insurance liability; where the
compensation is inadequate, the insurer underwriting the motor vehicle commercial insurance shall
make compensation pursuant to the agreement in the insurance contract; where the damages are still
insufficient or the motor vehicle is not covered by motor vehicle commercial insurance, the
tortfeasor shall make compensation.
第一千二百一十四条
以买卖或者其他方式转让拼装或者已经达到报废标准的机动车,发生交通事故造成损害的,
由转让人和受让人承担连带责任。
Article 214 In the event of damages caused by a traffic accident involving a motor vehicle
which has been transferred and assembled by way of sale and purchase or other means or a motor
vehicle which has attained scrap standards, the transferor and the transferee shall bear connected liability.
第一千二百一十五条 盗窃、抢劫或者抢夺的机动车发生交通事故造成损害的,由盗窃
人、抢劫人或者抢夺人承担赔偿责任。盗窃人、抢劫人或者抢夺人与机动车使用人不是
同一人,发生交通事故造成损害,属于该机动车一方责任的,由盗窃人、抢劫人或者抢
夺人与机动车使用人承担连带责任。
Article 1215 In the event of damages caused by a traffic accident involving a motor vehicle
which is stolen, robbed or plundered, the thief, robber or plunderer shall bear compensation liability.
In the event that a thief, robber or plunderer is not the user of a motor vehicle and the damages are
caused in a traffic accident, if the liability of the traffic accident lies with the motor vehicle user, the
thief, robber or plunderer and the motor vehicle user shall bear joint liability.
保险人在机动车强制保险责任限额范围内垫付抢救费用的,有权向交通事故责任人
追偿。
Where the insurer pays the rescue expenses within the liability limit of the compulsory
insurance for motor vehicles on behalf of the liable party, it shall be entitled to recover the rescue
expenses from the liable party of the traffic accident.
第一千二百一十六条
机动车驾驶人发生交通事故后逃逸,该机动车参加强制保险的,由保险人在机动车强制保险
责任限额范围内予以赔偿;机动车不明、该机动车未参加强制保险或者抢救费用超过机动车
强制保险责任限额,需要支付被侵权人人身伤亡的抢救、丧葬等费用的,由道路交通事故社
会救助基金垫付。道路交通事故社会救助基金垫付后,其管理机构有权向交通事故责任人追
偿。
Article 216 Where a motor vehicle driver flees after a traffic accident, if the motor vehicle is
subject to compulsory insurance, the insurer shall make compensation within the compensation limit
under the compulsory insurance procured for said motor vehicle; if the motor vehicle is unknown, if
the motor vehicle is not subject to compulsory insurance or the rescue expenses exceed the liability
limit under the compulsory insurance procured for said motor vehicle, the costs incurred in rescuing
or burying the injured party or other expenses shall be advanced from the social assistance fund for
road traffic accidents. After the social relief fund for road traffic accidents has been advanced, its
administrative agency shall have the right to claim repayment from the person liable for the traffic accident.
第一千二百一十七条
非营运机动车发生交通事故造成无偿搭乘人损害,属于该机动车一方责任的,应当减轻其赔偿责任,但是机动车使用人有故意或者重大过失的除外。
Article 217 Where a non-commercial motor vehicle causes any damage to a rider free of charge in a traffic accident, if the liability of the driver of the motor vehicle is attributed to his or her side, the compensation liability of the driver shall be mitigated, unless the user of the motor vehicle has committed intentional or gross negligence.
第六章 医疗损害责任
Chapter 6 Medical Malpractice Liability
第一千二百一十八条
患者在诊疗活动中受到损害,医疗机构或者其医务人员有过错的,由医疗机构承担赔偿责任。
Article 218 Where any damage is caused to a patient in the course of medical treatment, if the
medical institution or its medical professionals are at fault, the medical institution shall be liable to
pay compensation.
第一千二百一十九条 医务人员在诊疗活动中应当向患者说明病情和医疗措施。需要实施手术、特殊检查、特殊治疗的,医务人员应当及时向患者具体说明医疗风险、替代医疗方案等情况,并取得其明确同意;不能或者不宜向患者说明的,应当向患者的近亲属说明,并取得其明确同意。
Article 219 Medical workers shall explain the illness situation and medical measures to patients
in diagnosis and treatment activities. Where a patient needs to undergo surgery, special examination
or special treatment, the medical personnel shall promptly explain detailed medical risks, alternative
medical procedures, etc. to the patient and obtain his/her specific consent; where the patient is unable
or unsuitable to be informed, the medical personnel shall explain to his/her immediate relatives and
obtain their specific consent.
医务人员未尽到前款义务,造成患者损害的,医疗机构应当承担赔偿责任。
In the event of damages suffered by a patient due to failure of the medical personnel to perform the obligations in the preceding paragraph, the medical institution shall bear compensation liability.
第一千二百二十条
因抢救生命垂危的患者等紧急情况,不能取得患者或者其近亲属意见的,经医疗机构负责人
或者授权的负责人批准,可以立即实施相应的医疗措施。
Article 220 Under emergency circumstances such as rescue of critical patients or where the
medical institution is unable to obtain the opinion of the patient or his/her immediate relatives, upon
approval by the person-in-charge of the medical institution or the authorized person-in-charge, the
corresponding medical measures may be forthwith implemented.
第一千二百二十一条
医务人员在诊疗活动中未尽到与当时的医疗水平相应的诊疗义务,造成患者损害的,医疗机构应当承担赔偿责任。
Article 221 In the event that medical personnel failed to perform diagnosis and treatment
obligations corresponding to the prevailing medical standards in clinic activities and caused a patient
to suffer damages, the medical institution shall bear compensation liability.
第一千二百二十二条
患者在诊疗活动中受到损害,有下列情形之一的,推定医疗机构有过错:
Article 222 If any damage is caused to a patient in the course of medical treatment, the
medical institution shall be deemed to be at fault under any of the following circumstances:
(一)违反法律、行政法规、规章以及其他有关诊疗规范的规定;
1. Violating laws, administrative regulations, rules or other relevant provisions on
diagnosis and treatment norms;
(二)隐匿或者拒绝提供与纠纷有关的病历资料;
(II) It conceals or refuses to provide medical records relating to the dispute; or
(三)遗失、伪造、篡改或者违法销毁病历资料。
(III) losing, forging, tampering with or illegally destroying medical records.
第一千二百二十三条
因药品、消毒产品、医疗器械的缺陷,或者输入不合格的血液造成患者损害的,患者可以向
药品上市许可持有人、生产者、血液提供机构请求赔偿,也可以向医疗机构请求赔偿。患者
向医疗机构请求赔偿的,医疗机构赔偿后,有权向负有责任的药品上市许可持有人、生产者
、血液提供机构追偿。
Article 223 Where a patient suffers damages due to defects in drugs, disinfectants or medical
equipment, or receipt of transfusion of unqualified blood, the patient may seek compensation from
the drug marketing permit holder, manufacturer or the organization which provides the blood, or seek
compensation from the medical institution. Where the patient seeks compensation from the medical
institution, the medical institution shall have the right to recover the compensation from the liable
drug marketing authorization holder, the drug manufacturer, or the institution supplying the blood,
after it has made the compensation.
第一千二百二十四条
患者在诊疗活动中受到损害,有下列情形之一的,医疗机构不承担赔偿责任:
Article 224 Under any of the following circumstances, a medical institution shall not be liable
to pay compensation in the event that a patient has suffered damage in diagnosis and treatment:
(一)患者或者其近亲属不配合医疗机构进行符合诊疗规范的诊疗;
1. The patient or any of his close relatives fails to cooperate with the medical institution in
the course of qualified medical treatment;
(二)医务人员在抢救生命垂危的患者等紧急情况下已经尽到合理诊疗义务;
(II) the medical staff have performed their reasonable obligation of diagnosis and treatment
under emergency circumstances such as rescue of critically ill patients;
(三)限于当时的医疗水平难以诊疗。
(III) Existing medical standards are not high enough to treat the patient.
前款第一项情形中,医疗机构或者其医务人员也有过错的,应当承担相应的赔偿责
任。
For item (1) of the preceding paragraph, where the medical institution or its medical
personnel are at fault, the medical institution or its medical personnel shall bear the
corresponding compensation liability.
第一千二百二十五条
医疗机构及其医务人员应当按照规定填写并妥善保管住院志、医嘱单、检验报告、手术及麻
醉记录、病理资料、护理记录等病历资料。
Article 225 Medical institutions and their medical personnel shall fill in and keep medical
records such as hospitalization records, doctor's advices, examination reports, operation and
anesthesia records, pathological information, nursing records, etc. properly pursuant to the provisions.
患者要求查阅、复制前款规定的病历资料的,医疗机构应当及时提供。
Where a patient requests for inspection or replication of medical records stipulated in the
preceding paragraph, the medical institution shall promptly provide the same.
第一千二百二十六条 医疗机构及其医务人员应当对患者的隐私和个人信息保密。泄露
患者的隐私和个人信息,或者未经患者同意公开其病历资料的,应当承担侵权责任。
Article 226 Medical institutions and their medical professionals shall maintain the privacy and
confidentiality of patients' personal information. Any person who divulges the privacy or personal
information of a patient or discloses medical records of a patient without the patient's consent shall
bear tortious liability.
第一千二百二十七条 医疗机构及其医务人员不得违反诊疗规范实施不必要的检查。
Article 227 No medical institution or medical professional thereof shall carry out unnecessary
checks in violation of diagnosis and treatment norms.
第一千二百二十八条 医疗机构及其医务人员的合法权益受法律保护。
Article 228 The legitimate rights and interests of medical institutions and their medical
professionals shall be protected by the law.
干扰医疗秩序,妨碍医务人员工作、生活,侵害医务人员合法权益的,应当依法承
担法律责任。
Persons who disrupt medical order, hinder work or living of medical personnel, harm the
legitimate rights and interests of medical personnel shall bear legal liability pursuant to the law.
第七章 环境污染和生态破坏责任
Chapter 7 Liability for Environmental Pollution and Ecological Damage
第一千二百二十九条 因污染环境、破坏生态造成他人损害的,侵权人应当承担侵权责任。
Article 229 In the event of damages of others caused by environmental pollution and ecological
destruction, the infringor shall bear tort liability.
第一千二百三十条
因污染环境、破坏生态发生纠纷,行为人应当就法律规定的不承担责任或者减轻责任的情形
及其行为与损害之间不存在因果关系承担举证责任。
Article 230 In the case of a dispute over environmental pollution or ecological destruction, the
doer shall bear the burden of proof for the disclaimer or mitigation circumstances stipulated by the
law and non-existence of cause and effect relationship between its action and the damages.
第一千二百三十一条
两个以上侵权人污染环境、破坏生态的,承担责任的大小,根据污染物的种类、浓度、排放
量,破坏生态的方式、范围、程度,以及行为对损害后果所起的作用等因素确定。
Article 231 Where two or more infringers pollute the environment or damage the ecology, the
extent of liability to be borne by them shall be determined in accordance with factors such as the type,
concentration and emission of pollutants, the method, scope and extent of ecological destruction, and
the role of the conduct in the consequences of the damage, etc.
第一千二百三十二条
侵权人违反法律规定故意污染环境、破坏生态造成严重后果的,被侵权人有权请求相应的惩罚性赔偿。
Article 232 Where an infringer, in violation of laws and regulations, intentionally pollutes the
environment or damages the ecology, thereby causing serious consequences, the infringed is entitled
to claim appropriate punitive damages.
第一千二百三十三条 因第三人的过错污染环境、破坏生态的,被侵权人可以向侵权人
请求赔偿,也可以向第三人请求赔偿。侵权人赔偿后,有权向第三人追偿。
Article 233 In the event of environmental pollution and ecological destruction caused by
negligence of a third party, the infringed party may seek compensation from the tortfeasor or the third party. After paying compensation, the infringer shall have the right to recover such
compensation from the third party.
第一千二百三十四条
违反国家规定造成生态环境损害,生态环境能够修复的,国家规定的机关或者法律规定的组
织有权请求侵权人在合理期限内承担修复责任。侵权人在期限内未修复的,国家规定的机关
或者法律规定的组织可以自行或者委托他人进行修复,所需费用由侵权人负担。
Article 234 Where damage to the ecological environment is caused in violation of State
regulations and the ecological environment is able to be restored, the authorities stipulated by the
State or the organizations stipulated by the law shall have the right to request that the infringor bears
the liability for restoration within a reasonable period. Where the infringer fails to carry out the
repair within the time limit, the organ or organization as prescribed by the state may carry out the
repair on its own or entrust others with the repair, and the expenses required shall be borne by the
infringer.
第一千二百三十五条
违反国家规定造成生态环境损害的,国家规定的机关或者法律规定的组织有权请求侵权人赔偿下列损失和费用:
Article 235 In the event of eco-environmental damage caused by violations of state
regulations, organs or organizations designated by the state shall have the right to request the
infringing party to compensate for the following losses and costs:
(一)生态环境受到损害至修复完成期间服务功能丧失导致的损失;
1. the loss of service functions due to the damage to the ecological environment until the
completion of the restoration;
(二)生态环境功能永久性损害造成的损失;
(II) Losses caused by permanent damage to the functions of the ecological environment;
(三)生态环境损害调查、鉴定评估等费用;
(III) the expenses of eco-environmental damage investigations, appraisal, and assessment;
(四)清除污染、修复生态环境费用;
(IV) expenses for removal of pollution and restoration of ecological environment;
(五)防止损害的发生和扩大所支出的合理费用。
(V) the reasonable costs incurred in preventing the occurrence or amplification of the
damage.
第八章 高度危险责任
Chapter 8 High Risk Liability
第一千二百三十六条 从事高度危险作业造成他人损害的,应当承担侵权责任。
Article 236 Persons who have caused others to suffer damages by engaging in ultrahazardous
operations shall bear tort liability.
第一千二百三十七条
民用核设施或者运入运出核设施的核材料发生核事故造成他人损害的,民用核设施的营运单位应当承担侵权责任;但是,能够证明损害是因战争、武装冲突、暴乱等情形或者受害人故意造成的,不承担责任。
Article 237 Where any damage is caused by a nuclear accident to another person caused by a
civilian nuclear facility or by nuclear materials transported into or out of the nuclear facility, the unit
that operates such facility shall bear tortious liability; however, if it can be proved that the damage
was caused by war, armed conflict, riot, etc., or was deliberately caused by the victim (s), it shall not be held liable.
第一千二百三十八条
民用航空器造成他人损害的,民用航空器的经营者应当承担侵权责任;但是,能够证明损害
是因受害人故意造成的,不承担责任。
Article 238 In the event of damages of others caused by a civil aircraft, the operator of the civil
aircraft shall bear tort liability; however, if it can be proven that the damages are caused deliberately
by the victim (s), the operator of the civil aircraft shall not be held liable.
第一千二百三十九条 占有或者使用易燃、易爆、剧毒、高放射性、强腐蚀性、高致病
性等高度危险物造成他人损害的,占有人或者使用人应当承担侵权责任;但是,能够证
明损害是因受害人故意或者不可抗力造成的,不承担责任。被侵权人对损害的发生有重大过失的,可以减轻占有人或者使用人的责任。
Article 239 In the event of damages of others caused by possession or use of ultrahazardous
substances such as flammable, explosive, toxic, highly radioactive, strongly corrosive, highly
pathogenic substances, etc., the owner or the user shall bear tort liability; however, if it can be proven
that the damages are caused deliberately by the victim (s) or caused by a force majeure event, the
owner or the user shall not be held liable. Where the infringed party has committed gross negligence
in respect of the occurrence of damages, the liability of the owner or the user may be mitigated.
第一千二百四十条 从事高空、高压、地下挖掘活动或者使用高速轨道运输工具造成
他人损害的,经营者应当承担侵权责任;但是,能够证明损害是因受害人故意或者不可
抗力造成的,不承担责任。被侵权人对损害的发生有重大过失的,可以减轻经营者的责
任。
Article 240 Where any damage is caused by high-altitude operations, high-pressure operations,
underground mining activities or the use of high-speed rail transport, the operator shall bear tortious
liability unless he can prove that that that the victim deliberately incurred the damage or that the
damage was caused by a force majeure event. Where the infringed party has committed gross
negligence in respect of the occurrence of damages, the liability of the operator may be mitigated.
第一千二百四十一条
遗失、抛弃高度危险物造成他人损害的,由所有人承担侵权责任。所有人将高度危险物交由
他人管理的,由管理人承担侵权责任;所有人有过错的,与管理人承担连带责任。
Article 241 In the event of damages of others caused by loss or littering of ultrahazardous
substances, the owner shall bear tort liability. Where the owner has arranged for others to manage the
ultrahazardous substances, the manager shall bear tort liability; where the owner has committed
negligence, it shall bear connected liability with the manager.
第一千二百四十二条
非法占有高度危险物造成他人损害的,由非法占有人承担侵权责任。所有人、管理人不能证
明对防止非法占有尽到高度注意义务的,与非法占有人承担连带责任。
Article 242 In the event of damages of others caused by illegal possession of ultrahazardous
substances, the party who possesses the ultrahazardous substances illegally shall bear tort liability.
The owner and manager shall be jointly and severally liable with the party in illegal possession if
they cannot prove that they exercise due care to prevent illegal possession.
第一千二百四十三条
未经许可进入高度危险活动区域或者高度危险物存放区域受到损害,管理人能够证明已经采
取足够安全措施并尽到充分警示义务的,可以减轻或者不承担责任。
Article 243 In the event of damages caused by unauthorized entry into premises of
ultrahazardous activities or storage premises of ultrahazardous substances, where the manager is able
to prove that it has adopted adequate safety measures and has performed adequate warning
obligations, the liability of the manager may be mitigated or the manager may not be held liable.
第一千二百四十四条
承担高度危险责任,法律规定赔偿限额的,依照其规定,但是行为人有故意或者重大过失的
除外。
Article 244 Where the law provides limits for compensation for liability for ultrahazardous
activities, such provisions shall prevail, except where the doer has committed intentional or gross
negligence.
第九章 饲养动物损害责任
Chapter 9 Liability for Damage Caused by Domesticated Animals
第一千二百四十五条
饲养的动物造成他人损害的,动物饲养人或者管理人应当承担侵权责任;但是,能够证明损
害是因被侵权人故意或者重大过失造成的,可以不承担或者减轻责任。
Article 245 In the event of damages of others caused by domesticated animals, the animal
keeper or the manager shall bear tort liability; however, if it can be proven that the damages are
caused deliberately by the infringed party or caused by gross negligence of the infringed party, the
animal keeper or the manager may not be held liable or the liability of the animal keeper or the
manager may be mitigated.
第一千二百四十六条
违反管理规定,未对动物采取安全措施造成他人损害的,动物饲养人或者管理人应当承担侵权责任;但是,能够证明损害是因被侵权人故意造成的,可以减轻责任。
Article 246 In the event of damages of others caused by violation of administrative provisions
in failure to adopt safety measures for animals, the animal keeper or the manager shall bear tort
liability; however, where it can be proven that the damages are deliberately caused by the infringed
party, the liability of the animal keeper or the manager may be mitigated.
第一千二百四十七条
禁止饲养的烈性犬等危险动物造成他人损害的,动物饲养人或者管理人应当承担侵权责任。
Article 247 In the event of damages of others caused by dangerous animals such as fierce dogs
for which keeping is prohibited, the animal keeper or the manager shall bear tort liability.
第一千二百四十八条
动物园的动物造成他人损害的,动物园应当承担侵权责任;但是,能够证明尽到管理职责的
,不承担侵权责任。
Article 248 In the event of damages of others caused by zoo animals, the zoo shall bear tort
liability; however, if it can be proven that the zoo has performed management duties, the zoo shall
not bear tort liability.
第一千二百四十九条
遗弃、逃逸的动物在遗弃、逃逸期间造成他人损害的,由动物原饲养人或者管理人承担侵权
责任。
Article 249 Where any damage is caused by an animal that is abandoned or at large after being
abandoned or at large after escaping, the original keeper or manager thereof shall bear tortious
liability.
第一千二百五十条
因第三人的过错致使动物造成他人损害的,被侵权人可以向动物饲养人或者管理人请求赔偿
,也可以向第三人请求赔偿。动物饲养人或者管理人赔偿后,有权向第三人追偿。
Article 1250 In the event of damages of others caused by animals as a result of negligence of a third party, the infringed party may seek compensation from the animal keeper or the manager or
seek compensation from the third party. The keeper or manager may, after paying compensation,
claim the same from the third party.
第一千二百五十一条 饲养动物应当遵守法律法规,尊重社会公德,不得妨碍他人生活。
Article 251 Anyone who raises animals shall abide by the laws and regulations, respect the
social ethics and shall not hinder the life of others.
第十章 建筑物和物件损害责任
Chapter 10 Liability for Damage to Buildings and Articles
第一千二百五十二条 建筑物、构筑物或者其他设施倒塌、塌陷造成他人损害的,由建
设单位与施工单位承担连带责任,但是建设单位与施工单位能够证明不存在质量缺陷的
除外。建设单位、施工单位赔偿后,有其他责任人的,有权向其他责任人追偿。
Article 252 In the event of damages of others caused by collapsed buildings, structures or other
facilities, the developer and the builder shall bear liability jointly and severally, except where the
developer and the builder can prove that there is no quality defect. Where there are any other
responsible persons, the developer or the builder shall have the right to seek recourse against such
responsible persons after the developer or the builder has made compensation.
因所有人、管理人、使用人或者第三人的原因,建筑物、构筑物或者其他设施倒塌
、塌陷造成他人损害的,由所有人、管理人、使用人或者第三人承担侵权责任。
In the event of damages of others caused by collapse or collapse of a building, structure or
any other facility due to reason of the owner, manager, user or a third party, the owner, manager,
user or a third party shall bear tort liability.
第一千二百五十三条
建筑物、构筑物或者其他设施及其搁置物、悬挂物发生脱落、坠落造成他人损害,所有人、
管理人或者使用人不能证明自己没有过错的,应当承担侵权责任。所有人、管理人或者使用
人赔偿后,有其他责任人的,有权向其他责任人追偿。
Article 253 In the event of damages of others caused by detached or fallen parts of buildings, structures or other facilities and objects hung or suspended thereon, the owner, the manager or the
user shall bear tort liability if it cannot prove that it has not committed negligence. The owner,
manager or user may, after paying compensation, claim the same from other liable parties, if any.
第一千二百五十四条
禁止从建筑物中抛掷物品。从建筑物中抛掷物品或者从建筑物上坠落的物品造成他人损害的,由侵权人依法承担侵权责任;经调查难以确定具体侵权人的,除能够证明自己不是侵权人的外,由可能加害的建筑物使用人给予补偿。可能加害的建筑物使用人补偿后,有权向侵权人追偿。
Article 1254. It shall be prohibited to throw articles from buildings. In the event of damages of
others caused by objects thrown from buildings or objects fallen from buildings, the infringor shall
bear tort liability pursuant to the law; where it is difficult to determine the specific infringor upon
investigation, the user of the building who may have caused harm shall make compensation unless
he/she can prove that he/she is not the infringor. The user of the building who may cause damage
shall have the right to recover the compensation from the infringer.
物业服务企业等建筑物管理人应当采取必要的安全保障措施防止前款规定情形的发
生;未采取必要的安全保障措施的,应当依法承担未履行安全保障义务的侵权责任。
Managers of buildings such as estate services enterprises, etc. shall adopt the requisite
security measures to prevent occurrence of the circumstances stipulated in the preceding
paragraph; those who failed to adopt the requisite security measures shall bear tort liability for
non-performance of security protection obligations pursuant to the law.
发生本条第一款规定的情形的,公安等机关应当依法及时调查,查清责任人。
Under any of the circumstances stipulated in the first paragraph of this Article, the public
security authorities etc. shall promptly investigate pursuant to the law and identify the
accountable person (s).
第一千二百五十五条
堆放物倒塌、滚落或者滑落造成他人损害,堆放人不能证明自己没有过错的,应当承担侵权
责任。
Article 255 In the event of damages of others caused by collapse, rolling or sliding of stacked
materials, the party which stacks the materials shall bear tort liability if it cannot prove that it has not committed negligence.
第一千二百五十六条 在公共道路上堆放、倾倒、遗撒妨碍通行的物品造成他人损害的,
由行为人承担侵权责任。公共道路管理人不能证明已经尽到清理、防护、警示等义务的,
应当承担相应的责任。
Article 256 In the event of damages of others caused by stacking, dumping and scattering of
objects on public roads which obstruct access, the doer (s) shall bear tort liability. The manager of
the public road shall bear corresponding liability if he cannot prove that he has fulfilled the
obligations of cleaning, prevention and warning.
第一千二百五十七条
因林木折断、倾倒或者果实坠落等造成他人损害,林木的所有人或者管理人不能证明自己没
有过错的,应当承担侵权责任。
Article 257 Where any damage is caused by a broken or tipped tree or by a fruit falling, the
owner or manager of the tree shall bear tortious liability unless he can prove that he was not at fault.
第一千二百五十八条
在公共场所或者道路上挖掘、修缮安装地下设施等造成他人损害,施工人不能证明已经设置
明显标志和采取安全措施的,应当承担侵权责任。
Article 258 Where any damage is caused by digging or repairing an underground facility in a
public place or road, the constructor shall bear tortious liability unless he can prove that a
conspicuous sign has been erected and that safety measures have been taken.
窨井等地下设施造成他人损害,管理人不能证明尽到管理职责的,应当承担侵权责
任。
Where any damage is caused by a manhole or other underground facilities, the manager
shall bear tortious liability unless he can prove that he has exercised due care.
附 则
SUPPLEMENTARY PROVISIONS
第一千二百五十九条
民法所称的“以上”、“以下”、“以内”、“届满”,包括本数;所称的“不满”、“超过”、“以外”,不包括本数。
Article 259 In this Law, the terms "not less than," "not more than," "within," and "expires"
shall include the given figure; the terms "under," "exceeds," and "beyond" shall not include the given figure.
第一千二百六十条 本法自 2021 年 1 月 1 日起施行。《中华人民共和国婚姻法》、
《中华人民共和国继承法》、《中华人民共和国民法通则》、《中华人民共和国收养
法》、《中华人民共和国担保法》、《中华人民共和国合同法》、《中华人民共和国物权
法》、《中华人民共和国侵权责任法》、《中华人民共和国民法总则》同时废止。
Article 260 This Law shall come into force as of January 1, 2021. The Marriage Law of the
People's Republic of China, the Law of Succession of the People's Republic of China, the General
Principles of Civil Law of the People's Republic of China, the Adoption Law of the People's
Republic of China, the Security Law of the People's Republic of China, the Contract Law of the
People's Republic of China, the Real Rights Law of the People's Republic of China, the Tort Law of
the People's Republic of China and the General Rules of the Civil Law of the People's Republic of
China shall be repealed simultaneously.

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